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From the 

Fine Arts Library 

Fogg Art Museum 
Harvard University 










vol. I. 






l^^A ■7H.<3(C,3 


£. H. B. Edwabd Hebbebt Bunburt, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

W. B. D. WnxiAM fioDHAM Donne. 

J. S. H. J. S. HowsoN, M. A. 

Principal of the Collegiate Institution^ Liverpool. 

£. B. J. Edwabd Boucher James, M. A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Queen's College, Oxford. 

B. 6. L. RoBEBT GoBDON Latham, M. a. 

Late Fellow of Bang's College, Cambridge. 

G. L. Gbobge Long, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

W. R. William Ramsat, M. A. 

Pkt>fes8or of Humanity in the University of Glasgow. 

Ll S. Leonhabd Schmitz, Ph. D., LL. D., F. R. S. £. 

Rector of the High School of Edinburgh. 

P. & Pettip Smith, B. A. 

Head Master of MiU Hill School 

V. W. S. W. Vaux, M. A. 

Of the British Museum. 

G. W. Gbobob Williams, B. D. 

FeUow of King's College, Cambridge. 

H- W. . Henbt Walfobd, M. A. 

Of Wadham College, Oxford. 

The Articles which have no initials attached to them are written by the Editor. 


Ths present work completes the Series of Classical Dictionaries, and 
forms^ with the Dictionaries of ** Greek and Roman Antiquities" and 
'* Greek and Boman Biography " already published, an Encydopsddia of 
Ckftssical Antiquity. The Dictionary of Geography, like the other two 
works, is designed mainly to illustrate the Greek and Roman writers, and 
to enable a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner ; 
but it has been thought advisable to include the geographical names which 
occur in the Sacred Scriptures, and thus to make the work a Dictionary 
of Ancient Geography in the widest acceptation of the term. The name 
" Greek and Roman ** has however been retained, partly for the sake of 
uniformity^ but chiefly to indicate the principal object of the work. 

Oar knowledge of ancient Geography has been much enlarged within 
the last few years by the researches of modem travellers, many of whom 
have united an accurate knowledge of the ancient writers with great 
powers of observation and accuracy of description. There are few 
countries of the ancient world which have not been explored and described 
by our own countrymen ; but a knowledge of the results thus obtained is 
confined to a few, and has not yet been made available for the purposes 
of instruction. Hitherto there has not existed, either in the Euglish or in 
the Grerman language, any work sufficiently comprehensive and accurate 
to satisfy the demands of modern scholarship. The Grerman works upon 
this snbject are unusually scanty. In English, the only systematic works 
worthy of mention are the well-known treatises of Cramer upon Greece, 
Italy, and Asia Minor, which however have now become obsolete. Since 
the publication of his '' Greece," for instance, we have had the incomparable 
travels of Colonel Leake, the results of the discoveries of the French Com- 
mission in the Peloponnesus, and the works of Ross, Ulrichs, Curtius, and 
other learned German travellers. No apology is therefore necessary for 
the publication of a new work upon Ancient Geography, which is in many 
respects more needed by the student than the two former Dictionaries. 

This work is an historical as well as a geographical one. An account is 
given of the political history both of countries and cities under their re- 
spective names ; and an attempt is made to trace, as far as possible, the 
history of the more important buildings of the cities, and to give an ac- 
count of their present condition, wherever they still exist. The history is, 
for the most part, brought down to the fall of the Western Empire in the 
year 476 of our era : but it was impossible to observe any general rule upon 

Tiii ' PREFACE. 

this point ; and it bas sometimes been necessary to trace the history of a 
town through the middle ages, in order to explain the existing remains of 

Separate articles are given to the geographical names which occur in the 
chief classical authors, as well as to those which are found in the Geogra- 
phers and Itineraries, wherever the latter are of importance in consequence 
of their connection with more celebrated names, or of their representing 
modern towns, or from other causes. But it has been considered worse 
than useless to load the work with a barren list of names, many of them 
corrupt, and of which absolutely nothing is known. The reader, however, 
is not to conclude that a name is altogether omitted till he has consulted 
the Index ; since in some cases an account is given, under other articles^ of 
names which did not deserve a separate notice. 

The Illustrations consist of plans of cities, districts, and battles, repre- 
sentations of public buildings and other, ancient works, and coins of the 
more important places. The second volume of the work will be followed 
by an Atlas of Ancient Geography, which will be on a sufficiently large 
scale to be of service to the more advanced student 


LoHDOHr i>0Mffi6er, 1853. 






m « 


Cain of AphradiuM in Caria 



OmtfAbdcn - 




Coin of ApoUonia in Illyria 





« m 


CoinofAptera ... 







Coinof Aqoinom 







CoinofAredns ... 



Catfidiua - 




Coins of Arcadia 



OoBofAdiiipo - 




Rains of a Pynunid in the Aiigda - 



Cokflf Aanmai 




PlanofAxgoB ... 



Phn flf Actiniii - 











CoinofAigos ... 



OnafAdim - 




Mapoftheooastof Amphikchia - 







Coin of ArgoB Amphiloducom 



l^flevitioQ cf tbd temple of 









Gate of Aipjnnm 







Coin of Aspendos 



QudAtgtam - 




Coin of Aasorns ... 






CoinofAsBQS ... 



C« of Aeodi: . 




Environs of Athens 



OatfAenni . 




The Acropolis restored - 







Groond pkn of the AcropoIiB and fho Inune- 

GarfAflCn - 


• m 


diate neighboorhood . 



GntfAetalm - 




Groond plan of the Piypjlaea 



■>i of A^rigHitum 




The FmpyUM restored - 







Temple of Nike Apteros - 






The ParthoMm restored - 



GntfAlMM . 


^ w 


Groond plan of the Parthenon 







The Erechtheinm restored, viewed from the 




NW. angle - 



GntfAlkm - 




Groond plu of the Ereehtheiom - 







The salt well of the Erecbtheiam - 



Cm€A}jna, - 







Jkf tf tlM golf of bms, and 

of the lur- 

TheBemaofthe,Pnjz - 



nndiw ootmtnr 




Bfbnnment of PhUopappos 







Monnment gf ThrasjUns - 







Theatre of Dionysna, from coin 







Theatre of Dionjrsos, irom a vase - 



OBii«rAiiwDS - 




Coin shofin^ the Cave of Pan, the Parthe- 

ABurtheiM^gliboiiiiioodorAmphipolis - 


non, and Athena Promachus - 







Ground plan of the Theseinm 



UB V Anactanaiii 




TheTheseinm ... 



CoiitfAiioanm - 




Bnins of the Olympieium 



C««rABC7im - 




The Horologiam of Androoicns Cjniiestes - 


CittfAadcw - 




Chongic nxmnment of Ljsicnites 



HBtflBtioch - 




Street of the Tripods, firom a bas-relief 





• _ 


Arch of Hadrian 



flMtfAatiodi - 




Portico of Athena Archegetis 






Ionic temple of the Ilissus 




Plan of the Port-Towns - 

Coins of Athens 

OoinofAvenio - - - 

Coins of Axns - - - 

Bains at Azani - - - 

Coin of Azani ^ - - 

Coin of Azetium 

Mons Bagbtanns 

Scnlptnres of Mons Bagistanns < 

C<»n of Baica - - - 

Coin of Bariom - - - 

Coin of Beneventum • - 

Coin of Beroea in Syria - 

Cmn of Beiytns - - - 

Coin of the Bisaltae 

Coin of Bizya - - • 

Map of the basin of the Copais - 

Coin of Boeotia - - - 

Plan of Brandnsinm 

Coin of Bnindnaum 

Coin of Bnittii • - - 

Coin of Cabellio • - - 

CoinofCaelia • - - 

Coin of Caena • - - 

Plan of Caere • - - 

Coin of Caesareia Mazaca 

Coin of Calacte • - - 

Cdn of Gales - - - 

Coin of Camarina 

Plan of Cannae . - - 

Coin of Capna • - - 

CoinofCardia . - - 

Coin of Carmo - - - 

Map of Carpathns 

Coin of Carteia - - - 

Map of Zengitana 

Coins of Carthage 

Plan of Carthage, according to Mannert 

Plan of Carthage, according to Bitter 

Coin of Carystns in Enboea 

C(nn of Cassope - - - 

Coin of Catana . - - 

Coin of Canlonia - - - 

Coin of Celenderis 

Gcnn of Centnripa 

Coin of Carthaea in Ceos - 

Coin of Cephaloedinm 

Coin <k Chalcedon 

Coin of Chalddioe in Macedonia - 

Coin of Chalcis in Euboea 

Com of Chersonesns in Crete 

Coin of Chios - - - 

ComofCibyra - - - 

Coin of Cissa . - - 

Coin of Cios - - - 

Coin of Clazomenae 

C<»n of Cleonae - - ^ 

Harboor and mins of Cnidns 

Coin of Cnidns - - - 

Com of Cnoens - - - 

Coin of Colophon 

Coin of Comana in Pontos 

Coin of Byzantium 

Plan of Constantinople - 

Coin of Corcyra - - - 

Plan of Corinth . - - 

Colonial coin of Corinth - . - 

Harbour of Cenchreae 

PUm of the Isthmian sanctuaiy - 



Coin of Corinth - - - - 

Coin of Corooeia - - - • 
Coin of Coiycas in Cilida 

Coin of Cos . . - - 

Coin of CoBsnra - - - - 

Coin of Cragus - - - - 

Coin of Cranii - - - - 

Coin of Cromna . - - - 

Coins of CrotoQ . - - - 

Coin of Cnmae - - - - 

Coin of Cydonia - • - - 

Coin of Cyme - - - 

Coin of Cyparissia • . - 

Coins of Gyrene - * - - 

Coin of Cythnus - - - - 

Com of Cyzicns - - - - 
Bemains of Trajan's Bridge 

Coin of Damascus . . - 

Coin of Damastium . - - 

Coin of Delos - - - - 

Map of Delphi . - - - 

Coin of Delphi - - - - 
Coin of Demetrias ... 
Map of the environs of Digentia - 
Coin of Dionysopolis in Phiygia - 

Coin of Dodmia - - - - 
Coin of Dyrrhachium ... 

Coin of the Eburones . - - 
Coin of Edessa in Mesopotamia - 

CoinofEUtta - - - - 

Plan of Eleusb - - - - 

CoinofEleoris - - - - 

Coin of Elenthenia - . - 

Coins of Elis - - - - 

ComofElyrns - - - - 

Coin of Emesa - - - - 

Coin of Emporiae . - - 

Coin of Enna - - - - 

Coin of Entella . - - - 
Coin of Epeims - . . 

Plan of Ephesus- . . - 

Cmn of Ephesus - - - - 

Coin of Epidaums . . - 
Coin of Epiphaneia in Syria 

PUm of Mount Ercta . - - 

View of Mount Ercta . - - 
Coin of Eretria in Euboea 

Coin of Erythrae . - - 

Coin of Eryx - - - . 

Coin of Euboea - - - - 

Coin of Eucarpia - . - 

Coin of Eumeneia . . - 

Coin of Gabala - - - • 

Coin of Gades - - - - 

Coin of Galatia - • - - 

Coin of Gaulos - - - - 

Coin of Gaza - - - - 

Coin of Gela - - - - 
Panoramic view of the Gerpovian hills 
Plan of the Mountain of Gergovia and its 

environs . . - - 

Coin of Germa in Mysia - - - 

Coin of Gomphi - - - - 

Coin of Gortyna - - - - 
Coin assigned to Graviscae 

Coin of Gyrton - - - - 

Coin of Gythium - - - 

Coin of Hadiianopolis . - • 
Boudruum, or Hdicaiuawos 

































































Hif ibvra^ the pontkm of 

Cm rf Hoaddft in Uaoedania 
Cbb tf Hoideis in Lncaiiia 
Cm rf Hmttkia m Bithyma 
CoktfBMan - 
OmtiWtafdk m Phxygia 
Cntf Hin^oGi in Cflicui 


- 1039 

- 1042 

- 1046 

- 1048 

- 1050 
. 1051 
. 1064 

- 1064 

Coin of Hienpjrtna 
Coin of Himera - 
Coin of ffipponiam 
Gdn ascribed to HiBpania 
Coin cf Hybla "Major 
C<an of Hyrcanift in Lydia 
Coin of Hyria in Campania 
Coin of Hyrtacina 








ABACAEKUM (^AMjmaaw, Diod., Sfeph. Bys.: 

*ACBwm, PtoL : £th. 'MoKmians : nr. rWpt^Ra.)) 

a dtj of SkOy, atoated aboat 4 miles from the N. 

ntwwn T^rndaris and Mjlae, and 8 firom the 

dtf. It was a city of the lSco]i, and does 

to hove erer reoerred a Greek colony, 

thoog^ H partook higdy of the inflnence of Giedc 

ad ctTilisalion. Its tenitoiy originally indnded 

of T^rndaris, irliicli was separated from it by 

elder DioiiTiios when he foonded that dty in 

B. c 396 (Diod. xir. 78). From the way in which 

it is inw i t i u i wl in tiie wan of Dionysias, AgathocIeS| 

and Hkrai (IXod. xir. 90, xiz. 65, 110, xxii. £zc. 

Horachcl p. 499), it is dear that it was a place of 

Y&mtx and importuwe : but fipMn the time of Ifieron 

it d isapp e af s firam history, and no mention is fomid 

«f it in the Verrine orations of Cicero. Its name is, 

r, fixmd in Ptokmy (iii. 4. § 12), so that it 

to have still oontinned to ezbt in his day. 

its decfiae was probably owing to the increasing 

|s uspeiUy of the neighboaxing dty of Tyndaris. 

TIkr eaa be little doubt that the rains visible in 
tibe time of FazeDo, at the foot of the hill on which 
tte Bodem town of Tripi is situated, were those of 
AhacacnoB. He speaks of fragments of masoniy, 
prartnte ochmms, and the Testiges of walls, indi- 
cadag the nte of a large dty, but which had been 
J e aUiJ^ e d to its foondations. The locality does not 
to \axt been examined by any more recent 
(Fazellos, d» RA. Sic, ix. 7; Claver. 
SitiL A9U p. 386.) 

Then are fimnd cdns of Ahacaennm, boUi in 
aK«r and capper. The boar and acorn, which are 
the commoQ type of the former, evidently refer to 
ibe fXftX foests of oak which still cover the ndgh • 
hoariiig monntains, and affoid pasture to large herds 



ABAE fAfoi; EOl 'Atfoibf: near ExaarJM, 
Bu.), an andent town of Phods, near the froniien 
ef the Opuntian Locrians, said to have been built 
ky the Aigive Abas, soo of Lynceus and Hypenn- 
and grandson of Danaus. Near tibe town 
the nad tofrards Hyampolis was an andent 


temple and oracle of Apollo, who hence derived the 
surname of Abaeut, So cdebrated was this orade, 
that it was consulted both by Croesus and by Mar- 
donius. Before the Persian invasion the temple 
was richly adorned with treasuries and votive offer- 
ings. It was twice destroyed by fire; thefirst time 
by the Penians in their maidi through Phocis 
(b. a 480), and a second time by the Boeotians in 
the Sacred or Phodan war (b. c. 346). Hadrian 
caused a smaller temple to be built near the ruins 
of the former one. In the new temple there were 
three andent statues in brass of Apollo, Leto, and 
Artemis, which had been dedicated by the Abaei, 
and had perhaps been saved from the former temple. 
The andent agora and the ancient theatre still ex- 
isted in the town in the time of Pausanias. Ac- 
cording to the statement of Aristotle, as preserved 
by Strabo, Thradans from the Phodan town of 
Aboe emigrated to Euboea, and gave to the inha- 
Intants the name of Abantes. The ruins of Abae 
are on a peaked hill to the W. of Exarkhd, There 
are now no remains on the summit of the peak; but 
the walls and some of the gates may still be traced 
on the SW. side. There are also remains of the 
walls, which formed the indosure of the temple. 
(Eaq s. X. 35 j Herod, i. 46, viii 134, 33; Diod. 
x\-i. 556; Strab^pp. 423, 445; Steph. Byz. s.v.\ 
Gell, Itinerary ^ V-^^^ Leake, Northern Greece^ 
vol. ii. p. 163, seq.) ^?. ; • ' • V; </<^'^' 

ABAXLABA, a Romail castle in Britannia In- 
ferior, whcee site is unknown. It is mentioned in 
the NotUia Imperii as the quarters of a troop of 
Numidian horse (Mauri Aureliani) in the 3rd cen- 
tury A. D. Antiquaries refer it to Appleby on the 
Eden, and its name, containing the Cdtic word 
AwMy water, indicates its position near a stream. 
Watt^crossm Cumberland also claims to be the 
andent Aballaba. It was certainly, however, one of 
the forts upon the rampart erected by Hadbrian in 
^D. 120, between the rivers Esk and Tyne, to 
protect the province of Britain from the incursions 
of the Caledonians. pV. B. D.] 

ABALUS, was said by Pytheas to be an island 
in the northern ocean, upon which amber was 
washed by the waves, distant a day's sail from the 
aestuaiy called Mentonomon, on which the Gothones 
dwdt. This island was called Basilia by Timaens, 
and Baltia by Xcnophon of Lampsacus. It was 
probably a porti(»i of the Prussian coast upon the 
Baltic. (Plin. xxxvu. 7. s. 11 ; Diod. v. 23 ; 
Ukert, Geographies voL iL pt iL p. 33, seq.) 



ABA'NTIA. [Amantia.] 

A'BABIS, the fortified camp of the Hyksos diuv 
ing their occapatioa of Egypt. For details see 

ABAS ^A€a$)t a riyer of Iberia in Asia, men- 
tioned by Plntardi (Pomp. 35) and Dion Cassins 
(xxzvii. 3) as crossed by Pompey, on his expedition 
into the Caucasian regions. Its course was £. of 
the Gambyses; and it seems to be the same as the 
Alazonios or Akzon of Strabo and Pliny (Alas€Mf 
Aladcs) which fell into the Cambyses just above 
its conflaence with the Gyms. [P. S.] 

ABASCI, ABASGI ('Affcurico^ 'A^ocryoO, a 
Scythian people in the N. of Golchis, on the confines 
of Sarmada Asiatica (within which they are s(Hne- 
times inclnded), on the Abascus or Abasgns, one of 
the small rivers flowing fran the Gaucasns into the 
N£. part of the Euzine. They carried on a con- 
siderable skve-trade, especially in beautifiil boys, 
whom they sold to Gonstantinople for eonnchs. 
These practioes were suspended for a time, on their 
nominal oouTersioa to Ghristianity, during the reign 
of Justinian ; but the slave-trade in these regions 
was at least as old as the time of Herodotus (iii. 
97), and has continued to the present time. (Arrum. 
Peripl PonL Evx. p. 12; Procop. £. Goth, iv. 3, 
JB, Pers. ii. 29; Steph. B. s. r. :Z(iyviyat.) [P.S.] 


A'BATOS, a rocky island in the Nile, near Phi- 
lae, which the priests alaae were permitted to enter. 
(Senec Q. N. iv. 2; Lucan, x. 323.) 

ABBASSUS or AlkfBASUM (Abbassus, Liv.; 
"AfiSaffw, Steph. B. s. v.: Eth, ' KyMcurirjii)^ a 
town of Phxygia, on the firantiers of the Tolistoboii, 
in Galatia. (Liv. xxzviii. 15.) It is, perhaps, the 
same as the Alamassus of Hierocles, and the Am A- 
DASSE of the Councils. (Hierocles, p. 678, with 
Wesseling's note.) 

ABDEHA. 1. (r^fA^^po, also "MS^npw or -os; 
Abdera, -orum, Liv. xlv. 29; Abdera, -ae, Plin. 
zxv. 53: Eih. *A69riplrrify Abderites or -ita: Adj, 
*AShjptriK6Sf Abderiticus, Abderitanus), a town 
upon the soudiem coast of Thrace, at some distance 
to the £. of the river Nestus. Herodotus, indeed, 
in one passage (vii. 126), speaks of the river as 
flowing through Abdera (i 9i* *A€9f^pwy ^4»y 
"NdiTToSj butcf. c. 109, frar^t "A^Siypa). According 
to mythology, it was founded by Heracles in honour 
of his favourite Abderus. (Strab. p. 331.) His- 
tory, however, mentions Timeslus or Timesias of 
Cla^omecae as its first founder. (Herod, i 168.) 
His colony was unsuccessful, and he was driven out 
by the Thracians. Its date is fixed by Eusebius, 
B. c. 656. In B.C. 541, the inhabitants of Teos, 
unable to resist Harpagus, who had been left by 
Cyrus, after his capture of Sardis, to complete the 
subjugtttion of I(xua, and unwilling to submit to 
him, txxk ship and sailed to Thrace, and there re- 
colonised Abdera. (Herod. L c; Scymnus Chius, 
665; Strab. p. 644.) Fifty years afterwards, when 
Xerxes invaded Greece, Abdera seems to have be- 
come a place of considerable importance, and is 
mentioned as one of the cities which had tiie ex- 
pensive honoor of entertaining the great king on his 
march into Greece. (Herod, vit 120.) On his 
flight after the battle of Sahonis, Xerxes stopped at 
Abdera, and acknowledged the hospitality of its 
inhabitants by presenting them with a tiara and 
ificgrmitar of gold. Thucydides (ii. 97) mentions 
Abdera as the w^temmost limit oi the kingdom of 


the Odiysae when at its hdght at the begiiming of 
the Peloponnesian war. In b. c. 408 Abdera was 
reduced under the power of Athens by Thrasybulos, 
then one of the Athenian generals in that quarter. 
(Died. xiii. 72.) Diodoms speaks of it as being 
then in a veiy flourishing state. The first blow to 
its prosperity was given in a war in which it was 
engaged b. c 376 with the Triballi, who had at 
this time become one of the most powerful tribes of 
Thrace. After a partial success, the Abderitae were 
nearly cut to pieces in a second engagement, but 
were rescued by Chabrias with an Athenian force. 
(Diod. XV. 36.) But little mention of Abdej;^ oc- 
curs after this. Pliny speaks of it as being m his 
time a free city (iv. 18). In later times it seems to 
have sunk into- a place of small repute. It is said 
in the middle ages to have had the name of Poly- 
stylus. Dr. Clarke (Travels^ voL iii. p. 422) men- 
tions his having searched in vain on tiie east bank 
of the Nestus for any traces of Abdera, probably 
from imagining it to have stood close to the river. 

Abdera was the birthplace of several famous per- 
sons: among others, of the phiksophers Protagoras,. 
Democritus, and Anaxarchus. In spite of this,, 
its inhabitants passed into a proverb for dullness and 
stupidity. (Juv. x. 50; Martial,^x. 25. 4; C\c ad 

AtL iv. 16, vii I.X^y^c^j'i^,,!?^^/^.:.^'--'*'^' 
Mullets fnxn Abdera were considei^ especial 
dainties (Athon. p. 118). It was also famous for 
producing the cuttle-fish (Id. p. 324). [H. W".] 


2. (rd "Ae^npa, AdSijfw, Strab. ; "ASSopa, Ptol.; 
T^ "A^ditpoi', Ephor. ap. Steph. B. : £th. 'A^diy- 
pinns: Adra or, acconiing to some, Almeria), a 
city of Hispania Baetica, on the S. coast, between 
Malaca and Carthago Nova, founded by the Cartha- 
ginians. (Strab. pp. 157, 8; Steph. B. «. v.; Plin. 
iiL 1. s. 3.) There are coins of the city, some of 
a very ancient period, with Phoenician characters, 
and others of the reign cf Tiberius, from which the 
place appears to have been either a colony or a moni- 
cipium. (Basche,s.v.;Eckhel,vol.i.p.l3.) [P.S.~| 

ABELLA ('A^e\Aa,Stiab.,Ptol. : JE:<A. Abellanos, 
Inscr. ap. Ordl. 3316, AveUanus, Plin. : Avella Fee- 
chia)f a dty in the interior of Campania, about 5 
miles NE. d! Nola. According to Justin (xx. 1), it 
wasaGredc city of Chalddic origin, which would lead 
us to suppose that it was a colony of Cumae : but at 
a later period it had certainly become an Oscim town, 
as well as the neighbouring city of Nola. No men- 
tion of it is found in history, though it must have 
been at one time a place of importance. Stxabo and 
Pliny both notice it among the inland towns oj 
Campania; and though we kam from the Liber cU 
CohniUy that Vespasian settled a number of his 
freedmen and dependants there, yet it appears, botl: 
from that treatise and from Pliny, that it had nol 
then attained the rank of a colony, a dignity whicl: 
we find it enjoying in the time of Tngan. It pro- 


Ublf ht— neD in the ra^ oc fhiit cmponr. 

(StebLp.S49; PIin.m.5.§9; PtoL iiL 1. § 68; 

lA. OkD. p. 230; Grator. liuer, pi 1096, 1; 

2B|ldiCotew,p.40a) We kani from Vizgil 

md Sii» Ita&eas that iu territory waa not fertile 

■ om, but ddi in frmt-trees (maUferae AbeUae): 

tfaenqghboDiiiaod also eboanded in filberts or haael- 

Mil of a Toy ehaioe tjonHtj, which were called 

fmL^ttaot UMOM AveUoMot (Yiig. Je». viL 740; 

1^ SO. IteL Tin. 545; Plin. xr. 32; Serr. od Georg, 

1.65)1 Themadem tawnof ^eeflb ii ntoated in 

ifeihiDaeu'llielboiaf theApeonincs; but there- 

■BBi of the andentdtj, stiB called AveUa FeccAia, 

wsapf a hiU of conadeFable height, fenning one of 

tb mier&lla of tiu monntainw, and command an 

of the plain beneath; hoice Yiigil's 

yuLlwi moenia AbeUae." The mina 

in dflitribed aa ezteuiire, including the veetiges of 

m aaphitheatre, a temple, and oUier edifices, as well 

IB a partin of the ancioit walla. (Pmtilli, Via 

Afpim, p. 445; Lnpoli, Iter Vemmn. p. 19; So- 

aodfi, roL iSL |k 597 ; Sirinborae, Trrndtj voL i. 

f 105.) Of tlia uun M B O u s nliea of antiquity dia- 

eoicPBd here, the moat intenating is a long inacrip- 

fioB in the Oaean language, which reoorda a treaty 

of affiance between tiie citiaens of Abdla and thoee 

tf Nob. It dates (acoovding to Monunaen) firom a 

jBid abortly after the Second Pimic War, and ia 

Bst oaiy cnrioaa on acooont of details concerning the 

hot b one of the meet im- 

p o B oem hr a atody of the 

Tliis cmriooa monaraent still le- 

tfae nniaeam of the Seminary at Nola: it 

been repeatedly pnbliahed, among others by 

(Xvn^iHie Oaooe S^teeimm Smgukure, fbl. 

1774), bat in the most complete and satis- 

by Lepeins (/nacr. Uwbr, et Osc, 

tik izl) and MomuHen (i>J0 {Tiiter-ZtoJifcAeii i>M»- 

Ule, PL 119). [E.H.B.] 

ABELLI'NUlf CAtflXAiMv, £«A. Abellinas-atia). 
I. A oouideralife city of the ffirpini, situat^l 
ia die apper TaBey of the Sahatoa, near the frontier 
rf Cmpania. Fliny, indeed, appears to have re- 
gixded it aa indnded in that oountiy, as he enn- 
■Bate it among the dtiea of the first r^ion 
cf AogMlna, bat Ptolemy la probably conect in 
MifldiDg it among thoee of the Hiipini. It is 
|lieeil l^ tile Tabala Peatingeriana on the road 
kttt BeneventDm to Saleranm, at a distance of 16 
Knaa nnlea fivm the former city. No mention of 
it is fisBid in Inatory prior to the Roman conqnest; 
aad it i^pean to have first risen to be a place dTim- 
priaaee mder the Soman Empize. The period at 
vbch it became a cokny ia wioertain: Pliny calls it 
■if aa ** ^ifAdam," bat it appears from the Liber 
db CafaiiM that it moat have recaTed a cdony 
laevioos to his time, probably aa early as the aecond 
T riiMiiigat e; and we leam firom varioos inscriptions 
tf iaiperial timea that it oontinued to enjoy this rank 
iam to a late period. These mention nomeroas 
Bcal BBigiBtialea, and prove tiiat it most have been 
a jlaee of oaneadenhle wealth and importance, at 
bast aa late aa the time of Valentiman. (Plin. iiL 
S.a.9; PtnLiiL 1. § 68; Ub, de Colon, p. 229; 
hm. af. OrcO. Noa. 1180, 1181 ; LnpoH, Iter Ve- 
aaabw pp. 34, 55, 56.) 

Iha andeBt city waa destroyed daring the wars 
ktaeiu the Greda and the Lombards, and the in- 
bdhitaBla eaiabliabed themsdves on the site of the 
wdcn AveOimOj which has thus retained the name, 
VitietthB8itaiiti*on,oftfaeanaeiitAbeI]inam. The 

ABIt 9 

rains of the hitter are still* visible aboot two milea 
firam tiie modem city, near the Tillage of Atripaldij 
and immediately above the river Sabbaio. Some ves- 
tiges of an amphitheatre may be traced, as well as 
portions of the city walls, and other fiagments of reti- 
colated masonry. Great nombers of inscriptions, 
bafr-reliefi!, idtan, and minw relics of antiqaity, haye 
also been diaoovered on the site. (Lnpoli, I. o. pp. 33, 
34; Bomanelli, yoL ii. p. 310; Swinbnme, TVaveU^ 
YoL i. p. 118; Craven, Abrmgij voL ii. p. 201.) 
The neighboorfaood still abounds with filb^t-trees, 
vriuch are extensively cultivated, as they were in 
ancient times; on which aocoont the name of the 
mfosa Avettanae was frequently derived firom Abelli- 
nam rather than AbeUa. (Haxdnm. oJ iYtn. xv. 22.)z-^ 

2. Besides the Abdlinum mentioned by Pliny in 
the fifst region of Italy, he oiumerates idao in the 
second, wludl included the Hirpini and Apulians, 
** Abelfinates oognomine Protrepi," and '* Abellinates 
oognominati Mani." The first have been generally 
supposed to be the inhabitants of the city already 
mentioned, bat it would certainly appear that Pliny 
meant to distinguish them. No clue exists to the 
position of either of these two towns: the conjecture 
of the Italian topographers who have placed the 
Abellinates Ifarsi at Marsieo Vetere^ in Lucania, 
having nothing, exc^ the slight similarity of name, 
to recommend it, as that site would have been in the 
««rrf region. [E.H.B.] 

A'BIA (^ 'A^: nr. Zamatd), a town of Mes- 
senia, on the Messenian gulf, and a little above the 
woody dell, named Choerius, which formed the 
boundary between Messenia and Laconia in the 
time of Pausanias. It is said to have been the 
same town as the Ira of the Iliad (ix. 292), one of 
the seven towns which Agamemnon ofi^ored to 
Achilles, and to have deriv^ its later name firom 
Abia, the nurse of HyUus, the son of Hercules. 
Subsequently it belonged, with Thuria and Pharae, 
to the Achaean League. It continued to be a place 
of some importance down to the reign of Hadrian, as 
vre leam fiiom an extant inscription of that period. 
(Pans. iv. 30; Polyb. xxv. 1; Pacian^, Momem. 
Pelopon. ii. pp. 77, 145, cited by Hoffinann, Grieeh- 
enkmdj p. 1020 ; Leake, Moreaj vol. i. p. 325.) 

ABLA.'NUS CAftoWs), a river of Scythia (Sar- 
matia) fidling into the Euxine, mentioned only in 
the wwk of Alexander on the Euxine, as giving 
name to the Ann, who dwelt on its banks. (Steph. 
Byz. a. V. "A^ioi.) Stephanos elsewhere quotes 
Alexander aa saying that the district of Hylea on 
the Euxine was called 'A§unf, which he interprets 
by 'TAoia, tooorfy (Steph. Byz. «. r. 'TA^o). [P. S.] 

A'BII ("Aftoi), a Scythian people, placed by 
Ptolemy in the extreme N. of Scythia extra Imaum, 
near the Hippopha;gi ; bat there were very different 
opinions about them. Homer {It xiii. 5, 6) repre- 
sents Zens, on the summit of M. Ida, as taming 
away his eyes fipom the battle before the Greek 
camp, and " looking down upon the land of the 
Thracians fiuniliar with horses," Mwr&y t^ otx^' 
fidx»fP, icol iyau&p hnrruAoky&v, yXamo^yuv, 
ilfiw¥ T9, Hataundrttv MfM&mty. Ancient and 
modem commentators have doubted greatly which 
of these words to take as proper names, except the 
fint two, which nearly ^1 agree to refer to the 
Mysians of Thrace. The fiict would seem to be 
that the poet had heard accounts of the great no- 
made peoples who inhabited the steppes KW. and 
N. of tiie Euxine, whoae whole wealUi lay in their 
herds, especially of horses, on the milk of which 

B 2 


thej lived, and who were sappoeed to pitMCh r e the 
innocence of a state of natora ; and of them, there- 
fore, he speaks coUectiyelj by epithets suited to such 
descriptions, and, among the rest, as &S101, poor, 
tnth scanty means of lift (&om a and /3(o5). The 
people thus described answer to the later notions 
respecting the Hjperboreans, whose oamo does ruA 
occur in Homer. Afterwards, the epithets applied 
by Homer to this snppoeed primitiTe people were 

' taken as proper names, and were assigned to dif- 
ferent tribes (^ the Scythians, so that we have 
mention of the Scythae Agavi, Hippemolgi, Galac- 
tophagi (and Galactopotae) and Abii. The last are 
mentioned as a distinct people by Aeschylus, who 
prefixes a guttural to the name, and describes the 
Gabii as the most just and hospitable of men, living 
on the self-sown fruits of the untilled earth ; but we 
have no Indication of where he placed them {J^'om, 
SoluL Fr. 184). Of those commentators, who take 
the wrad in Homer for a proper name, some place 
tliem in Thrace, some in Scythia, and some near the 
Amazons, who in vain urged tliem to take part in an 
expedition against Asia (Eustath. ad 11. 1 cp. 916; 
Steph. Byz. 2. c); in fact, like the correspondent 
fabulous people, the Hyporborei, they seem to have 
been moved back, as knowledge advanced, further 
and further into the unknown regions of the north. 
In the histories of Alexander's expedition we are 
told that ambassadors came to him at Maracanda 
(^S(wiarkand) from the Abii Scythae, a tribe who 
had been independent since the time of Cyrus, and 
were renowned for their just and peaceful character 
(Arrian. Anab. iv. 1 ; Q. Curt. viL 6) ; but the 
specific name of the tribe of Scythians who sent this 
embassy is probably only an instance of the attempts 
made to illustrate the old mythical geography by 
Alexander's conquests. In these accounts their 
precise locality is not indicated: Ammianus Mar- 
cellmus places them K. of Hyrcania (xxiii.^ 6). An 
extended discussion will be found in Strabo of the 
various opinions respecting the Abii up to his time 
(pp. 296, 303, 311, 553; Droysen, in the JRhein. 
Mm. vol. ii. p. 92, 1834). [P. S.] 

ATJILA ("ASiAa: Eth, *Aet\riy6s). It would 
appear that tJiero were several towns bearing this 
appellation in the districts which border upon Pa^ 
lestine. The most important of these was a place of 
strcngtli in Coele-Syria, now Nebi Abel, situated 

.between Heliopolis and Damascus, in lat. 33^38'N., 
long. 36° 18' W. It was tlie chief town of the 
tetrarchy of ABrLENE, and is frequently termed, by 
way of distinction, Abila Lysaniae (^AStKa i-mKo- 
Xoofityf) Awroa^iou). [Abiljene.] 

Bellcye has written a dissertation in the Trans- 
actions of the Academy of Belles Lettres to prove 
that this Abila is the same with Leucas on the 
river ClirysorrhoaSf which at one period assumed 
the name of Claudiopolis, as we learn from some 
coins described by Eckhel. The question is much 
complicated by the circumstance that medals have 
been preserved of a town in Code-Syria called 
AbiJa Leucas, which, as can be demonstrated from 
the pieces themselves, must have been difierent firom 
Abila Lysaniae. (Eckhel, vol. iii. pp. 337, 345; 
Ptol. V. 15. § 22 ; Plin. y. 18 ; Antonin. Itiner. 
pp. 198, 199, ed. Wessel.) [W. R] 

ABILE'NE, or simply A'BILA {'Aiiktjvii, 

"A^tAa), a district in Coele-Syria, of which the 
chief town was Abila. The Irniits of this region 
are nowhere exactly defined, but it seems to have 
included the eastern slopes d Antilibanus, and to 


have extended S. and SE. of Damascus as far as 
the borders of Galilaea, Batanaea, and Trachonitas. 
Abilene, when first mentioned in history, was go- 
verned by a certain Ptolemaeus, son of Mennaeus, 
who was succeeded, about b. c. 40, by a son named 
Lysanias. Lysanias was put to death in B. c 33, 
at the instigadan of Cleopatra, and the prindpality 
passed, by a sort of purdiase apparently, into the 
hands of one Zenodorus, from whom it was trans- 
ferred (b. c. 31) to Herod the Great. At the death 
of the latter (a. d. 3) one portion of it was annexed 
to the tetrarchy of his son Philip, and the remainder 
bestowed upon that Lysanias who is named by St. 
Luke (iii. 1). Inmiediately after the death of Ti- 
berius (a. D. 37), Caligula made over to Herod 
Agrippa, at that time a prisoner in Romef the te- 
tnrehy of Philip and the tetrarchy of Lysanias, 
while Claudius, upon his accession (a. d. 41), not 
only confirmed the liberality of his predecessortowards 
Agrippa, but added all that portion of Judaea and 
Samaria which had bdonged to the kingdcxn of his 
grandfather Hat)d theGreat,together(say8 Josephus) 
with Abila, which had appertained to Lysanias 
CA€iKety 8i r^v Avaaviov), and the adjoinmg r^on 
of Libanus. Lastly, in a. d. 53, Claudius granted 
to the younger Agrippa the tetrarchy of Philip with 
Batanaea and Trachonitis and Abtia'—Avaaf'la 84 
offny iyty6i'€i rerpapxitL (Joseph. Ant. xiv. 4. 
§ 4, 7. § 4, xviu. 7. § 10, xix. 5. § 1, xx. 6. § 1, 
^. /. L 13. § 1, XX. 4.) Josephus, at first sight, 
seems to contradict himself, in so fieur that in one 
passage (^AnU xriii. 7. § 10) he represents Caligula 
as bestowing upon Herod Agrippa the tetrarchy of 
Lysanias, while in another (Ant, xix. 5. § 1) he 
states that Abila of Lysanias was added by Clau- 
dius to the former dominions of Agrippa, but, in 
reality, these expressions must be explained as re- 
ferring to the division of Abilene which took place 
on the death of Herod the Great. We find Abila 
mentioned among the places captured by Pkuddus, 
one of Vespasian's genends, in a. d. 69 or 70 
(Joseph. B, J. iv. 7. § 5), and from that tune for- 
ward it was permanently annexed to the province of 
Syria. [W. R.] 

a range of hills in Germany, extending fixxn the Ober- 
land of Baden northward as far as ^e modem town 
of Pforzheim. In later times it was sometimes called 
SUva Marcicma, On its eastern side are the sources 
of the Danube. Its name is sometimes spelt Amoba 
or Arbona, but the correct orthography is established 
by inscriptions. (Orelli, Inscr. Lot. no. 1986.) 
Ptolemy (ii. 1 1 . § 7) incorrectly places the range of 
the Abnoba too far N. between the Mune and the 
source of the Ems. (Tadt. Germ. 1 ; Fest. Avien. 
DetcripL Orb. 437 ; Plin. iv. 12. s. 24 ; Martian. 
Capell. vi. § 662 ; camp. Creuzer, Zur Gesch. der 
AU-Rom. Cultw, pp. 65, 108.) [L. S.] 

ABOCCIS or ABUNCIS (^AiovyKls, PtoL iv. 7. 
§ 16; Plin. vL 29. s. 35. § 181, Abocds in old 
e(fitions, Abuncis in Sillig's : Aboosmbel or Jpsatn- 
bid), a town in Aethiopia, between the Second 
Cataract and Syene, situated on the left bank of 
the Kile, celebrated on account of the two magnifi- 
c«it grotto temples, which were discovered at this 
place by Belzoni. The walls of the larger of the two 
temples are covered with paintings, which record 
the victories of Ramses III. over various nations ol 
Africa and Asia. (Kenrick, Ancient Egypt, vd. L 
p. 24, seq.) 



TikFMit; PtoL it 13. § 5 Abvzacuk, Tit S. 
M^EB. S8), a town of VmdeliciA, probably cozn- 
odn; "mitk tbe oodem Epfaek on the river Lech, 
wben icmazDS of Beman bandings are still extant 
The statkos, howerer, in the Itineraries and the 
Feotiqgcriu Table are not easily identified with 
tbe jite of £pfach; and Abodiacom is placed by 
HBM tojpqgx^)lM» at the hamlet of i^B»en6er^, on 
tiM dope of a bill witli the same name, or in the 
■e^fabiNiriiood of Bosenheim in Bavaria. (Itin. 
JUton.; Machar^ Noricwn, p. 283.) [W. B. D.] 

ABOLLA CA^oAAa), a dtj of Sicily, mentioned 
«Bl7 by Stephanos Byzantinns (s. v.), who afifords 
•0 doe tt> its position, bat it has beoi supposed, on 
aoooont of the resemblance of the name, to have 
genqaed the ate <^ Avola, between Syracose and 
Ado, A can of this dty has been published by 
D'Orrilk (Siaila, pt ii. tab. 20), but is of very 
iBoertain anthority. (Eckhel, vd. L p. 189 ; CastelL 
SdL VA Xmn, pi 4.) [E. H. B.] 

ABONI-TEICHOS (*Aft6vov ruxos : £th, 'ASoovo^ 
wtx«tr9f : IneMi), a town on the coast of Paphla- 
goma with a harboor, memorable as the birthplace 
of the impostor Alerander, of whom Lucian has 
left u an amnsing acoonnt in the treatise bearing 
kis oarae. {DieL of Biogr, vol. i. p. 123.) Ac- 
oviiii^ to Ladan (^Akx, § 58), Alexander pe- 
titioBed tbe e mper or (probably Ant<minas Pias) 
that tbe name of his native place shonld be changed 
from Abgni>Tetch(» into lonopolis ; and whether 
thi emperor granted the request or not, we know 
that the town was called lonopolis in later times. 
Xot only does this name occur in Mardanus and 
Bienclo; but on coins of the time of Antoninus 
mA L. Venis we find the legend lANOIIOAITAN, 
s veQ as ABaNOTEIXITXlN. The modem Ine- 
ItA is evidently only a corruption of lonopolis. 
(Stiab. pl 545; Arrian, PeripL p. 15 ; Ludan, 
Alex^ passim; Slardan. PeripL p. 72; PtoL v. 4. 
{i; HieiocL p. 696; Steph. B. s. r. *A«<£yov 

ABORFGINES i*Mo^uf^\ a name given by 

aS the Raman and Greek writos to the earliest in- 

bafaituitB of Ladmn, befine they assumed tbe appel- 

latim of Latiki. There can be no doubt that the 

«bviaQi daivation of this name (ah origine) is the 

tnr one, and that it could never have beoi a national 

tide icaDj bocne by any peojde, but was a mere ab- 

Btnct appellatioD invented in later tiroes, and in- 

tatded, hkc the Autochthones of the Greeks, to de* 

annate the primitive and original inhabitants of the 

eoaBtiy. The other derinttions suggested by later 

vritos, — soch as Aherrigmu^ from their wander- 

iD|r babits, or the absurd one which Dionysins seems 

inriiDed to adopt, ^ ab iptai^ fiom their dwelling in 

tbe moontains, — are mere etymological fimdes, sug- 

l^rted probably with a view of escaping from the 

<ifinilty, that, acooiding to later researches, they 

«cie not really aatochthomes, but fineigners coming 

from a distance (Dionya. L 10; Aur. Vict. Orig. 

Gtfd, Rom, 4). Their real name appears to have 

bea Cisa (Saaftias, ap. Serv, ad Am, i. 6), an 

^feilstioB afterwards used among the Bomans to 

■piiiy anything primitive or old-£Bshioned. The 

fpitbct of Saerani, sappoeed by Niebuhr to have 

kffl also a national appellation, would appear to have 

hA % more restricted sense, and to have been con- 

iaed to a partiealar tribe or subdivision of the race. 

£flt it is certainly remarkable that the name of 

JiM0nei most have been established m general use 

itspviod ac ewiy as the iiflh oentuiy of Bomc; 


for (if we may trust the accuracy of Dionysins) ife 
was already used by Callias, the historian of Aga- 
thocles, who termed Latinus '^ king of the Abori- 
gines " (Dionys. i. 72): and we find that Lycophion 
(writing under Ptolemy Philadelphus) speaks of 
Aeneas as founding thirty cities " in the land of the 
Bore^onoi" a name which is evidently a mere cor- 
ruption of Aborigines. (Lycophr. Alex. 1253; Tzetz. 
ad loc,', Niebohr, vol. i. p. 80.) 

A tradition recorded both by Gato and Varro, and 
which Niebuhr justly r^ards as one of the most ere.- 
dible of those transmitted to us from antiquity, related 
that these Aborigines first dwelt in the high mountain 
districts around Beate and in the vallies which ex- 
tend from thence towards the Mt Velino and the 
Lake Fndnus. From hence they were expelled by 
the Sabines, who descended upon them from the still 
more elevated regions around Amitemum, and drove 
them forwards towards the W. coast : yielding to this 
pressure, they descended into the valley of the Anio, 
and from thence gradually extended themselves into 
&e plains of Latium. Here they came in contact 
with the Sicnli, who were at that time in possession 
of the country; and it was not till after a long con- 
test that the Aborigines made themselves masters of 
the land, expelled or reduced to slavezy its Siculian 
population, and extended their dominion not only 
over Latium itself, but the whole plain between the 
Volscian mountains and the sea, and even as far as 
the river Liris. (Dionys. i. 9, 10, 13, 14, ii. 49; 
Cato, ap. Prigcian. v. 12. § 65.) In this war we 
are told that the Aborigines were assisted by a Pe- 
lasgian tribe, with whom they became in some de- 
gree intermingled, and from whom they first learned 
the art of forti^ring their towns. In conjunction 
with these allies they continued to occupy the plains 
of Latium until about the period of the Trojan war, 
when they assumed the appellation of Latini, from 
their king Latinos. (Dionys. i. 9, 60; Liv. i. 1, 2.) 

Whatever degree of historical authority we may 
attach to this tatditicm, there can be no doubt that 
it correctly represents the fact that the Latin race, 
such as we find it in historical times, was composed 
of two distinct dements : the one of Pelasgic origin, 
and closely allied with other Pelasgic races in Italy; 
the other essentially different in language and origin. 
Both these dements are distinctly to be traced in the 
Latin limguage, in which one class of words is closely 
related to the Greek, another whoUy distinct from it, 
and evidently connected with the languages of the 
Oscan race. The Aborigines may be considered aa 
repiesenting the non-Pelasgio part of the Latin 
people; and to them we may refer that portion of the 
Latin languid which is strikingly dissimilar to the 
Greek. The obvious relation of this to the Oscan* 
dialects would at once lead us to the same conclusion 
with the historical traditions above related: namely, 
that the Aborigines or Gssd, a mountain race from 
the central Apennines, were nearly aldn to the Aequi, 
Yolsd, and other ancient nations of Italy, who are 
generally included under the term of Oscans or Au- 
scmians; and as clearly distinct from the tribes of 
Pelasgic origin, on the one hand, and from the great 
Sabellian family on the other. (Niebtdir, vol i. p. 
78 — 84; DomJdson, VarroniantUj p. 3; Abeken, 
MitteHtalierif pp. 46, 47.) 

IHonysius tells us that the greater port of the 
dties originally inhabited by the Aborigines in their 
mountain homes had ceased to exist in his time; but 
he has preserved to us (i. 14) a catalogue of them, 
as given by Varro in Iiis Antiquities^ which is of 

B 3 


much interoBL UsfbrhmAtd j most ct tiie naam 
contained in it are otherwiae wholly vnknown, and 
the geographical data are not sofficientlj predM to 
enable ns to fix their position with any certainty. 
The researchee of recent travellers have, however, 
«f late years given increased interest to the passage 
in qnestion, by establishing the &ct that the neigh- 
bomrhood of Beats, and especially the valley of the 
SaUoj a district cemmonly called the deoUmOj 
abonnd with vestiges of ancient dtissi which, from 
the polygonal, or so-called Cyclopean style of their 
GODstmctioa, have been referred to a very early period 
of antiquity. Many attempts have been consequently 
made to identify these sites with Ihe cities mentioned 
by Varro; bnt hitherto with little success. The 
most recent investigatians of this subject are those 
by Martelli (an Italian antiquarian whose local 
Imowledge gives weight to his opinions) in his Storia 
deiSiculi (Aquila, 1830, 8vo.), and by Bonsen 
(^AfUidti StabilifHenH Italici, in the AnnaU delT 
IfutUuto di Corri^^ondenta ArcheologioOy vol. vL 
p^ 100, seq.). Bnt the complete diversity of their 
resolts proves how little certainty is to be attained. 
In the following enumeration of them, we can only 
attempt to give the description of the localities 
according to Varro, and to notice briefly then: sup- 
posed identifications. 

1. Paiatium, from which the city on the Pala- 
tine hill at Borne was supposed to have derived its 
name (Van*, de L.L.Y. § S3 ; Solin. I. § 14), is 
placed by Varro at 25 stadia fiwn Beate ; and 
would appear to have been still inhabited in his 
time. (See Bunsen, p. 129, whose suggestion of 
w^Xis Mcovpiivfi for ir<)Xc»9 olnovfjJrris is certunly 
very plausible.) Ruins of it are said to exist at a 
place stall called PaUanH, near Torrioella, to the 
right of the Via Salana, at about the given dis- 
tance from Beato. (Martelli, p. 195.) Gell, on 
the other hand, places it near the convent of La 
ForestUf to the N. of Hietiy where remains of a 
polygonal character are also found. Bunsen concurs 
in placing it in this direction, but without fixing 
the site. 

2. Tribula (TpftfbXa), about 60 stadia from 
Beate ; placed by Bunsen at Sania Fdioe^ below the 
modem town of Cantalice^ whose polygonal waDs 
were discovered by DodwelL Martelli appears to 
ooofoond it with Tiobula Mvtusga, from which 
it is probably distmct. 

8. SuESBULA, or Vesbula (the MSS. of IHo- 
nysius vary betwe«i ^ctrf^Xa and ObffftiXa), at 
the same distance (60 stadia) from Tribula, near 
the Ceraunian Moontains. These are otherwise 
unknown, but supposed by Bunsen to be the Monti 
di LeofMMa, and that Suesbula was near the site of 
the little city of I/eoneuaj from which tiiey derive 
their name. 

4. SuNA (Xo{/yri\ distant 40 stadia from Snes- 
bda, with a very ancient temple of Mars: 5. Ms- 
PHTUk (Mii^Aa), about 30 stadia from Suna, of 
which some rains and traces of walls were still 
visible in the time of Varro: and 6. ORyiNTUU 
(*Opoirflr«>r), 40 stadia from Mephyla, the mxns of 
which, as well as its ancient sepolchres, attested its 
former magmtude; — are all wholly unknown, but 
are {nobably to be sought between the Monti di 
Leonetsa and the valley of the Velino. Martelli, 
however, transfers this whole group of cities (in- 
cluding Tribula and Suesbula), which are placed by 
Bunsen to the N. of EieUj to the vallies of the 
Turano and SaUo S. of that city. 


7. CoBSUiA (Kopaotka^f a dty destroyed shortly 
before the lame of Varro, is placed by him at 80 sta- 
dia from Beate, along the Via CnmA, at the loot 
of Mt. Goretum. This road is otherwise un- 
known*, but was probably that which led from Beate 
towards Terni (Interamna), and if so, Cocsola must 
have been on the left bank of the VeUnus, but its 
nto is unknown. 

In the same dbection were: 8. Issa, a town mtu- 
ated on an island in a lake, prdbably the same now 
called t^e Logo del Pie di Imgo : and 9. Mabro- 
rnTM (Mopo^Eoif), situated at die extremity of the 
same lake. Near this were the Skftek Aquae, 
the position of which in this fertile valley between 
Beate and Interamna is confirmed by their mention 
in Cicero (aJ AtL iv. 15). 

10. Betoming agam to Beate, and proceeding 
along the valley of the Salto towards the Lake 
Fucinus (Dionysius has tV M, Aaritntif 6Shw tlrt- 
oviny, fer whidi Bimsen would read T^r itrX Ai^cnm 
but in any case it seems probable that this is the 
direction meant), Varro mentions first Batia or 
Vatia (B«tr(a), of which no trace is to be found: 
then comes 

11. TioRA, sunamed Matikne (Tofipa, i^ icoXov- 
ft4rri Mari^i^), where there was a very andent 
oracle cif Mars, the responses of which were delivered 
by a woodpecker. This is placed, aoconlixig to Varro, 
at 300 stadia from Beate, a distance whidb so much 
exceeds all the others, that it has been supposed to 
be corrupt; bnt it coincides well with the actual 
distance (36 miles) from Rieti to a spot named 
Castors, near Sta. AnatoUay in the upper valley of 
the SaltOy which was undoubtedly the site of an 
andent city, and presents extensive remains of walls 
of polygonal construction. (Bunsen, p. 1 1 5 ; Abeken, 
MiUeltiaiienj pi 87.) We learn also finom early 
Bfartyrologies, that Sta. Anatolia, who has given 
name to die modem ^iUage, was put to death " in 
civitate Thora, apud lacum VeUnum." (Clnver. 
Itai p. 684.) Hence it seems probable that the 
name of Caetore is a corruption of Cas-Tora (Cas- 
tcllum Tone), and that the ruins viable there are 
really those of TionLf 

12. LiBTA (A&rra), called by Varro the metro- 
polis of the Aborigines, is placed by him, aooording 
to our present text of Dionysius, at 24 stadia frt>m 
Tiora ; but there seem strong reas<ms for supposing 
that tMs is a mistake, and that Lists was really 
situated in the immediate ndghbonrhood of Beate. 


13. The last dty assigned by Varro to the Abo- 
rigines is CoTTLiA, or CunixA (K^r^Xia), oele- 
bntted fw its lake, concerning the ate of which 
(between Civita Ducale and AfUrodooo') then 
exists no doubt [GunuA.] 

Among the dties of Latinm itself, Dionysiiu 
(i. 44, iL 35) expressly assigns to the Aboriginei 
the foundation of Antemnae, Caenina, Rculnea 
Tellenae, and Tibur: some of which were wrested 

* The MSS. of Dionyaus have 9i& r^s *lovpUu 
68ov, a name which is certainly compt. Sawn 
editors would read 'lovr^os, but the emendation ol 
Kovptas suggested by Bunsen is fer more probable 
For tiie friither investigation of this point, set 

f Holstenius, however (JVbC ad Chfver. p. 1 14) 
places Tiora in the valley of the TWono, at a plao 
called CoBe PieoolOj where there is also a celdiratec 
church of Sta. Anatolia. 

kf ikB boa Dm Senliiiii, olhan i^^iueDtlr nnr 

ouB bi phnd «a Uhv MatoiuoU, tnt thej w«n 
hMIj Matt W Artu^Duh the dtka in qnntim 

fra iln* wkick mn dcdgiutid bjtniditioD u of 

MiciM eri^ V celmicB of ADia. 
Sdvt (Oil «) (peaks rf Oh Abvieina 

nit f^ tUbeat fixed Um <m dweUisgi, 

■ dsr Alt Vara *t leut Rgndad tbtm u pes' 
■Md d bctifiad toww, bnipki, cnclee, &c i ind 
the Dtfm tnditiim <£ the I^tini uKenung Juns 
alSuvB iodiaU tliU thej had acquired all tbe 
|rig]ilin aitt if oriliiatiai Ixfaa Ok period of the 
■nwd Tngaa cokdj. [E. H. B.] 

ABOBXHA& [CusoB^] 

ABKAUAKNUS CA<|>->uin«i, PtoL il 3. ^ a), 

liule w 

ia BaftAra^ which dlBchargHi itaelf 

« Kin </ Gallon^ into Lnce-BaJ. AbnTanmu 
a {nUJr the itnam which flows Ihnmgh Loch 
Spa iolD the Ha — Ab-Rfan, or the oBifnaf of 
^ao, hang caiilj cmmtiUe into the Roman fbnn 
rftbB vod Ab-l^an-na— Ainnnniis. [W. B. D.] 

ABEETrET(E. [Mtsia.] 

ABRIKCATUI, a Gallk nibe (Plin. ir. IB), 
ait iHiInied bj Cioar, whose fnnlier wu icai 
tk Cuioaditea. Their town Ingena, called Atirin- 
a(K in the Notitia Imperii, hu given itA name 
Id the modem ArramcMft ; and their tenitcprj 
mtM ^rotmblj Gvreapnd to the diviflion of Av- 
faar^ [G. L.] 

ABBOTOKUU ('AfpJiVMr), a Fboenicdan dt<r 
■ Uk eart <£ S. A&ica, Id tbe diftrict of Tripoli. 
tMi, tctweto tbe Sritea, ibuIIt identified with 
EuuTA. Iboogh Fkiiij makea tbein dilTennt plans. 
(Sc;ki,p.1T; Stnb.p.833; Stepfa.B. j.c; Phn. 
T.t) [P. SJ 

ElL'Atipnti, 'A^vfrn: Cierw and Omto), the 
mif two iilanda off UMMentof Illjricnm, u called 
baae, accmdii^ U> cue tradition, Absjrtni was 
^iiilicnhjhiinsterHedHandbjJuon. Ptolemj 
■oiliin odIt (Be island Afsobbds ('A<)«^i), m 
*Uch b ^aea two tawna Cre[u (Kp^) and 
irnni. (Smb. p.315; Stf[^. Bji. i. e. ; UeL 
D-T; PfaLiiL2Gi PteLii. 16. S IS.) 

ABDS(i'AC«) oiABA(Phn. T. 24. 1.90), a 
■*■"*■■" in Armenia, forming a part of the E. 
pijiaplni iJ Iha Anti-Taunu chain, and tepa- 
iBBg the haiini of tbe Aiaits and of tlie Araauat 
«&lnDdioftheEnpfantee(ifiiraiJ), Thelattsr 
(f ttiK gnat riien risea on ill S. aide, and, ae- 
wdiiig to Stnbo, tbe former also riiea on ile N, 
■h. Acoiding to this ilaliineat, the range moal 
fe nMdend to begin ai far W. u the ndghbour- 
koid 4 fmrooa, while it extendi E. to tbe Araiei 
fi. d Artaaata. Here it terminals In the great 
inUcd peak. 17,310 feet high, aul corered with 
pBftDal mmr, which an ahnoat umTorm tiadilion 
be ponied oat as the Ararat of Sciiptan (Gi 
nL 4), and which is still teJkd Ararat or Agri- 
D^ ud, bj the Peniani, Kuk-i-Sui (noMliuri 
«/ -Voai): il ii rilnated in aV i? N. laL, and 
W^SfE.loDf. Thianmunit forme the cntmmatjng 
HHifW.An. TbechainilaelfBcallHiAb.daai. 
(aiiili.pp.W7,531; PUiT.13.) [P. S.J 

ABUS ('A(«, FtoL ii.3.§6: ffamhr), one of 
Ik [rind)«i TTTva, or rather «taaris in the F 
franan of M.jnnm CaeearieDas m Britain, 
•ana hmdj trSxitariiB, ud diichargci itself islo the 


German Ooran sonth of Ocdnm Prrananloriain 
(i^wm Htad). Its left bank wu inhabited bf 
the Cejdc tribe, whom the Romani entitled Paiiii, 
but according b> a medieval poet cited bj Csm- 
'en, no great town or dt; andentlj stood on ila 

anks. rw. B. D.] 

ABUSIHA, ABUSEKA, a town of Vbdelicia, 

itoatod on the river Abens, and comeponding 
xxtuAy to the modern Abauberg. Abuiina stood 
nnr to the eaetem termination of the high insd 
which ran from the Roman militar? station Vinde- 
I on the Aar to the Danube. Roman walls an 
extant, and Reman remaini etill diKoiend at 
Abensberg. [W. 6. D.] 

AByDUS. 1. C^'Afrfoi, Abjdmn, PMn. v. 32: 
Eth. 'A<vlT|y^t, Abj-dezms), a citj of Ujua on the 
Hellespcotlis, nearlj oppcdle £(Stus on tha Enro- 
pean ihore. It ie mentioned u one of the towns in 

"iancB with the Trtrjaiu. (//. ii. 836.) Aidoi 
Avido, a modem village on the Hellespont, may 
be the dte of Abfdce, thongh the ccnclnsion from a 
name is not certaia. Ab^doi stood at the narrowest 
point of tbe Hdlcepontne, where tbe dumnei is oolj- 
7 stadia wide, and it bad a small port. It wu 
probablj a Thracian Town ceiginallj, bnt it became 
a Uileuan colon;. (Thnc. Ttii. 61.) At a point a 
little north of this town Xerice plii^ his bridge of 
■^ '■ bj which his troops were cwiveyed across the 
^ to the opposite town of Sestns, b. C- 480. 
(Herod. Tii. 33.) The bridge of boats extended, 
iccording to Herodotns, from Abydos to a promon. 
•£irj on the Enropeaa shore, between Sestos and 
Madytna. The town posseued a email tnritory 
whitb contamed some gold minm, bat Stfsbo speaks 
of them ss exhansted. Tt wu burnt bj Darius, the 
son of Qjstaspes, afW his Scythian expedition, for 
far that the Scythians, who were said to be in pnr- 
Boit of him, should take poeicanon of it (S^b. 
p. 59 1 ) ; bat il most aoon tuiTS recoiered fnni this 
calamity, for it wai afterwards s town of some note ; 
and Herodotni (t. 117) itatea that it wu captured 
by the Pernan general, Daarisce, with other citiea 
on the Bellespont (b. c. 498), shortly after the 
coDunencemeBt of the Ionian revolt. In b. c 411, 
Abydut reiolted from Athens and jdned Dercyllidae, 
the Bpartan commander in thcee parts. (Thnc. 
viii. 6S.) Subsequently, Abydui made a vigo- 
rrms deioice sgainst Philip II., lung of Mscedonis, 
befine it snnMdered. On the cmelonon of the 
war with Philip (b. c. 196), the Bomans dedared 

(Lit. ixiiii. 30.) The names of Abydoi and 
Sestiu are coupled blether in tbe old ibuy of 
Hero aod Leander, who is said to have ivainiif^l/'.nl, 
across the channel to virit his mistress at Seetos. X*)", 
The distance hetwcm Abydas and Sestos, from 
port to port, wu abODt 30 stadia, according to 



2. In ancient times teamed Tinos, in GopUc 
Ebdt, now Ardbat el Matfoon, was the chief 
town of the NoMOS Thdotes, and was sitoated 
on the Bahr Tnuuf^ at a short distance finom the 
point where that water-coarse strikes off from the 
Kile, bong about 7^ miles to the west of the river, 
in lat. 26^ 10' N., long. 32° 3' £. It was one of 
the most important cities in Egypt nnder the native 
kings, and in the Thebaid ranked next to Thebes 
itscSf. Here, accordmg to the belief generally pre- 
valent, was the boiying-place of Osiris : here Menes, 
the first mortal mcmarch, was bom, and the two first 
dynasties in Manetho are composed of Thinite mo- 
narchs. In the time of Strabo it had sunk to a 
mere village, but it was still in existence when 
Ammianos Marcellinus wrote, and tlie seat of an 
onde of the god Besa. 

Abydus has acquired great celebrity of late years 
in consequence of the important ruins, nearly buried 
in sand, discovered on the ancient site, and iiom the 
numerous tombs, some of them belonging to a very 
remote epoch, which are found in the neighbouring 
hills. Indeed Plutarch expressly states that men 
of distinction among ike Egyptians frequently se- 
lected Abydus as their place of sepulture, in order 
that their remains might repose near those of Osiris. 
The two great edifices, of which remains still 
exist, are : — I. An extensive pUe, called the Palace 
of Memnon {llitiuf6vMv fiauriKtiov^ Meamxmz rtgioL) 
by Strabo and Pliny; and described by the former 
as resembling the Labyiinth in general plan, although 
neither so extensive nor so complicated. It has 
been proved by recent investigations that this build- 
ing was the work of a king belonging to the 18th 
dynasty, Bamses IL, father of Ramses the Great 
2. A temple of Osiris, built, or at least completed 
by Bamses the Great himself. In one of the lateral 
apartments, Mr. Bankes discovered in 1818 the 
fiftmous list of Egyptian kings, now in the British 
Museum, known as the Taibl^ ofAhydotf which is 
one of the most predons of all ti^ Egyptian monu- 
ments hitherto brought to light. It contains a 
double series of 26 shields of the predecessors of 
Bomsos the Great. 

It must be observed that the identity of Abydus 
with This cannot be demonstrated. We find fre- 
quent mention of the Thinito Nome, and of Abydus 
as its chief town, but no ancient geographer names 
This except ^phanus Byzantinus, who tells us that 
it was a town of Egypt in the vicinity (£ Abydus. 
It is perfectly dear, however, that if they were 
distinct they must have been intimatdy connected, 
and that Abydus must have obscured and eventually 
taken the pjaoe of This. (Strab. p. 813, seq. ; Plat. 
Is. et Os. 18 ; Plin. v. 9 ; Ptol. ir', 5 ; Antonin. I^ner. 
pT 158, ~e£ WesseL; Steph. B. s.v. Sis; Amm. 
Marc. xix. 12. § 3; Wilkinson^ Topography of 
Thebes J p. 397; Kenrick, Andent Egypt, vol. i 
p. 45.) [W. R.] 

('AS6\ri or 'A€l\ii ariiKri, "ACuXv^, Eratosth.: 
JTtmiera, Jebel-el-Minay or Monte del Hacho\ a 
high predpitous rock, fbiming the £. extremity of 
the S., or African, coast of the narrow entrance from 
the AUantic to the Mediterranean (Fretum Gadi- 
tanum or Herculeum, StraUs of Gibraltar). It 
forms an outlying spur of the range of mountains 
which rons parallel to the coast under the name of 
Septem Fratrcs (Jebel Zatout, i. e. Ape*s HUT), 
and which appear to have been originally induded 
under the name of Abyla. They may be regarded 


as the NW. end of the Lesser Atlas. The rock i^ 
connected with the main range by a low and narrow 
tongue of land, about 3 nules long, occupied, in 
ancient times, by a Boman fortress (Castellum ad 
Septem Fratres), and now by the Spanish town of 
Ceuta OT Sd}tat the dtadd of which is on the hill 
itself. The rock of Abyla, with the opposite rock 
of Galpe {GibraUar) on the coast of Spain, formed 
the renowned " Columns of Hercules" ('H^mmAcIcu 
<m/i\aif or simply imjAcu), so called ftmn the 
&ble that they were originally one mountain, which 
was t<Hn asunder by Hercules. (Strab. pp. 170, 
829 ; Plin. iiL prooem., v. 1; Mda, ii. 6 ; Ex- 
ploration Sdentifique de I Algeria, torn. viii. p. 
301.) [P. S.] 

ACACE'SIUM (^'Axaicfynov: Eth. 'Aicaud^irios), 
a town of Arcadia in the district of Parrhasia, at 
the foot of a hill of the same name, and 36 stadia 
on the road from M^alopolis to Phigalea. It ia 
said to have been founded by Acacus, s<hi of Lycaon ; 
and according to some traditions Hermes was brought 
up at this place by Acacus, and hence derived the 
surname of AcactsiMS. Upon the hill there was a 
statue in stone, in the time of Pausanias, of Hermes 
Acacesius; and four stadia frtnn the town was a 
cdebrated temple of Despoena. This temple pro- 
bably stood on the hill, on which are now the re^ 
mains of the church of St Elias. (Paus. viii. 3.. 
§ 2, viii. 27. § 4, viiL 36. § 10; Steph. Byz. s. v.; 
Boss, Reisen im Peloponnes, vol. i. p. 87.) 
ACADEMI'A [Athbnab.]/. 3 C^ X ■ 
ACADE'RA or ACADIHA, a h^n in the NW 
of India, traversed by Alexander. (Curt viii. 10. 
§19.) [P.S.] 

ACALANDRUS (^PuciXeofZpos), a river of Lu- 
cania, flowing into the golf of Tarentum. It is men- 
tioned both by Pliny and Strabo, the former of whom 
appears to place it to the north of Heradea: but hia 
authori^ is not very distinct, and Strabo, on the con- 
trary, dearly states that it was in the territory of 
Thurii,on which account Alexander of Epinis sought 
to transfer to its banks the general assembly of the 
Italian Greeks that had been previously hdd at He- 
radea. [Heraciaa..] Cluverius and other topo- 
graphers, following the authority of Pliny, have iden- 
' tified it with iheSalandreUa, a small river betireen the 
BasietUo and Agri ; but there can be little doubt that 
Barrio and Romandli are correct in supposing it to 
be a small stream, still called the Calandro, flowing 
into the sea a little N. of RotetOj and about 10 miles 
S. of the mouth of the Siiis or Sitmo, It was pro- 
bably the boundary between the territories of Hera- 
dea and Thurii. (Plin. iii. 11. § 15; Strab. p. 
280; Cluver. Ital. p. 1277 ; Barrius de Ant, Calabr. 
v. 20; Bomanelli, vd. i. p. 244.) [E. H. B.] 
ACANTHUS C'AKai'tfos : Eth. '/ucdvOioti 
Eris$o)f a town on the E. side of the isthmus, 
which connects the peninsula of Acte with Chalci- 
dice, and about 1| mile above the canal of Xerxes. 
[Athos.] It was founded by a colony from An- 
dres, and became a place of considerable importance. 
Xerxes stopped here on his march into Greece (b. g. 
480) and praised the inhabitants for the zeal w£ich 
they displayed in his service. Acanthus surrendered 
to Brasidas b c.424, and its independence was shortly 
afterwards guaranteed in the treaty of peace made 
between Athens and Sparta. The Acanthians main • 
tained their independence against the Olynthiaos, 
but eventually became subject to the kings of Mace- 
donia. In the war between the Romans and Philip 


<>. T^ no) Aemthoi »u takBi and plimdered b; 
tht ^it tl Ibe irpublk. ■ SdnbDHid Ptolon; i 
■nalr flKx Aeutlnu (o (be Sin^lic j^ilf, 
tkn cu ba DD <)oaU thu the town n« tn Uis 
S tfTujui ic f^tUf, u a itelAl hj HettidcitiLft ind other 
otkritia: (he fnw maj laTfl perhapa uusi from 
til* ttr i i U rj d Acuthna hBTUi^ stntched ba £kr u 
At Sa^plic EdU. At Eritto, the sits of Acmothog, 
ttetintbiBM cf ■ bu}^ aodcDt Dule, idTandiig 
b > earn nts tbr m, and also, m tha 14. aide of 

Uatb <f p*r i^uiU. On Che cnn of Acmnthna 

tt* taaat ol Harodotna (liL 135}, that on the 
auA if Xhh frcm Aonthos to Theima, Sma 
which cArriad 

L IIS, 9 

. 131, a 

; Thnc 

r.84, SI 

L BdL 

OmM. Grwte. aO; Stnb. p. 330; Ltake, tforth- 
« CnwE, nL iii. p. 147.) 

1. (0B>kw), ■ cit; of EgTpt, on Ihe wcateni 
Ink c< Ibe Kilr, 120 ttadis S. cf Memphis. It 
■•> b the Mctnphitc None, wid, tbcrdim, in the 
Bfftsmiis. It Tiu celchnttt! fbr ■ lempk of 
bi^ md noind its nuns fron ■ uavd oiclo- 
■n ronpnal ri the Acuthos. (Stnb. p. 809; 
DuLl97; Sitfb. B. i.e.; PloLiT.5.§ SS.Hha 
ab Iht Ion 'AnrMr II&Ui.) 

ACIE.NA'XIA ('AjiapnWii : 'Axaprir, Srot, 
Jiantt, -inb), tbs moat natalj piwiDce of 
Cnfo. was boDnded m (be N. bj tbs Ambndm 
fiH; Amphiloctaia, on th« W. uid SW. 
It da knian kk, and on the E. bf AetoUa. It 
"^' trail ilttTit 1571 aqura mika. Uoder the Bo- 
^m, gr inbablj ■ littie nrlicr, the nnr Achelong 
^■■vd tba bmodajj brtwcen Acomaju and Aetolia ; 
ha ii the tinie of the Pelapoimouin nr, the terri- 
^ if Oonadae, wbirh wu one of the Acanunian 
tana. olBiM E. of this rint. Th« mtericff of 
AsaaoB ia cdtshI with feresta and moontaina of 
* pttt drvatuD, to which Ktaa nudem writera 
■tbhhIT gin the iiinie of Cimla. [Crakia.] 
Bams Ihne momitiiliiB then an aerenl lakea, 
■d XBj fertile TaDiei. The chief riier of the 
<mBj k the Acbclotu, which ia the imn- put of 
in ^iTie Am tbiongb a tbM plain of gnt na- 
tnl fertiGl;, called after itaelf the Pancheldtia. 
"Ok |in ■ at {tacnt emend with manha, and 
ikt finta Jan of it appaan ta hare been funned 
^ da alhmal depoaitiaiu of the Achelona. Owing 
ta iit drcnmctacce, and to the titer hnring fre- 
lawlj ttttrai ita channel, the aonthcm gut of the 
oM rf Aonania baa nndergoiw l^QIDenaa ebanj^. 
Til durf tflooit of the Achckoa in Acamaaia is 
>h Anapoi ('Anru), which flowed into U» nuiin 
BHB BO Madia S. of Stntna. Then an aei-enl 
fnsMonn on the coait, but of these oolj two an 
t^MBj Quned, the protncntoTj of AcntiH, and 


that of CiiQiMe (Kfiifor^), on the W. c«at, Jbnn- 
ing me ade of the amall baj, on which the town of 
Astacns stood. Of the inland bikea, the onlj one 
mentioned bj name is that of Melite (Hthhii ; Tri- 
kardho), 30 itadia long and 30 bnad, N. of the 
mtnztb of the Achelons, in the lurritoij of the Ocni- 
adae. Then waa a lagorai, or aalt lake, between 
Lencas and the Ambracian ^olf, to which Stnbo 
(p. 459} gives the name of MTituntiun (Hi<|>. 
Ttirrtmr). Althongh the «al of Acamania was 
feTtHe, it wan not nmch cnltlTated bj the inba- 
bitaota. The pndafjta of the vDonbej an ranly 
mentioned b; the ancient wiilen. Plm; speaks of 
iron mines (xxiri. 19. s. 30), and also of a pearl- 
Gsbei7 off Actinm (iz. 56). A modem InTeller 
Btatea tint the rocka in Aeunania indiote, in man;- 
places, the presenoe of copper, and ho was also 
inlocnwi, on good snthoritj, that the moontaina 
pndnco coal and sniphnr in abundance. (Jourwoi 
of the Geographical Society, toL iiL p. 79.) The 
chief wealth of the inhabitants consisted in their 
betda and flocks, which pastund in the rich mea- 
dows in the lower port of the Acbelona. Jim 
wen nnmeroos istands off the westeni coast of Acar. 
lumia. Of th(«e the most important wen the 
EcHiNADES, extending frran the moath of the 
Achelons itlong the ehore to the N. ; the Tafhiar 
iMStnjia, lying between Lencaa and Acamania, and 
Leuca9 itself, which originallj formed part of tho 
mainland of Acamania, but was afterwards acph- 
ratcd from the latter bj a canal. (Bespecting Acar- 
nania in general see Btrab. p. 4S9, esq.; Leake, 
Norther* Greece, vol iii. p. 4S8, seq.; Fiedler, 
Reite ibrcA Griechetiimd, vol. i. p. 1S8, seq.) 

Amt^ochia, which is sometimea reckoned a part 
of Acamania, ia spoken of in a separate article. 

The name of Acamania appears to hate been 
nnknown in the earliest times. Homer onlj calb 
the eonntiy oppoeite Ithaca and Cephallenia, under 
the general name of Epdma (4«if>oi), or the main- 
Uod (Stnb. p. 451, aabfin.), although he b^qnantlj 
mentions tbe Aetoliana.* 

The nmntty is aaid to hate been originaDj in- 
habited bj the Taphii, or Teleboae, the Lcleges, 
and the Conies. The Taphii, or Teleboae were 
chieflj found in the islands off the western coast 
of Acamimia, when the^ maintained themscltea 
bf pitacj. [Tbleboak.] The Leleges wen mora 
widel; disseminated, and were also in poEseseion at 
me period of Aetolia, Locris, and other parts of 
Gre«ce. [Leleoes.] Tbe Cunto are sud \o hats 
come from Aetolia, and to hate settled in Acamania, 
tSta thej had been expelled froin the fanner country 
bj Aetolua and his foUowen (Strab. p. 46S). The 
name of Acamania is derited &om Acaman, the son 
of Alcmaeon, who is said to hate settled at the mouth 
of the Acheloos. (Thuc ii. 102.) If this tnt- 
ion is of anj Talus, it would intimate that aa 
gite colonj settled on the coast of Acamania at 
eu\j period. In the middle of the 7th centnij 

In the jear a. c 339, the Acamanians, in tha 
issj which tbof sent to Home to solicit assiBt- 
ance, pleaded that they bad taken no part in tba 
expedition against Troy, tbe ancestor of Kcene, being 
the first time pnbably, as ThirlwaQ remsrki, that 
they had eter boosted of the omission of their name 
from the Homeric catalogue. (Justin^ xxriii. I ; 
Btiab. p. 4G3 ; Thirlwall, Sitt. of Greece, id, viii. 
pp. 119, 130.) 



B. a, Uw CoiiDthiuu fboniled LmcM, AnuCnrinm, 
SolUniDf ADd other towns on the coait. (Stnb. 
p. 492.) Tha original mhibitnntB of ths OHiiitiT 
wen drirea man mlo the inteiiiH'; thcj nenr made 
much prognu in the erti of diilised lilej imd 
eien M ^ time of the reloponoouu wtr, the7 
■wen ■ rndo uid taitvcni people, mgiged in ixm- 
tintud vftn with their noghboon, and hving hj 
iMktj and [Hnej. (Thoc i. 6.) The Acar- 
naiuaiia, hnwerei, wen Greeki, and its mch ven 
alkired b> oonlcad in tfae gnM Fu-HdlHiic guiiee, 
■Ithongh thej wera clwelj- coimected with thdr 
Q^hbonn, tbfl Agrmeana and Ampliikchiana oa 
the gnif of Ambracia, who wen barbarian or Doa- 
BeUeoic Datiinu. Like other rode mmutiuiicerB, 
th« Acsnuuiiuu an preieed far their fidelitj and 
conisge. They fanned gixid light-aimed troope, 
Mid wen eioellent ilingers, Thej lired, for Uie 
moat part diApened in Tillageo, retiring, Trlisn at- 
tncked, to the monntaina. Tlie; wen miited, how- 
ever, in a poUtical League, of wtuch Ariltotle wnte 
ui account in a work now loat. {'Ataftinwr IIdAI- 
T(ia, Stnb. p. 331.) Thnofdidn raentioni a hill, 
named Olpu, nc&r the Amphilochian Argoa, wMch 
the Acamaniaju had fortified aa a place of judicial 
meeting for tha aettlement of dispntco. (Thnc oL 
IDS.) The meelinge of the Logna wen oiuallj 
held at Sdatoa, which wu the cluef town in Acar- 
nania (Xan. HeU. ir. G. g 4; cocip. Thuc. ii. 80); 
hut, in the time of the Bamani, the meetinga took 
I^aee either at Thyrinm, or at Leucaa, the latter of 
which placea became, at that time, the chief citj in 
^ . miii. 16, U; Poljb. imii. 5.) 
arlj period, when fati of Amphilochia be- 
longed to the Acanjaaiaaa, thej need to hold a public 
jndcial coDgree* at Olpae, a fortified hill abont 3 
mika fimn Argue Amplulocbicnm. Of the oonglita- 
tiot of thtdr Lagne w« have earalj' aoj par- 
tieulare. We learn from 'an imcriptiui (cnuid at 
Audi, tha tiCe of aooent Acdnm, that there was 
a CoDDcil and a general aesemblj cS the people, bj 
which deneea wen passed. CESo^e T^ ftnAf ical 
T^ mvj niv 'AKOfriymi-y M the head of tha 
League then wu a SIrMegua C^Tpaniyis) or 
Qetien]; and the Coundl bad a Secntvj (fpa^i^ui. 
Ttit), who appean to have been a person of import- 
aocOr aa in the Achaean and Aetolian Leaguee. 
The chief priest (iifmrifAai) of tha temple of 
Apollo at Actinia seems to have been a person of 
hi^h nuki and ather hi> name or that'of the Stn- 
tsgua wu onplojed for cfficial dates, like that of the 
first Archin at Atheni. (Biickh, Corptu /nMript. 
So. 1793.) 

The hist«; of the Aoamamaoa bi^iiu in the time 
of the PulapaDDeekui war. Their hatred agtuost 
the Corinthian settlen, who had deprind them of 
all thur best ports, natnrallj led than to side with 
the Athemsosj but the immediate cause of their 
allianoe with tfae ktter aroae £ram the tipnbion of 
the Amplulocluanii fiwn tha town of A^oa Ampbi- 
lochicnm bj the Corinthian eetllere from AmbraciA, 
■boat B.II. *S2. The Acsniaiuana eeponsed the 
cann of the expelled Amphilochiaos, aid in order to 
obtun the natonUian of the latter, thej applied for 
asnstaDCO to Athemi. Tbe Athenians accordinglj 
sent an expedition under Fhormio, wbo took Argc 
Axp^ed the AmbncLots, and restond the town 
the Amphilocbiana and Acmruaoianfi. An allian 
was now fbnoally concladed between the Acam 
jiians and AtbeDiaue. Tha 00I7 tnwne of Annunia 
wliich did not jnn it wore Deniadae and Aetacos. 

The AcamlLiiiaos were of great serric* iniBrintuM 
ing tha lu^iemac; of AlbHU in the western part of 
Givece, and the^' diitingniabed themaetvca particO' 
larly in B. c. iSG, when thej gained a aign^ rictn^ 
under the ccouuand of Demntheuca orer the Pelo- 
prameeiaiia and Ambndots at Olpae. (Thnc. iii. 
105, seq.) At the oonclusioa of this ainpaign the; 
dad a peafa with the Ambtafiots, altboDgb 
thej still continued alliea of Ai 

bjAgesilans. The latter rava^ 
itrj, but hia expedition was not attendee 
with any histme conaeqnencea (Sen. HtlL ir. 6) 
Atler the time of Alexander the Gnat the Aetoliam 
conquered mut of the towns iu the west of Acar- 

a. 391 « 

1 the . 

kings, to whoo 

of fbrtone. Thej reltaaed to desert the cause o 
"' ilip in his war with the Romans, and it waa noi 
after the captnre of Leocaa, their principal town 
and the defeat of PhUip at Cjnoacephalae that thej 
nbmiltad to the Rodiaiib. (lir. ixxiii. 16—17.; 
Hien Antiochus IIL king of Syria, inradcd Greoce 
i. c. 191, the Acamanians wen persuaded bj thei 
countryman Mnaailocbns to espouse bis cause; ba 
axpnlsiai of Antiochus from Greece, thc^ 
|PBin under the supremacy of Rome. (IAt 
11—12.) In the settlement of the aflura o 
Greece bj Aeuulius Pfmlm and the Bceoan commis 
■ionere sitar the detcM of Penetis (b.o. 168J 
Leucas was separated flan Acsmanii, but no olke 
ibange was made in the oonntry. (Lit. xIt. 31. 
iVhen Qreeca waa reduced to the form of a Bmow 
prorinra, ib ia doubtful wiiether Acamania was an 
^ ~ the province of Achaia or of Epeims, bv 
ntioned at a later time as part id £p«Ttu 
[AcHAiA, No. 3.] The inhabitauta of several 
its towns wen retDored by Au^tni to NiconJit 
which he founded ntler the bottle of Actium [Ni 
cdpolib] ; and in the time of this emperrr th 
oonntrj is described by Strabo as utterly worn 00 
and exhanatsd. (Stiab. p. 460.) 

Tbe following is a list of the towna of Acamaaii 
On the Ambiadaa pii!, bata E. to W. ; Lihhasii 
Echinus ("Exrwii, Sleph. B. i.v.; Plin. it. 2; A 
Kttrfi), Heracleia (Plin. iv.l; Voaitta), Ahacto 
MtjM, AcntJM. On «■ near tbe west of tb 
looian Bea,fioni N. to S.: Tbibium, PAi.iiKitu! 
Altzu, Soluuu, Astacus, Oeniadac In th 
interior from & to N.: Old Oenia [Oehu 
dab], ConoHTA, Metropolis, Sthatl-b, Rhyi 
chna (^Fiyxoi'), near Stratns, of uncertain eiti 
(Pol. ap. Ath, iii. p. 95, d.); Phitia or Phoi 
TUAE, HsDEon. Tbe Booun Itine 




■B nM B AttntaoMf winch \tA inoi AbuQIq 
IIh eoHt tD CUfdn in Aetolia. 
iCCICAoo: GiMdi»el«M^betwMnG!nBiaeb 
iX • coBMkimbfe lalttid dtj cf Hiiiimnia 
on the borden of Baetica; under the 
ft oalaqr, with the Jos Latmnm, under the 
» rf Goifliuft Jnlbk Ckmelk Aodtuia. Its 
bearing the heads cf Angoatas, 
Dniiaoa, and Cahguk, and 
of the legiona m. and tL, from which it 
bj JaUns er Anguatns, and from 
the name of GemeUa (Itin. AnL 



pp. 40S, 404; Flin. iii. 3. a. 4; Inacr. ap. Grater, 
f.til; Ecfchel, tqL L pp. 34--35; BaMhe,AV.) 
AaeoidB^toMacnifaiiia (SaL L 19X l^bre was wor- 
di^fad hora with hia head BOimmded with the 
«&• xafji, andnr the name of Metoa. Sach an 
eBUflniaeeenaitbeeQina. [P- S.] 

A'CCUA, a email tomi of Apulia, nwnfimw^d 
mijhjlhrj(xsT, 80) as one of the phuSes leoorered 
tj Q. Fabiaa fr(an thfl Carthaginiana in the fifth 
j«ar «f the Seoend Pmnc War, b. c 214. It ap- 
ptKB ten thia paasage to have been eomewhen in 
tilt awgbhoHffhood of Loceria, bat its exact aite is 
mkaomi. [£. H. B.] 

ACE CAm: JSdL'AiuSn), the Aocho C^X«) 
«f thBOld TeatamcBt (Jn4g. L 31), the Akka of the 
Anbi, a crMiiBf^Hl town and harboor on the shoraB 
if Pboenda, in lai. SS*' 54', long. SS*' 6' £. It is 
oo the point of a small pnimontoiy, the 
frtrwniqr of a cirenhur baj, of which the 
•ppQBfee or aootheni ham is fimned bj one of the 
B^ cf llooBt Gannd. Doring the period that 
fiimj Soler waa in poaiMHUon of Code-Syria, it 
noeifed the name of ProLSXAiB (UroXtfuits: Eth, 
nraXf^Mfr^t, nr«X«^uu«fo), by which it was long 
iktaa^aoAtd. In the reign of the e mp eror Claodios 
it becHDe ft Bomaa ooIodj, and was a^led Colosia 
CL&DDa Cabkaxis ProLmffAia, or simply Colonia 
Ptoldiad; bat fitom the time when it wss occupied 
% the kmgfata of St John of Jerosalem, it has been 
fenaDy kunm all over Christendom as St Jtan 
dAett, or smplj Acre. 

The advantagea ofiered by the poaitian of Acre 
MR leoo gBia e d fiom an early penod bj those who 
dewed te hecp the cnmmand of the Syrian coast, 
ha it £d not liae to enunooce until after the decay 
rf1>R and SMon. When Strabo wrote (p. 758), it 
«« ahaady a great city; and although it has under- 
pm vmaj Hciaatades, it has always maintained 
a eotn degree of impoctanoe. It originally be- 
kaced te the Pboenidans, and, though nominally 
iadaded within the territory of the tribe of Asher, 
WM sever eonqpered by the Israelites. It afterwards 
pMnd into the hands of the Babylonians, and from 
than te the Peraiana. According to the first dis- 
df the dominions of Alerandipr it waa 
to Ptolemy Soter, but subsequently fell 
uder the Seleuddae, and after changing bands re- 
potodly eventually i!dl under the dominion of Borne. 
U is aud at praaent to contain from 15,000 to 
JO/XK) inUlatants. j^ fW. B.] 

A'CELUM (^ijolo), a town of the interior of 
Tcnetia, sitoated nnr the foot of the Alps, about 
ISnaha NW. of TrevUo. (Pfin.iiL 19.s.2d; PtoL 
BL 1. § 30.) The name is written "Axcfioy in our 
eliitians of Ptolemy, bat the conectness of the ibcm 
Aoehna given by Pliny is oonfiimed by that of the 
BiadHB toirn. We karn from Paulus IKaconus (ilL 
iS, vhcfe it is oomiptly written AcSium), that it 
an a bisbop*s seem the 6th century. [E.H.B.*] 


ACEBEAECAx^^: Aoernmus). 1. Adtym 
the interior of Campania, about 8 miles N£. of 
Naples, still called ^oerro. It first appears in his- 
tory as an independent dty during the great war of 
the Campanians and Latins against Bnne; shortly 
after the conclusion of which, in b.c. 332, the Acer- 
xani, in oommon wi& several other Campanian cities, 
obtained the Boman ^ dritas," but without the right 
of sn£Brage. The period at which this latter privi- 
lege was gianted them is not mentioned, but it is 
certain Huit they ultimately obtained the full righta 
of Boman dtizens. (Liv. tIU. 17 ; Festus, a. v. 
iftaitie^miin, MvmoepB^ and PraefectmHi, pp. 127, 
142, 233, ed. MfiJler.) In the second Punic vrar 
it was fSuthful to the Boman alliance, on which ac- 
count it was besieged by Hannibal in b. c. 216, and 
being abandoned by the inhabitants in despair, vras 
plundered and burnt. But after the expulsiaa of 
Hannibal from Crfimpania, the Acerrani, vrith the 
consent of the Boman senate, returned to and rebuilt 
their atj, B.c. 210. (Liv. zziiL 17, zzriL 3.) 

During the Social War it viras besieged by the 
Samnite general, C. Papius, but ofEered so Tignxma 
a resistance that he was unable to reduce it. (Ap- 
paan. B. C. L 42, 45.) Virgil praises the fertility of 
ita territoiy, but the tovm itself had suffisred so much 
from the frequent inundations of the river Clanins, 
on whidi it viras situated, that it was in his time al- 
most deserted. (Virg. Gwrg, iL 225; and Servius 
adlM.', SiL ItaL viiL 537; Vib. Seq. p. 21.) It 
subsequently reodved a odony under Augustus (Lib. 
Colon, p. 229), and Strabo speaks of it in ooiyunc- 
tioQ with Nda and Kuoeiia, apparently as a place of 
some consequence. It does not seem, however, to 
have retained its colonial rank, but is mentioned by 
Pliny as an ordinaiy munidpol town. (Steab. t. 
pp. 247, 249; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Orell. /iwcr. no. 
3716.) The modem tovm of ^oerra retains the 
dte as vrell as the name of the andent one, but it 
does not appear that any vestigee of antiquity, except 
a few inscriptions, remain there. (Lupuli, /ter Fismi- 
jm. p. 10 — 12.) The cdns vriUi an Oscan legend 
whidi vrare referred by Eckhd and earlier nunusma- 
tists to Aoerxae, belong properly to Atkixa. (MiU 
hngen, Nmnitm/oJi^ de PAneiame ItaUsj p. 190$ 
Friedl&nder, OtkUchen Mimtem, p. 15.) 

2. A dty of Cisalpine Ganl, in the territoiy of 
the Insubres. Pdybius describes it merely as dtu- 
ated betwem the Alps and the Po; and his vrords 
axe copied by Stephanus of Byzantium: but Strabo 
teUs us that it was near Cremona: and the Tabula 
phuses it on the rood from that dty to Laus Pompeia 
(Lodi Vecchio)f at a distance of 22 Boman miles 
from the latter place, and 13 from Cremona. These 
distances coincide vrith the podtion of Gherra or 
Genif a village, or rather suburb of FiztigkeUonef 
on the right bank of the river Adda. It appears to 
have'been a place of considerable strei^gth and im- 
portance (probably as commanding the passage of the 
Adda) even before the Boman conquest: and in b.c. 
222, held out for a condderable time against the 
consuls Karcellus and Sdpio, but was compelled to 
sunender alter the battle of Ckstidium. (PoLiL 34; 
Plut Mare, 6 ; Zonar. viiL 20 ; Stmb. v. p. 247 ; 
Steph. B. s. o. ; Tab. Pent ; Cluver. Ital p. 244.) 

3. A third town of the name, distanguished by the 
epithet of Vatbiae, is mentioned by Pliny (iii. 14. 
s. 19) as having been dtuated in Umbrio, but it vras 
already destroyed in his time, and aU due to its no. 
dtion is lost [E. H. B.J 

ACES ("Amiy), a river of Asia, fiovring through 


*V\Jtti %ttt^ ^A^^^mm 


_"' . / 



A plain sniToimded by mountains, respecting v^i(^ 
a story is told by Herodotos (iii. 1 1 7). Geographers 
are not agreed as to the locality. It seems to be 
somewhere in Central Asia, £. of the Caspian. It 
is pretty clear, at all events, that the Aces of He- 
rodotns is not the Indian liver Acesines. [P. S.] 

ACESINES (*AK€<rlyris\ a river of Sicily, which 
flows, into the sea to the south of Tanromeniun. 
Its name oocars only in Tfaucydides (iv. 25) on 
occasion of the attack made on Naxos by the Mes- 
senilis in B. a 425 : but it is evidently 1he same 
river which is called by Pliny (iii. 8) Asixes, and 
by Vlbios Sequester (p. 4) Asonius. Both these 
writers place it in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Taurom»iium, and it can be no other than the river 
now called by the Arabic name of Cantaraf a con* 
siderable stz«un, which, after foUowhig throughout 
its course the northern boundary of Aetna, dis- 
charges itself into the sea immediately to the S. of 
Capo S(Msdf the site of the ancient Naxos. The 
Onobalas of Appian {B. (7. v. 109) is probably 
only another name for the same river. Cluverius 
appears to be mistaken in regarding the Fiume 
Freddo as the Acesines : it is a veiy small stream, 
while the Cantara is (me of the largest rivers in 
Sicily, and could hardly have been omitted by 
Pliny. (Cluver. SiciL p. 93 ; Mannert, vol. ix. pt. 
ii. p. 284.) [E. H. B.] 

ACESINES OAjcfo-fiTjj : Chenab: Dionysius 
Periegetes, v. 1138, makes the t long, if any choose 
to consider this an authority), the chief of the 
five great tributaries of the Indus, which give the 
name of Panjab (i. e. Five Waters) to tiie great 
plain of NW. Ini^ These rivers are described, 
in their connection with each other, under India. 
The Acesines was the second of them, reckoning 
from the W., and, after receiving tiie watcre of all 
the rest, retained its name to its junction with the 
Indus, in lat. 28° 55' N., long. 7(P 28' E. Its 
Sanscrit name was Chandrabhaga^ which would 
have been Hellenized into ISovSpo^et^of , a word so 
like to *Av5po4><i7os, or 'AXe^oySpo^yos, that the 
followers of Alexander changed the name to avoid 
tlie evil omen, the more so perhaps on account of the 
disaster which befell the Macedonian fleet at the 
turbulent junction of the river with the Hydaspes 
(Ritter, Erdkunde von Asien^ vol. iv. pt. L p. 456 : 
for other references see India.) [P. S.] 

ACESTA. [Skgesta.] 

ACHAEI (*Axa<oi), one of the four races into 
which the Hellenes are usually divided. In the 
heroic age they are found in that part of Thessaly 
in which Phthia and Hellas were situated, and also 
in the eastern part of Peloponnesus, more especially 
in Argos and Sparta. Aigos was frequently called 
the Achaean Argos {"Apyos ^AxcuikSv, Hom. //. 
ix. 141) to distinguish it from the Pelasgian 
Argos in Thessaly; but Sparta is generally men- 
tioned as the head-quarters of the Achaean race 
In Peloponnesus. Thessaly and Peloponnesus were 
thus the two chief abodes of this people; but 
there were various traditions respecting their origin, 
and a difference of opinion existed among the an- 
cients, whether the Thessalian or the Peloponnesian 
Achaeans were the more ancient. They were 
usually represented as descendants of Achaeus, the 
son of Xuthus and Creusa, and consequently the 
brother of Ion and grandson of Hellen. Pausanias 
(vii. 1) related that Achaeus went back to Thessaly, 
imd recovered the dominions of wliich his father, 
Xuthus, had been deprived ; and then, in order to 


explain the existence of the Achaeans in PelopoiN 
nesus, he adds that Archander and Architeles, the 
sons of Achaeus, came back £nom Phthiods to Aiipos, 
married the two daughters of Danaus, and acquired 
such influence at Aigos and Sparta, that they called 
the people Achaeans after their &ther Achaeus. 
On the other hand, Strabo in one passage says (p. 
383), that Achaeus having fled from Attica, where 
his father Xuthus had settled, settled in Lace- 
daemon and gave to the inhabitants the name of 
Achaeans. In another passage, however, he relates 
(p. 365), that Pelops brought with him into Pelo- 
ponnesus the Phthiotan Achaeans, who settled in 
Laconia. It would be unprofitable to pursue fur- 
ther the variations in the l^ends; but we may 
safely believe that the Achaeans in Thessaly were 
more ancient than those in Peloponnesus, since all 
tradition points to Thessaly as the cradle of the 
Hellenic race. There isa totally different account, 
which repreaerAs the Achaeans as of Pelasgic origin. 
It is preserved by Dionysius of Halicamassus (i. 17), 
who relates that Achaeus, Phthius, and Pelasgua 
were sons of Poseidon and Larissa; and that ^ey 
migrated from Peloponnesus to Thessaly, where 
they divided the country into three parts, called 
after them Achaia, Phthiotis and Pelasgiotis. A 
modem writer is disposed to accept this tradition 96 
fiir, as to assign a Pelasgic origin to the Achaeans, 
though he regards the Phthiotan Achaeans as more 
ancient than their brethren in the Peloponnesus. 
(ThiriwaJl, HUt. of Greece, vol. L p. 109, seq.) 
The oiUj/act known in the earliest history of Uie 
people, which we can admit with certainty, is thor 
existence as the predominant race in the south of 
Thessaly, and on tlie eastern side of Peloponnesns. 
They are represented by Homer as a brave and 
warlike people, and so distinguished were they that 
he usually calls the Greeks in general Achaeans or 
Panachaeans (Ilayaxaioi, 11. ii. 404, vii. 73, &c.). 
In the same manner Peloponnesus, and some- 
times the whole of Greece, is called by the poet the 
Achaean land. ('Axwtj ycuOy Horn. IL i. 254, 
Od, xiii. 249.) On the conquest of Peloponnesus 
by the Dorians, 80 years after the Trojan war, the 
Achaeans were driven out of Argos and Laconia, 
and those who remained behind were reduced to tho 
condition of a conquered people. Most of the ex- 
pelled Achaeans, led by Tisamenus, the son of 
Orestes, proceeded to the land on the northern coast 
of Peloponnesus, which was called simply A^alus 
(AlyidKSs) or the " Coast," and was ii^abited by 
lonians. The latter were defeated by the Achaeans 
and crossed over to Attica and Asia Minor, leaving 
their country to their conquerors, from whom it was 
henceforth called Achaia. (Strab. p. 383; Pans. 
vii. 1; Pol. ii. 41; comp. Herod, i. 145.) The 
further history of the Achaeans is given imder 
Achaia. The Achaeans founded several colonies, 
of which the most celebrated were Croton and 
Sybaris. [Croton; Sybaris.] 

ACHA'IA ('Axafo, Ion. 'Axeufiy: ^th. 'Axcu6t, 
Achaeus, Achlvus, y^m. and adj. ^Axcuds, AchlUas-, 
Acliais: Adj. *AxouK6sy Achaicus, Achaius). 1. 
A district in the S. of 'Thessaly, in which Phthia 
and Hellas were situated. It appears to have been 
the original abode of the Achaeans, who were hence 
called Phthiotan Achaeans (^Ax^ol ol ^iwtcu) to 
distinguish them from the Achaeans in the Pelo- 
ponnesus. [For details see Achaei.] It was 
from this part of Thessaly that Achillea came, and 
Homer says that the subjects of this hero were 


caSed If jnmdaoB, and Hellenes, tnd Adiaeans. 
(ll £ 684.) This district oontinued to retain the 
maam af Acfaaia in tlie time of Herodotns (tIL 173, 
197), aod the inhabitants of Pfathia were called 
PfathiDCan Achaeans till a still later period. (Thac 
no. 3.) As acoonnt of thb pait of Thessalj is 
gnea ander Thessalia. 

2. Originally called Aeoialus or Aegialeia 
(A«YHAJf, AtytdXtta, Ham. //. ii. 575; Paus. vii. 
1. § 1; Stzabi pi 383), that is, **the Coast," a 
fiwim c in the N. <tf Peioponnesns, extended along 
tike Ccrinthisn gnlf irom ^e river Larissos, a little 
5. of the prQDKmtory Arazns, which separated it 
fpoa Elis, to the river Sjthas, which separated it 
from SKjania. On the S. it was bordered bj Ar- 
a&kf anl on the SW. by Elis. Its greatest kngth 
ifacg the coast is about 65 English miles: its 
Inadth fixsn thont 12 to 20 miles. Its area was 
iratMbt J abont 650 square miles. Achaia is thns 
<n]r a nxrow slip of country, lying uptxi the slope 
of the nortiiem range of Arcadia, throogfa which 
are deep and narrow gorges, by winch alone Achaia 
<aB be mTaded from the soath. From this momi- 
tain range descend nnmerons ridges mnning down 
Eto the sea, or separated from it by narrow levels. 
The plains on the coast at the foot of these moan- 
tans and the rallies between them are generally 
^"ery fartile. At the present day cnltivation ends 
viUi the pifaun of Fatra, and the whole of the west- 
OB part of Achaia is forest or pasture. The plains 
■e diained by nnmeroos streams ; bat in consequence 
tf die ffoximity of the mountains to the sea the 
ocurse of these torrents is necessarily short, and 
nnit of diem are dry in summer. The coast is 
peoeaBy low, and deficient in good harbours. 
Cckoel Leake remarks, that the level along the 
eoBst of Achaia '* appears to have been formed in the 
euarse of ages by the soil deposited by the torrents 
which dsKend from the lof^ mountains that rise 
inmedEitely at the back of the plains. Wherever 
the rims are largest, the plains are most extensive, 
aad eadi river has its correspondent promontory 
fR^nctiooed in like manner to its volume. These 
poDMctcries are in general nearly opposite to the 
«pfVB^ at which the rivers emerge fnxn the 
ammtains." {Pelopormesuxca, p. 390.) 

The highot mountain in Achaia is situated be- 
hind Patxae ; it is called Mons Panachaicus 
W Pdjbtos, and is, perhaps, the same as the Scio- 
e»a of P&ny (rh TlearaxcuKhy 6pos^ Pol. v. 30 ; 
riiiL ir. 6: Voidhid). It is 6322 English feet in 
iaght (Leake, Travels in Morea, vol. ii. p. 138, 
i^ywtae ii aco, p. 204.) There are three conspi- 
cBOQs pranontories on the coast. 1. Drefanuh 
(Apnaror: C. Dkrtpano), the most northerly 
faint in Pdoponnesus, is confounded by Strabo with 
the ndghbourxng pramontocy of Rhium, but it is 
the kw sandy point 4 miles eastward of the latter. 
Iti name ia connected by Pansanias with the sickle 
of Croons; bat we know that this name was often 
^ffied by the ancients to low sandy promontories, 
vUch asBome the form of a hpiravav, or sickle. 
(Slab. p. 335 ; Pans. vii. 23. §. 4 ; Leake, Moreoj 
ToL ifi. pi 415.) 2. BmuM C^lov. Castle of the 
Mvrmy, 4 miles westward of Drepanum, as men- 
tiomi above, is opposite the promontory of AmiR- 
ssnic, Mmetiroes also called Rhium (^kmi^iov. 
Cattle of RumSi), on the borders of Aetolia and 
Lcris. In order to distinguish them irom each 
other the ftnner was called rh 'Ax«u>r^y, and the 
falter ri MoAwk^oc^, from its vicinity to the town 



ot Molycreium. These two promontories formed 
the entrance of the Corinthian gulf. The breadth 
of the strait is stated both by Dodwell and Leake 
to be about a mile and a half; but the ancient 
writers make the distance less. Thucydides makes 
it 7 stadia, Strabo 5 stadia, and PHny nearly a 
Roman mile. On the promontory of Rhium there 
was a temple of Poseidon. (Thuc ii. 86 ; Strab. 
pp. 335, 336; Plin. iv. 6; Steph. B. «. v.; Dod- 
well, Classical Towr^ vol. i. p. 126; Leake, Morea^ 
vol. ii. p. 147.) 3. Araxus (*Af)o|o$: Kahgria\ 
W. of Dyme, formerly the boundary between AchaJa 
and Elis, bnlTthe confines were afterwards extended 
to the river Larissus. (Pol. iv. 65 ; Stnib. pp. 335, 
336; Paus. vi. 26. § 10.) 

The following is a list of the rivers of Achaia 
fipoin E. to W. Of these the only two of any im- 
portance are the Orathis (No. 3) and the Peirus 
(No. 14). 1. Sythas, or Sts (7,<Sas, Sw), form-' 
ing the boundary between Achaia and S^cyonia. 
We may infer that this river was at no great dis* 
tance from Sicyon, from the statement of Pausanias, 
that at the festival of Apollo there was a procession 
of children from Sicyon to the Sythas, and back 
again to the city. (Paus. ii. 7. § 8, ii. 12. § 2, 
vii. 27. § 12; Ptol. iiL 16. § 4; comp. Leake, 
MoreOj vol. iii. p. 383, Petopofmesiaca, p. 403.) 
2. Grius (Kpt6s% rising in the mountains above 
Pellene, and flowing into the sea a little W. of 
Aegcira. (Paus. vii. 27. § 11.) 3. Crathw 
(KpaOis: Akrata\ rising in a mountain of the same 
name in Arcadia, and falling into the sea near 
Aegae. It is described as ktwaos^ to distinguish 
it from the other streams in Achiua, which were 
mostly £y in summer, as stated above. The Styx, 
which rises in the Arcadian mountain cf Aroania, 
is a tributary of the Grathis. (Herod, i. 145 ; Cal- 
lim. t» Jov. 26; Strab. p. 386; Pans. vii. 25. 
§ 11, viii. 15. §§ 8, 9, viii. 18. § 4; Leake, iforca, 
vol. iii. pp. 894, 407.) 4. Buraicus (iroro^by 
Bou/>aZ)r<$s: river of jfiTo/arryfo, or river of Bora), 
rising in Arcadia, and falling into tho sea £. of 
Burn. It appears from Strabo tliat its proper name 
was Erasmus. (Paus. vii. 25. § 10; Strab. p. 371 ; 
Leake, L c.) 5. Cerynites {Ktpwiri\S'. Bok- 
husia)j flowing from the mountain Ceryneia, in 
Arcadia, and fiilling into the sea probably E. of 
Helice. (Paus. vii. 25. § 5; Leake, /. c.) 6. 
Selinus (2f\iyovs: river of Vostitzd)^ flowing into 
the sea between Helice and Aegium. Strabo erro- 
neously describes it as flowing through Aegium. 
(Paus. vii. 24. § 5; Strab. p. 387; Leake, /. c.) 
7, 8. Meganitas (Me7ai'(Tos) and Phoenix 
(♦otvil), both falling into the sea W. of Aegium. 
(Paus. vii. 23. § 5.) 9. Bolihaeus (BoKivcuos), 
flowing into the sea a little E. of the promontory 
Drepanum, so called from an ancient town BoUna, 
which had disappeared in the time of Pausanias. 
(Paus. vii. 24. ^ 4.) 10. Seleienus (S^Xo/o^oj), 
flowing into the sea between the promontories Dre- 
panum and Rhium, a little E. of Argyra. (Paus. 
vii. 23. § 1.) 11, 12. Charadrus (XdpaJbpos: 
river of Fe/t7tte»)and Meilichus (MtiKixos: river 
of i^il'ena), both falling into the sea between the 
promontory Rhiuln and Patrae. (Paus. vii. 22. 
§ 11, vii. 19. § 9, 20. § 1.) 13. Glaucus 
(rAaSicof : Lefka^ or Lafka\ falling into the sea, 
a little S. of Patrae. (Pans. vii. 18. § 2; Leake, 
vol. ii. p. 123.) 14. Peirus (HcTpos : Kame- 
nitza), also called Achelous, falling into the sea 
near Olenus. This river was mentioned by Hesiod 



under the maM of Peinis, as «« lesni from Sbabo. 
It is described bj Leake as ifide and deep in tbe 
Utter end of FebroaiT', altboagh no ndn bad fidkn 
ibr some weeks. Into tbe Peinis flowed the Tea- 
theas (Tcvtfeot), which in its tom leodved the 
CaoooD. The Peiros flowed past Pharae, where it 
was called Pi&*nis(nfcpos), bat the inhabitants of the 
coast called it hj the former name. (Stiab. p. 342; 
Uerod. i. 145; Pans. vii. 18. § I, 22. § 1; Leake, 
vol. ii. p. 155.) Strabo in another passage calls it 
Melas (McAaf), bat the reading is probaUj oor- 
mpt. Dionysius Periegetes mentioos the Melas along 
with the Grathis among the riyers ^xrmBog from Mt. 
£r]rnianthus. (Strab. p. 386 ; Dionjs. 416.) 15. 
Larisus (^/idptaos: Mono), fbnning the boundary 
between Achaia and fllis, rising in Mt Soollis, 
and fiklling into the sea 30 stedia from Dyme. 
(Pans. vii. 17. § 5; Strab. p. 387; Liv. xxvii.31.) 
. The original inhabitants of Achaia are said to 
have been Pelasgians, and were called Aegialeis 
(AryioXcts), or ^ " Coast-Men," from Aegialos, 
the ancient name of the coontiy, thongli some 
writers sought a mythical origin for the name, and 
derived it from A^ialens, king of Sic^onia. (Herod, 
vii. 94; Pans, vii. 1.) The lonians snbseqaoitly 
settled in the conntiy. According to the mythical 
aooonnt, Ion, the sen of Xnthns, crossed over from 
Attica at the head of an army, bnt candnded an al- 
liance with Selinus, the king of the conntiy, married 
his daughter Helioe,and succeeded him oo the thnme. 
From this time the land was called Ionia, and the in- 
habitants lonians or Aegialian lonians. The lonians 
remained in possession ot the coontry till the invasion 
of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, when the AchaeaoB, 
who had been driven out of Argos andLacediftmon by 
the invaders, marched against the lonians in order 
to obtain new homes for themselves in the country 
of the latter Under the command of their king 
Tisamenus, the son of Orestes, they defeated the 
lonvins in battle. The latter shut themselves up in 
Hellce, where they snstained a siege for a time, but 
tiioy finally quitted the oountiy imd sought refoge 
in Attica. The Achaeans thus became masters of 
tiie country, which was henceforth called after 
them Achma. (Herod, i. 145 ; PoL iL 41 ; Pans, 
vii. 1 ; Strab. p. 383.) This is the common legend, 
but it should be observed that Homer takes no no- 
tice of lonians on the northern coast of Pelopon- 
nesus; but on the contrary, the catalogue in the 
Iliad distinctly includes this territory under the do- 
minions of Agamenmon. Hence there seems reason 
for questioning the occupation of northern Pelopon- 
nesus by tbe lonians and their expulsion from it by 
Tisamenus; and it is more probable that the histo- 
rical Achaeans in the north part of Pelopoimesus are 
a small undisturbed remnant of the Achaean popu- 
lation once distributed through the whole peninsula. 
(Grote, Higtory of GreeGe, vol. ii. p. 17.) 

The lonians are said to have dwelt in tillages, 
and the cities in the country to have been first built 
by the Achaeans. Several of these villages were 
united to form a town ; thus Patrae was formed by 
an union of seven villages, Dyme of eight, and 
Aegium also of seven or eight. The Achaeans pos- 
sessod twelve cities, the territory of each of which 
was divided into seven or eight demi. (Strab. p. 
386.) This number of 12 is said to have bem 
borrowed from the lonians, who were divided into 
12 parts (/i^p«a), when they occupied the country, 
and who accordii^Iy refused to allow of more than 
twelve cities in Uieir league. Although there are 


good naaoos for bdievingthat there were more than- 
twelve independent cities in Achaia (Grote, Hiti. of 
Chreece, voL ii. p. 614), yet the ancient writers al- 
ways recognise only 12, and this seems to have beeft 
r^arded as the establitJied number of the confede- 
ration. These cities contiamed to be governed by the 
descendants of Tisamenus down to Ogygos, after 
whose death they abolished the kingly rule «id es- 
taUished a democracy. Each of the cities fonned a 
separate republic, but were united together by pe- 
riodical sacrifices and festivals, where they arranged 
their disputes and settled their common concerns. 
In the time of Herodotus (L 145) the twelve cities 
were Pellene, Aegeira, Aegae, Bura, Helice, Aegium, 
Bhypes, Patreis (ae), Phareis (ae), Olenns, Dyme, 
Tiitaeeis (Tritaea). This list is copied by Strabo 
(pp. 385, 386) ; but it appears frtxn the list in 
Polybins (ii. 41), that Leontium and Geiyneiawere 
afterwards substituted in the place of Bhypes and 
A^ne, which had fiillen into decay. Pausanias (vii. 
6. 1 1) retains both Bhypes and Aegae, and substi- 
tutes Ceryneia for Patne; bat his authority is of no 
valoe in of^Msition to Polybias. The bond of union 
between these cities was very loose, and their connec- 
Uoo was of a religions nUher than of a political 
natnre. Thus we find them sometimes acting quite 
independently of one another. Pellene alooe joined 
the LftcedftpTiicmians at the commencement of the 
Pelqponnesian war, while the rest remained neatnd; 
and at a later period of the war Patrae alone e»- 
poosed the Athenian cause. (Thuc. xL 9, v. 52.) 
Their original place of meeting was at Helice, where 
they ofieiid a common sacrifice to Poseidon, the tute> 
lary god of the place ; but after this city had been 
swallowed up by the sea in b. c. 373 [Heuce], 
they transferred their meetings to A^ram, where 
they sacrificed to Zeus Homagyrins, or Homarins, 
and to the Panachaeon Demeter, (Pans. viL 24f 
Pol. V. 94.) 

The Achaeans are rarely mentkmed during the 
flourishing period of Grecian history. Being equally 
unconnected with the great Ionian and Doric races, 
they kept aloof fin: tbe most part firam tiie struggles 
between the Greek states, and appear to have en- 
joyed a state of almost uninterrupted prosperity down 
to the time of Philip. They did not assist the other 
Greeks in repelling the Persians. In b. c. 454 tliey 
formed an alliance with the Athenians, but the Utter 
were obliged to sorrender Achaia in the truce for 
thirty years, which they concluded with Sparta and 
her allies in B. c. 445. (Thuc i. Ill, 115.) In 
the course of the Peloponnesian war th^ joined the 
Lacedaemonians, though probably very reluctantly. 
(Thuc. iL 9.) They retained, however, a high cha- 
racter among the other Greeks, and were esteemed 
on account of their sincerity and good foith. So 
highly were they valued, that at an early sgo some 
of the powerful Greek colonies in Italy applied for 
their mediation and adopted their institutions, and 
at a later time they were chosen by the Spartans and 
Thebans as arbiters after the battle of Leuctra. 
(Pol. ii. 39.) The first great bk>w which the 
Achaeans experienced was at the battle of Chaero- 
neia (b. c. 338), when they fought -mth the Athe- 
nians and Boeotians agunst Philip and lost some of 
their bravest citizens. Eight years afterwards (b, c. 
330) all the Achaean towns, with the exception of 
Pellene, joined the Spartans in the cause of Grecian 
freedom, and shared in the disastrous defeat at Man- 
tineia, in which Agis fell. This severe blow left 
them so prostrate that they were unable to render 



to Um confederate Greeks in the La- 
after the death of Afexandcr. (Paoa. vii. 
6.) Bat their iodependeni ainrit had awakened the 
jmhasj «f the Mfffrtnnian mien, and Demetrius, 
C i M i n d rr , and Antigciuis Gonataa pUced garriMoa 
m their cities, cr held poeecaaion o£ them by means 
if tTTaati. Sadi a state of things at length be- 
insnpiMftabk, and the oammotians in Mao&- 
whieh fUhywed the death of Ljsiniachus (b. c. 
98 IX sffvded them a fiivoorable opportunitj for 
thnwiag off the yoke of their opprestiora; and the 
Ganhbh inra^oa which shortly Hollowed efiectnaUy 
javTCBted the Maiwlonlans firam interfering in the 
alurs of the Pekypoonesos. Patnie and Dyme were 
tht fint two cities whidi expelled the Macedonians. 
Ihdr ^*«wipi* was speedOy followed by Tritaea 
aad Ffaaraa ; and these fear towns now resolved to 
learw the ancient League. The date of this 
not was B. c 280. Five years afterwards (b. o. 
275) they were joined by Aeginin and Bora, and 
the acceaBJon of the fenner city was the more im- 
portant, as it had been the regular place of meeting 
if the eariier League after the destruction of Helioe, 
ai baa been already related. The main principles of 
the conatitutaoa of the new League were nowfixed,and 
> erected inscribed with the names of the 
la. Almost immediately afterwards 
Ccfyneiawaa added to the League. Therewerenow 
oily three remaining dtaea of the andent League, 
vbkh had not joined the new ooofederatioo, namely, 
Leoadmn, Aiqudra, and PeUene; for Helioe had been 
ivdlowBd up by the sea, and Olenus was sooo after- 
vaidaahandiaied by its inhabitants. The three cities 
meotiioed abora soon afterwards united themselves 
tt» the League, which thus consisted of ten cities. 
{fd. il 41 ; Strab. pu 384; Pans. viL 18. § I.) 

Ike Achaean League thua renewed eventually 
keasM the most powerful political body in Greece ; 
aad it happened by a strange coincidence that the 
peofle, who had enjoyed the greatest celebrity in the 
age, but who had almost disappeared from 
for several centuries, again became the 
peateet among the Greek states in the last days 
if the nation's independence. An account of the 
coM titttti on of this League is given in the Dictionaiy 
of ^atignitieB (art. Achaicum foedut\ and it is 
only neoeasaiy to give here a brief ro- 
of its fundamental laws. The great 
of the new League was to effect a much 
political union thm had existed in the former 
mt, Nocitywasallowed tomake peace or war or 
la treat with any foreign power apart firom the entire 
natioa, ahhoogh each was alloired the undisturbed 
eatfrel of iu internal affiurs. This sovereign power 
in the federal assembly (oi^KoSor, ixxKiiala, 
r) which was held twice a year originally 
ai Aegiam, aftenvards at Corinth or other places, 
tkoogh cxtraoidinazy meetings might be convened 
by the offioen of the League either at A^nm or 
the whe ie. At all these meetings, every Achaean, 
wk» had attained the age of 80, was allowed to 
■peak ; but <p>eBtioiis were not decided by an ab- 
totate majority of the dtiaens, but by a majority of 
the dties, whkh were memben of the League. In 
additieB to the geooral aaiembly there was a ConncQ 
($9t\i)f whkh pcenously decided upon the ques- 
tjesi that wen to be submitted to the assembly. 
7k priodiM/odieers of the League were: 1. The 
ilMMT <r geoeFal (:lTponnn^r), whose duties were 
rethmaitary and partly civil, and who was the 
^tLydgad hmi o£ the ooofiDderBcy. ^-* *^'' 



For the 

fint 25 years there were two Strai^ ; but at the 
end of that time (b.c. 255) only one was appointed. 
Marcus of Ceiyneia was ihs first who held the sole 
office. (PoL ii. 43 ; Strab. p. 385.) It was pro- 
baUy at this time that an Bipparchut (finmpx^O 
or commander of the cavoliy was then first appointed 
in place of the Strategus, whose ofiSoe luid been 
abolished. We also r^ of an Under-Strategus 
(pvo<rrpvnrY6s)f but we have no account of the 
extent of his powen or of the relation in which he 
stood to the cliief Strategus. 2. A Stcretary of 
SkUe(ypannei!rtvs). 3. Ten Demiurgi (hi/uovpyoi), 
who formed a kind of permanent committee, and 
who probably represented at firet the 10 Achaean 
dties, of which the League consisted. The num- 
ber of the Demiui^, however, was not increased, 
when new cities were subsequently added to the 
League. AU these officen were dected for <nae 
year at the spring meeting of the assembly, and the 
Strategus was not eligible for re-election till a year 
had elapsed after the expiration of his office. If the 
Strategus died under the period of his office, his 
place was filled up by his predecessor, until the 
time for the new elections arrived. 

It remains to give a brief sketch of the history of 
the League. At the time of its revival its numben 
were 80 inconsiderable, that the collective population 
of the confederate states was scarcely equal to the 
inhabitants of a single dty according to Plutarch. 
{Arai, 9) Its greatness may be traced to its con- 
nection with Aratns. Up to this time the League 
was confined to the Achaean dties, and the idea 
does not seem to have been entertained of inoor- 
poreting foreign dties with it. But when Aratua 
had delivered his native dty Sicyon from its tyrant, 
and had persuaded his fellow-citizens to unite them- 
sdves to the League (b.c. 251), a new impulse 
was given to the latter. Aratus, although only 20 
yeara of age, became the soul of the League. The 
great ^ject of his policy was to liberate the Pdo- 
pormesian dties firam their tyrants, who were all 
more or less dependent up(ni Macedonia, and to 
incorporate them with the League ; and under bis 
able nuuugement the confederacy constantly re< 
cdved ftesh accessions. Antigonus Gmatas, king 
(d Macedonia, and his successor Demetrius II., used 
every efibrt to crush the growing power of the 
Achaeans, and they were supported in their efforte 
by the Aetolians, who were equally jealous of the 
confederacy. Aratus however triumphed over their 
opposition, and for many yeara the League enjoyed 
an uninterrupted succession of prosperity. In b. c. 
243 Aratus surprised Corinth, expelled the tyrant, 
and united this important dty to the League. The 
neighbouring dties of Megara, Troezen, and £pi- 
daurus followed the example thus set them, and 
joined the League in the course of the same year. 
A few years afterwards, probably in b. c.239, Mega- 
lopolis also became a member of the League ; and 
in B.C. 236 it recdved the accesswn of the powerful 
dty of Aigos. It now seemed te Aratus that the 
time had arrived when the whole of Peloponnesus 
might be annexed to the League, but he experienced 
a-fer more fimnidable opposition firom Sparta than he 
had antidpated. CleomeDes III., who had liftdy as* 
oended the Spartan throne, was a man of enei^ ; and 
his militaiy abilities proved to be fer superior to those 
of Aratus. Ndther he nor the Spartan government 
was disposed to pUoe themselves on a level with the 
Achaean towns ; and accordingly when Aratus at- 
tempted to obtain possession of Qrchomenus, Tegesi 



■•iid Mantlneia, whidi hod j(nned the Aetolion League 
and had been ceded by the latter to the Spartans, 
^war broke oat between Sparta and the Achaean 
Leagne, b.c. 227. In this war, called by Polybins 
the Cleomenic war, the Achaeans were defeated in 
seyeral battles and lost some important places ; and 
80 unsacoessfnl had they been, that they at length 
resolved to form a coalition or alliance with Sparta, 
acknowledging Cleomenes as their chief. Aratus 
was muible to brook this homfliation, and in an evil 
hoar applied to Antigonas Doson for help, thns 
nndoing the great work of his life, and maldng the 
Achaean cities again dependent npon Macedonia. 
Antigonas willingly promised his assistance ; and 
the negotiations wiUi Clemcnes wraro broken off, B.C. 
224. The war was brought to an end by the defeat 
of Cleomenes by ^tigonus at the decisive battle of 
Sellasia, b. o. 22 1 . Cleomenes immediately left the 
conntiy and sailed away to Egypt. Antigonas thns 
became master of Sparta ; bat he did not annex it 
to the Achaean Leagne, as it was no part of his 
pohcy to aggrandize the latter. 

The next war, in which the Achaeans were en- 
gaged, again witnessed their hnmiliation and de- 
pendence npon Macedonia. In B. c. 220 commenced 
the Social war, as it is asually called. The Aetolians 
invaded Peloponnesas and defeated the Achaeans, 
whereupon Aratos applied for aid to Philip, 
who had succeeded Antigonas on the Macedo- 
nian throne. The young monarch conducted the 
war with striking ability and success; and the 
Aetolians having become weaxy of the contest were 
glad to conclude a peace in B.C. 217. The Achaeans 
now remained at peace for some years ; but they had 
lost the proud pre-eminence they had formerly en- 
joyed, and had become little better than ^e vassals 
of Macedonia. But the influence of Aratus excited 
the jealousy of Philip, and it was commonly believed 
that his death (b.c. 213) was oocasi<med by a slow 
poison administered by the king's order. The re- 
generation of the League was due to Philopoemen, 
one of the few great men produced in the latter days 
of Gredan independence. He introdaced gr^ 
reforms in the organization of the Achaean army, 
and accustomed them to the tactics of the Mace- 
donians and to the close array of the phalanx. By 
the ascendancy of his genius and character, he 
acquired great influence over his ooun^Tmen, and 
breathed into them a martial spirit. By these means 
he enabled them to fight their own cause, and 
rendered them to some extent independent of J^Iace- 
donia. His defeat of Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta 
(b.c. 208), both established his own reputation, 
and caused the Achaean arms again to be re^)ected 
in Greece. In the war between the Bomans and 
Philip, the Achaeans espoused the cause of the 
former, and <M>ncIuded a treaty of peace with the 
republic, b. c. 1 98. About this time, and for several 
subsequent years, the Achaeans were engaged in 
hostilities with Nabb, who had succeeded Machani- 
das as tyrant of Sparta. Nabis was slain by some 
Aetolians in b. c. 192 ; whereupon Philopoemen 
hastened to Sparta and induced the city to join the 
League. In the following year (b. c. 191) the 
Messenians and the Eleans also joined the L^igue. 
Thus the whole of Peloponnesus was at length an- 
nexed to the League; but its independence was 
now littie more than nominal, and its conduct and 
proceedings were regulated to a great extent by the 
decisions of the Boman senate. When the Achaeans 
xmder Philopoemen ventured to ponish Spart» in 


B. c. 188 by razing the fortifications of the city and 
abolishing tiie laws of Lycorgns, their conduct wu 
severely censured by the senate ; and every sacoeed- 
ing transaction between the Leagne and tiie smate 
showed still more clearly the subject condition of the 
Achaeans. The Bomans, however, still acknovr- 
ledged in name the independence of the Achaeans ; 
and the more patriotic part of the nation continued 
to offer a oonstitutional resistance to all the Boman 
encroachments npon the liborties of the League, 
whenever this coold be done without affordbg the 
Bomans any pretext fiar war. At the head of this 
party waa Philopoemen, and after his death, Ly- 
ccnrtas. Xenon, and Polybins. Callicrates on the 
other hand was at the head of another party, which 
counselled a servile sabmission to the senate, and 
sought to obtain aggrandizement by the subjec- 
tion of their coontiy. In order to get rid of his 
political opponents, Callicrates, after the defeat of 
Perseus hy the Bomans, drew up a list of 1000^ 
Achaeans, the best and purest part of the nation, 
whom the Bomans carried off to Italy (b. c. 167) 
under the pretext of their having afforded help to 
Perseus. The Bomans never brought these prisoners 
to trial, bat kept them in the towns of Italy ; and 
it was not till iSfter the lapse of 17 years, and when 
their number was redaoed to 300, that the senate 
gave them permisskm to retom to Greece. Among 
those who were thus restored to their coontiy, there 
were some mea of prudence and ability, like the 
historian Pdybius ; bot there were others of weak 
judgment and violent passions, who had been exas- 
perated by their long and ux^ust confinement, and 
who now madly urged their coontiy into a war with 
Borne. A dispute having arisen between Sparta and 
the League, the senate sent an embas^ into Greece 
in B.C. 147, and required that Sparta, Corinth, 
Argos, and other cities should be severed from tho 
League, thus reducing it ahnost to its original con- 
dition when it included only the Achaean towns. 
This demand was received with the utmost indigna- 
tion, and Oritolaus, who was their general, used 
every efifort to inflame the passions of the people 
against the Bomans. Through his influence the 
Achaeans resolved to resist the Bomans, and declared 
war against Sparta. This was equivalent to a de- 
claration of war against Bome itself, and was so 
understood by both parties. In the spring of 146 
Critolaus marched northwards throngh Boeotia into 
the S. of Thessaly, but retreated on the approach of 
Metellus, who advanced against him from Mace- 
donia. He was, however, overtaken by Metellus 
near Scarpbea, a littie S. of Thermopyke ; his forces 
were put to the rout, and he himself was never heard 
of after the battle. Metellos followed the fugitives 
to Corinth. Diaeus, who had succeeded Callicrates 
in the office of General, resolved to continue the 
contest, as he had been one of the promoters of the 
war and knew that he had no hope of pardon from 
the Bomans. Meantime the consul Mummius ar- 
rived at the Isthmus as the successor of Metellus. 
Enoooraged by some trifling success against the 
Boman outposts, Diaeus ventured to offer battie to 
the Bomans. The Achaeans were eadly defeated and 
Corinth surrendered without a blow. Signal ven- 
geance was taken upon the unfortunate dty. The 
men were put to the sword ; the women simI children 
were reserved as slaves: and after the citj had 
been stript of all its treasures and worics of art, ita 
buildups were committed to the flames, b. c. 
146. [CoRiNTHUS.] Thus perished the Achaean 


httfat^ mi with h the iodependeiice of Greece ; 
Vat t^ rMoDecdan of the Achaean power was perpe- 
ftMted bj the mne of Achaia, which the Romans 
pm to the MOth of Greece, when they fanned it into 
aprpviztee. (Paii& til 16, sob fin.) 

The hiftny of the Achaean League has been 
titatod with ability by aereral modem writers. The 
b(«t wvka on the anbject are: — Helwing, Ges- 
dUrile da Ackai$ckem Bmdes^ Lemgo, 1829 ; 
Scbon, GeiekickU GriechenlantTs von der Entste- 
kmy da Aetol, mtd Achmichen Bundes bis auf 
die Ztrtlonmg Cormths, Bonn, 1833 ; Flathe's 
GfxkkkU Maeedomens, toI. ii., Leips. 1832 ; Mer- 
Uv, AcAakomm JJbri I J J., Dannst. 1837 ; 
BkSBdttltcr, (restdL de$ Aetolitcken Landet^ Volkes 
md Bimdef, Berlin, 1844; Droysen, JleSeninme, 
f^ iL, Hambnig, 1843 ; Thurlwall, History of 
Greece, rdL tiIL 

TheftOcnnng is a list of the towns of Achaia 
fran £. to W.: Peixenx, with its harbour Aristo- 
■satK, and its dependent foifaesses Olums and 
^Impfnu, or Donussa: Aeoeisa, with its fortress 
Phdloe : Aboa£ : Bura: Certhkia : Heuce: 
Amux, with tlie dependent places Leuctrum and 
Eriaiiim: the harbour of Pa2(obmub between the pro- 
BM te is B of Drepanum and Bhium : Patrae, with 
Ike dependent pfaMxa Boline and Aigyra : Olenus 
vitfa the dependent phices Peine and Euxyteiae : 
Dtxe, with the dependent pkoes Teichos, Heca- 
tnmhawn and Langon. In the interior Phabae: 
LKMrnrif: Tbitaka. The following towns, of 
irindi the sites are unhnown, are mentioned only by 
Ste|ihanaa Byiantinus: Acanra CAko^"): AIos 
f AAk) : Amaoe ('Aydiny} : Ascheion ('Ao'x«<oi') : 
AiotBS (ACirroy) : PeUa (n^AAa) : Phaestns 
(4«i0T^): Politeia (IIoAfrcia): Pso^ Q¥wpis): 
SeoEs (ic^s) : Tame (Tdptni) : Teneium (T^- 
NMv): lliri&s (Opiovs), wUch first belonged to 
icfaaia, afterwards to Ells, and lay near Patrae. 
Maaeu (zir. p. 658) mentums an Achaean town, 
Biawd Tromileia (TpofUAcia) celebrated for its 



Rryrting the geography of Achaia in general 
Ke MoQer, Doriitm, vol iL p. 428, seq.; Leake's 
iferea, n^. iL & iiL, and Peloponnetiaca; Boblaye, 
Jieekarchee, p. 15, seq. ; Curtius, Pelopormetotf yoL 

oocr OF achaia. 

S. Achaia, the Boman province, including the 

vbok cf Pelopannesns and the greater part of 

Hdlas proper with the adjacent islands. The 

time, however, at which this country was reduced 

to the form of a Boman province, as well as its 

end Hmits, are open to much discussion. It is 

waally stated by modem writers that the province 

VM famed on the oonquest of the Achaeans in 

B.C. 146; bat there are several reasons for qnes- 

tinog tlijs statement In the first place it is not 

tttfed by any ancient writer that Greece was fbraied 

■te a prorince at this time. The silence of Poly- 

Umon the subject would be oonclnsive, if we pos- 

MMd entire that part of his history which related 

the nnqoest of the Achaeans; but in the existing 

frigMDto of that portiun of his woric, there is no 

allusion to the establishment of a Boman province, 
although we find mention of various regulati<His 
adopted by the Bomans fiir the consolidation of 
their power. 2. Many of these relations would 
have beoi unnecessary if a provincial government 
had been established. Thus we are told that the 
govermnent of each dty was placed in the hands of 
the wealthy, and that all federal assemblies were 
abolished. Through the influence of Polybius the 
federal assemblies were afterwards allowed to be held, 
and some of the more stringent regulations were re- 
pealed. (Pol. zl. 8—10 ; Pans. vii. 16. § 10.) 
The re-establishment of these ancient forms appears 
to have been described by the Bomans as a restora- 
tion of liberty to Greece. Thus we find in an in- 
scription discovered at Dyme £*ention of ^ &iro8c8o- 
fjLttnri Korit Kotyhtf ro7s 'EWf}ciy i\tvihpla, and 
also of v diroSoOcura rois *Axatots ^^ *PwfuUwy 
xoJdrtMy language which could not have been used 
if the Boman jurisdiction had been introduced into 
the country. (Bockh, Corp, Imcript No. 1543; 
comp. Thirlwall, vol. viii. p. 458.) 3. We are ex- 
pressly told by Plutarch (Cim. 2), that in the time 
of Lucullus the Bomans had not yet b^iin to send 
praetors into Greece (olhrw ds r^y 'EAAd5a 'Pm/mu<m 
orfKiniyoits 9i€w4ixiroyro); and that disputes in the 
country were referred to Uie decision of the governor 
of Macedonia. There is the less reason for ques- 
tioning this statement, since it is in accordance 
with the description of the proceedings of L. Piso, 
when governor of Macedonia, who is represented as 
plundering the countries of southern Greece, and ex- 
ercising sovereignty over them, which he could hardly 
have done, if ti^ey had been subject to a provinciid 
administration of their own. (Cic. c. Pit. 40.) It 
is probable that the south of Greece was first made 
a separate province by Julius Caesar; since the first 
governor of the province of whom any mention is 
made (as far as we are aware) was Serv. Sulpicius, 
and he was appointed to this office by Caesai;. (Cic. 
ad Fam, vi. 6. § 10.) 

In the division of the provinces made by Au- 
gustus, the whole of Greece was divided into the 
provinces of Achaia, Macedonia, and Epeiras, the 
hktter of which formed part of lUyris* Achaia was 
one of the provinces assigned to the senate and was 
governed by a proconsul. (Strab. p. 840; Dion 
Cass. liiL 12.) Tiberius in the second year of his 
reign (a. d. 16) took it away firom the senate and 
made it an imperial {vovince (Tac. Ann, i. 76), 
but Claudius gave it back sgain to the senate (Suet. 
Claud. 25). In the reign of this emperor Corinth 
was the residence of the proconsul, and it was here 
that the Apostle Paul was brought before Junius 
Gallio as proconsul of Achaia. (/Icto Apo$t xviii. 
12.) Nero abolished the province of Achaia, and 
gave tlie Greeks their liberty ; but Vespasian again 
established tbe provincial government and compelled 
the Greeks to pay a yearly tribute. (Paus. vii. 17. 
§§3,4; Suet. V«$p.%.) 

The boundaries between the provinces of Mace- 
donia, Epeirus, and Achaia, are difficult to deter- 
mine. Strabo (p. 840), in his enumeration of tlie pro- 
vinces of the Branan empire, says: *f.fiZ6iii\y *KxaioM 
ficxpt OffTToAlaf irol Alrv\Siy «al 'Airapy<Wv, koI 
rtyety 'Hxt^nrrucwy iOvwy, Haa rf MoiccSoWf 
MpoaApiarm, " The seventh (province) is Achaia, up 
to Thcssaly and the Aetolians and Acamanians and 
some Epeirot tribes, which border upon Macedonia.^ 
Most modem writers understand m^xP* ^ inclusive, 
and oonaeqaently make Achaia indnde Thessaly, 



AetolU, and Acamania. Their interpfretation ia con* 
firmed by a passage in Tacitus, in which Nicopolis 
m the south of Epeims is called by Tacitns (^Atm, 
u. 53) a city of Achaia ; bat too mach stress must 
not be laid upon this passage, as Tadtns may <mly 
have used Achaia in its widest significi^on as 
equivalent to Greece. If M^XP* ^ °o^ inclonve, 
Thessaly, Aetolia, and Acamania mnst be assigned 
either wholly to Macedonia, or partly to Macedonia 
and partly to Epeiros. l^tolemy (iii. 2, seq.), in 
his (^vision of Greece, assigns Thessaly to Mace- 
donia, Acamania to Epeiros, and Aetolia to Achaia; 
and it is probable that this represents the political 
division of the coontry at the time at which he lived 
(a.d. 150). Achaia continued to be a Boman pro- 
vince governed by proconsuls down to the time of 
Justinian. (Kruse, HeUaSy voL L p. 573.) 

ACHAllACA CAx<iKfxwa), a vilhige of Lydia, 
on the road from Tralles to Nysa, with a Phitoninm 
or a temple of Pluto, and a cave, named Charonium, 
where the sick were healed under the direction of 
the priests. (Strab. ziv. pp. 649, 650.) 

ACHARNAE CAxo^i^ : Eth, 'Axopi^l^y, Achar- 
nanus, Nep. Them, 1.; Adj, 'AxopyucSs), the prin- 
cipal demus of Attica, belon^ng to the tiibe Ooneis, 
was situated 60 stadia N. of Athens, and conse- 
quently not far from the foot of Mt. Fames. It was 
from the woods of this mountain that the Achar- 
nians were enabled to cany oa that traffic in char- 
coal for which they were noted among the Athenians. 
(Aristoph. Ach€im. 332.) Their land was fertile ; 
their population was rough and warlike ; and they 
furnished at the commencement of the Pelopoimesian 
war 3000 hoplites, or a tenth of the whole infiantiy 
of the republic. They possessed sanctuaries or 
altars of Apollo Aguieus, of Heracles, of Athena 
Hygieia, of Athena Hippia, of Dionysus Melpomeons, 
and of Dionysus Cissus, so called, because the 
Achamians said that the ivy first grew in this 
demns. One of the pkys of Aristophanes bears the 
name of the Acharnians. Leake supposes that 
branch of the pbun of Athens, which is included 
between the foot of the hills of Khasnd and a 
projection of the range of Aegaleos, stretching east- 
ward from the northern termination of that moun- 
tain, to have been the district of the demus Achamae. 
The exact situation of the town has not yet been 
discovered. Some Hellenic remains, situated f of a 
mile to the westward of Menidhi^ have generally 
been taken for those of Archamae ; but Menidhi is 
more probably a oorraption of Uaiovihu, (Thuc. ii. 
13, 19 — ^21; Ludan, Icaro-Menip, 18; Pind. 
Nem. ii. 25 ; Paus. i. 31. § 6 ; Athen. p. 234 ; 
Steph. B. 8. V. ; Leake, Demt o/AtHoay p. 35, seq.) 

ACHARRAE, a town of Thessaly in the district 
Thessallotis, on the river Pamisus, mentioned only 
by Livy (xxzii. 13), but apparently the same place 
as the Achame of Pliny (iv. 9. s. 16). 

ACHATES CAxdrns), a small river in Sdly, 
noticed by Silius Italicus for the remarkable clear- 
ness of its waters {perlucent&n splendenti gurgite 
Achatetij xiv. 228), and by various other writers as 
the place whero agates were found, and from whence 
they derived the name of " lapis Adiates," which 
they have retained in all modem languages. It has 
been identified by Claverins (followed by most mo- 
dem geographers) with the river DiriUOy a small 
stream on the S. coast of Sicily, about 7 miles £. of 
Terranova, which is indeed remarkable for the clear- 
ness of its waters: but Pliny, the only author who 
affords any elue to its position, distinctiv places the 


Achates between Thennae and Selinus, in the SV. 
quarter of the island. It cannot, therefore, be the 
JHrillOf but its modem name is unknown. (Plin. iii. 
8. 8. 14, xzzvii. 10. s. 54 ; Theophiast <fo Lapid, 
§ 31 ; Vlb. Seq. p. 3; SoIhL 5. § 25; Cluver. SiciZ 
p. 201.) [E.H.B.] 

ACHELOTJS ('AxeA^, Ejac 'AxtkAios). 
1. (^Atpropotama), tin largest and most cdebrated 
river in Greece, rose in Mount Pindus, and after 
flowing through the mountainous country of the 
Dolopiana and Agraeans, entered the plam of 
Acamania and Aetolia near Stratns, and discharged 
itself into the Ionian sea, near the Aramanian 
town of Oeniadae. It subsequently formed the 
boundary between Acamania xad Aet(^ bat in 
the time of Thucydides the tenitaiy of Oeniadae 
extended oast of tiie river. It is usually called a 
river of Acamania, but it is sometimes assigned to 
Aeto]i< Its general directioB is from north to 
sonth. Its waters are of a whitish yellow or cream 
cobur, whence it derives its modem name of Aqfro' 
potamo or the White river, and to which Dionysiiis 
(432) probably alludes in the epithet kfyvpoSimns. 
It is said to have been called more anciently Thoas, 
Axenus and Thestins (Thuc. iL 102; Strab. pp. 
449, 450, 458; Pint de Fim. 22; Stq>h. B. 8.v.) 
We learn from Leake that the reputed sources of 
the Achelons ace at a village called KhaUkij which 
is probably a oormptdon of Chalcis, at which place 
Dionyaius Periegetes (496) places the sources of 
the riwr. Its waters are swelled by numeroos 
torrents, which it receives in its passage through 
the mountains, and when it emecges into the plain 
near Stratus its bed is not less than three^narters 
of a mile in width. In winter the entire bed 
Is often filled, but in the middle of summer the 
river is divided into five or six rapid streams, of 
which only two are of a considerable size. After 
leaving Stratus the river becomes narrower; and, 
in the lower part of its course, the plain through 
which it fiows was called in antiquity Pacacheloitis 
after Uie river. This plain was celebrated for its 
fiertility, though covered in great part with marshes, 
several of which were formed by the overfiowings of 
the Achelons. In this port of its course Ike river 
presents the most extraordinary series of wander- 
ings; and these deflexions, observes a recent tra- 
veller, are not only so sudden, but so extensive, 
as to render it difficult to trace tiie exact line of its 
bed, — and sometimes, for several miles, having its 
direct course towards the sea, it appears to flow 
back into the mountains in which it rises. The 
Achelons brings down from the mountains an 
immense quantity of evthy particles, which have 
formed a number of small islands at its month, 
which belong to the group andentiy called Kchi- 
nades; and part of the mamland near its mouth is 
only alluvial depoeitian. [Echutadbs.] (Leake, 
Northern Cfreeoej vol. L p. 136, seq., vol. iii. p. 
513, voL iv. p. 21 1 ; Mure, Journal of a Tour in 
Greece^ vol. L p. 102.) The chi^ tributaries 
of the Achelons were: — on its left, the Camfylus 
(Ko^tir^Aos, Died. six. 67 : Medghova), a river of 
considerable size, flowing from I)olopia through the 
territory of the Dryopes and fiuiytanes, and the 
Ctathus (K^of, Pol. ap. Ath. p. 424, c.) flow- 
ing out of tiie lake Hyrie into the main stream just 
above Oonope: — on its right tiie Pbtitarus (Liv. 
xliii. 22) in Aperantia, and the Anapus ("Ayavof), 
which fell into the main stream in Acamania 80 
stadia S. of Stratus. (Thuc ii. 82.) 




The Arhdon m regarded as the ruler and 

nf w j ftitrw of aD firedi water in Hellas. Hence 

ht k caiM bj HoDMr {IL zz. 194) Kf»cU*F 'Axe- 

AAs^aDd was woniupped as a migfatj god Umragb- 

«at Gnccb He is celebiated ik mythology on 

areoiait of fak oenbat with Herades for the possee- 

MB at DcfuMira. The river-god first attacked 

Hsaeks is the ktnn of a serpent, and on heing 

mated atsomed that of a bolL The hero wrenched 

iff caw of his hams, which forthwith became a 

u aauunia , or horn of plenty. (Soph. TVocA. 9 ; Ov. 

Mtt is. 8| seq.; ApoUod. ii. 7. § 5.) This legend 

■Ibdes appaRDtly to some efibrts made at an early 

period to check 1^ laYages^ which the inmidations 

«f the HTer caueed in this district; and if the river 

VM fwnftifd within its bed by embankments, the 

icpdo woold he oonvcrted in modem times into a 

land of plenty. For fnrther details respecting the 

BTtbological chazacter of the Achdoos, see Diet of 

Btogr. and MffA. «. v. 

In the Soman poets we find Acheiotdegj i. e. the 
Suuaa , the daughters ef Achelons (Or. Met ▼. 
552): Aekelota QdUrhoe, becaoae CallirhoS was 
ths daagfater of Adieloas (Or. Met, ix. 413): 
AckelouMf i. e. water in general (Virg. 
i. 9): Aehdow» keroi, that is, Tydeus, 
of OcBeas, king of Calydon, Aehdohu here 
Wac eqolTaleni to Aetolian. (Stat TAefr. iL 

2. A rxfer of Thessaly, in the district of Kalis, 
kearLmnia. (Strab. pp. 434, 450.) 

3^ A moimtaiB torrent in Arcadia, flowing into 
the Alphens, from the north of Moont Lycaeos. 
(FsiB. Tui 38. § 9.) 

4. Abo called Peibus, a river in Achaia, flowing 
Bear Dyme. (Strab. pp. 342, 450.) 

ACHERDUS C^x^pfious, -wrros : Eth, ^Ax^p- 
tianat), a demns of Attica of uncertain site, b&- 
kapag to the tribe Hippothoootis. Aristophanes 
{EoL 3S2) m joke, uses the form *AxpaSou<riof 
iastead of 'AxcpSo^ios . (Steph. B. s. ov. 'Ax^p* 
his, 'AxpoSovf ; Aeschin. in Tim, § 110, ed. Bek- 
br; Leske, DenU ofAUica, p. 185.) 

ACHEBI'NI, the inhabitants of a small town in 
Skily, mentioDed only by Cicero among the victims 
«f the opfvesBflOs of Venes. Its position is qnite 
■acertam; whence modem scholars pt>po6e to read 
other Srherini, or Achetini from Achetum, a town 
nqipakd to be mentioned by Silius Itslicos (xiv. 
2«8); bat the ** pobes liqnentis Acheti"* (or AchaeH, 
as the name stands in the best MS5.) of that author 
weoU seem to indicate a river rather than a town. 
There is, bowervr, no authority for either emendation. 
(Ck. Vtrr, vL 43; Znmpt ad loc.] Orell. Ononuut. 
p. 6; Oonr. SieiL p. 381.) [£. H. B.] 

A'CHEBON ('Ax^pM'), the name of several 
rifcrs, sU of which were, at least at one time, be- 
amd to be cwnnertyd with the lower world. The 
Acheron as a river of the lower worid, is described 
B the Diet a/Biojrr. aadJfiftk, 

I. A river of Epeims in Thesprotia, which passed 
throagh the lake Acherasia (^Ax^powria hliuni)^ and 
after leoeiving the river Cocytus {KAkutos), flowed 
oio the hmhm sea, S. of the promontory Cheime- 
riaiB. Fliny (iv. 1) erroneously states that the 
mv flowed into the Ambradot gulf. The bay of 
the sea ioio which it flowed was usually called 
Gfvcyi Umra (I^mc^ AiM^ar) or Sweet-Harbour, 
lieanse the water wap fresh on account uf the quan- 
Utf poorad into it frtan the lake and river. Scylax 
lod Fkkmy call tha harbour Elaea ^EAof a), and 

the surrotmding district bore aooofding to Thucy- 
dides the name of Elaeatis ('EAcuoru). The 
Acheron is the modem GwU» or river of SuU^ the 
Cocytus is the Vuod^ and the great marsh or Uke 
below Kattri the Acherusia. The water of the 
Vttvd is reported to be bad, which agrees with the 
account of Pausaniss (L 17. § 5) in relation to the 
water of the Cocytus (ff8o»p Sfrtfnriararw), The 
Glycys Limen is oilled Port Fandri^ and its water is 
still fresh ; and in the lower part of the plain the 
river is commonly called the river of Fandri, The 
upper part of the plain is called Ghfhjf; and thus 
the ancient name of the harbour has been transferred 
from the coast into the interior. On the Acheron 
Aidoneus, the king of the lower world, is said to have 
reigned, and to have detained here Theseus as a 
prisoner; and on its banks was an oracle called 
vtKvotiojnuop (Herod, v. 92. § 7), which was con- ^ y 
suited by evoking the spirits 5l the dead^^Thuc./^y(r^-: £, t) 
L 46 ; Liv. viii. 24 ; Strab. p. 324 ; Step^B. '• v* ; ^^ . > 7; 
Pans. L 17. § 5 ; Dion Cass. 1. 12 ; Scylax, p. 11 ; ^^^ '^ ^ 
Ptolem. iii. 14. § 5 ; Leake, Northern 0reec6f vol. i. ^Tt(j(i. 
p. 232, seq. iv. p. 53.) 

2. A river of Elis, a tributaiy of the Alphetus, 
(Strab. p. 344; Leake, Jforeo, vol. ii. p. 89.) 

A'CHEBON ('Ax^v), a small river in Brat- 
tium, near Pandosia. Its name is mentioned in 
coi\iunctica with that city both by Strabo and 
Justin, from whom we leam that it was on its 
banks that Alexander, king of Epirus, fell in bottle 
against the Lucanians and Bmttians, b. a 326. 
(Strab. p. 256 ; Justin, xii. 2.) Pliny also men- 
tioos it as a river of Brattium (iii. 5. s. 10.), but 
appears erroneously to connect it with the town of 
Acherontia in Lucania. It has been supposed to 
be a small stream, still called the Arcontij which 
falls into the river Crathis just below Consentia; 
but its identification must depend upon that of 
Pandoffla. [Pakdosia.] [E. H.B.] 

ACHERO'NTLA. (^Ax*porris or *Ax*potnla\ 
a small town of Apulia, near the frontiers of Lucania, 
situated about 14 miles S. of Vcnusia, and 6 SE. of 
Ferentum. Its position on a lofty hill is alluded to 
by Horace in a well-known passage (celsas nidt*m 
AchercnUae^ Carm. iii. 4. 14 ; and Acron ad loc.\ 
and the modem town of Acerenza retains the site as 
well as name of the ancient one. It is built on a 
hill of considerable elevation, precipitotis on three 
ades, and affording only a very steep approach on 
the fourth. (Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 238.) It seems 
to have been always but a small town, and is not men- 
tioned by any ancient ge<^rapher; but the strength 
of its position gave it importance in a military point 
of view: and during the wars of the Goths against 
the generals of Justinian, it was occnped by Totila 
with a garrison, and became one of the chief strong- 
holds of the Gothic leaders throughout the contest. 
(Procop. de B, G. iii. 23, 26, iv. 26, 33.) The read- 
ing Athenmito in livy (ix. 20), whidi has been 
adopted by BoDumeUi md Cramer, and considered to 
refer to tiie same place, is wholly unsupported by 
autiiority. (Alschefeki, ad 2oe.) The coins assigned 
to this dty belong to Aquilonia. [E. H. b!j 

ACHEBU'SLA PALUS CAx<pou<r(a Xi/ui^), the 
name of several lakes, whidi, like the various 
rivers of the name of Acheron, were at some time 
believed to be connected with the lower world, until 
at last the Acherusia came to be considered m the 
lower world itself The most important of these was 
the lake in Thesprotia, through which the Acheron 
flowed. [AcuEBon.] There was a small hike of 




this name near Hennione in Aigolin. (Pans. ii« 35. 

ACHEBU'SIA PALUS CAx«powrfa X^au^), the 
name given to a small lake or saltwater pool in Cam- 
pania separated from the sea onlj bj a bar of sand, 
betweenCumae and Cape Misennm^nowcalledZ^o di 
Fusaro. The name appears to have been bestowed on 
it (probably by the Greeks of Cumae) in consequence 
of its proximity to Avemos, when tiie legends con- 
necting that l^e with the entrance to the infernal 
regions had become established. [Avbrnus.} On 
this account the name was by some applied to the 
Lucrine lake, while Artemidorus maintained that the 
Achemsian lake and Avemus were the same. (Strab. 
v.ppk243,245; Plin.iii. 5. s. 9.) The Logo diFutaro 
could never have had any direct connection with the 
volcanic phenomena of the region, nor could it have 
partaken of the gloomy and mysterious character of 
Lake Avemus. The expressions applied to it by 
Lycophr(»i (^AUx. 695) are mere poetical hyperbole: 
and Virgil, where he speaks of tenebrosa palus 
Acheronte reftuo {Aen, vi. 107), would seem to re- 
fer to Avemus itself rather than to the lake in ques- 
tion. In later times, its banks were adorned, in com- 
mon with the neighbouring shores of Baiae, with the 
villas of wealthy Romans; one of these, which be- 
longed to Servilius Vatia, is particularly described 
by Seneca (Ep, 55). [E. H. B.] 


Aa : Eth. 'AxoAAoTof, AchiUitSnus : ElAliah, large 
Ru.), a town on the sea-coast of Africa Propria 
(Byzacena), a little above the N. extremity of the 
Lesser Syrtis, and about 20 G. miles S. of Thapsus. 
It was a colony from the island of Melita ( J/a2to), 
the people of which were colonists from Carthage. 
Under the Romans, it was a free city. In the 
African war, b. c. 46, it submitted to Caesar, for 
whom it was held by Messius; and it was in vain 
besieged by the Pompeian conunander Considius. 
Among its ruins, of a late style, but very extensive, 
there has been found an interesting bilinguid in- 
scription, in Phoenician and Latin, in whidi the 
name is spelt Achulla (Steph. B. «. o. ; Strab. p. 
831; Liv. xxxiiL 48; Appian. Pun. 94; Hirtius, 
Bell Afric^—AZ', Plin.v.4; Ptel.; Tab. Pent., 
name conrupted into AnoUa; Shaw's Trav^^ p. 193 ; 
Barth, Wanderungen^ ^. vol. i. p. 176; Gesenius, 
Monum. Phoenic. p. 139.) [P. S.] 

ACHILLE'OS DROMOS (Apo/uo* 'Ax*AA^os.or 
'Ax»AA.e«y, or 'Ax^AAtioj, or 'AxiM^ioj), a long 
narrow strip of land in the Euxine, KW. of the 
Chcrsonesus Taurica (^Crvmed) and S. of the mouth 
of the Borysthenes {Dnieper^ ranning W. and £., 
with a dight inclination N. and S., for about 80 
miles, including that portion of the coast from which 
it is a prolongation both ways. It is now divided 
by a narrow gap, which insulates its W. portion, 
into two parts, called Ko»a (i. e. tongue) Tendra on 
the W., and Kosa Djarilgatch on the E. In the 
ancient legends, which connected Achilles with the 
NW. sliorcs of the Euxine, this strip of land was 
pitched upon as a sort of natural stadium on which 
he might have exercised that swiftness of foot which 
Homer sings ; and he was supposed to have instituted 
games there. Further to the W., off the mouth of the 
Ister, lay a small island, also sacred to the hero, who 
had a temple there. This island, called Achillis In- 
sula, or Leuce ('Ax<AX^f ^ Acvici) i^<roT), was said 
to be the place to which Thetis transported the body 
of Achilles. By some it was made the abode of the 


shades of the blest, where Achilles and other hena 
were the judges of the dead. Geographers identify 
it with the little island of Zmierot, or (Man Adam 
(i. e. SerpenU Island) in 30^ lO" E kmg., 45^ 15' 
N. lat. (Herod, iv. 55, 76; Eurip. Iphig. m Toitr. 
438; Pind. Olymp. il 85; Pans. iii. 19. § 11; 
Strab. pp. 306 — 308, folL; and other passages col- 
lected by Ukert, vol. iu. p. 2, pp. 442, foil, and For> 
biger, vol iil pp. 1121—1 122.) [P. S.] 

ACHILLE'UM CAx^etoi^), a small Urnn near 
the promontory Sigeum in the Troad (Herod, v. 94), 
where, according to tradition, the t<Hnb of AchiUes 
was. (Strab. p. 594.) 'W^heu Alexander viidtcd 
the place on his Asiatic expedition, b. c. 334, he 
placed chaplets on the tomb of Achilles. (Arrian, 
i. 12.) [G. L.] 

ACHILLIS INSULA. [Achillbob Dbomos.} 

ACHOLLA. [Achilla.] 


ACHRIS, or A'CHRITA. [LYcmrrous.] 

A'CILA ('Aic^a), which seems to be identical 
with OCEXIS COmiXfO, now Zee HUl or GMa, 
a seaport of the Sabaei Nomades, in Arabia Felix, a 
short distance to the S. of Mocha^ and to the N. of 
the opening of the strait of Bahd Mandeb, (Stnib. 
p. 769; Plin. vi. 23. s. 26, 28. s. 32; Ptol. \l 7. 
§ 7.) By some geographers it is identified with the 
BovKucds of the Homeritae mentioned by Procopias 
(A P. i. 19). [W. B,] 

Ptol. ii. 16. § 5 : AUSalankemen), a station or per- 
manent cavalry barrack in Pannonia. (Amm. Marc. 
xix. 11. § 7; Notit. Imp.) By George of Ravenna 
(iv. 19), and on the Peutingerian Table, the name 
is written Acunum. [W. B. D.] 

ACINCUM, AQUINCUM ('Aico^iricor, Ptol. ii, 
16. § 4; Tab. Peut; Orelli, jMoript, 506, 959, 
963, 3924; Amm. JM^urc xxx. 5; Itin. Anton.), a 
Ronian colony and a strong fortress in Pannonia, 
where the legion Adjutrix Secunda was in garnbon 
(Dion. Cass. Iv. 24), and where also there was a 
large manufiictory of bucklers. Acincum, being 
the centre of the operations on the Roman frontier 
against the neighbooring lazyges (Slwdcs)^ was 
occasionally the head-quarters of the emperors. It 
answers to the present kft-^cHia, where Roman base- 
ments and broken pillars of aqueducts are still visible. 
On the opposite bank of the Danube, and within 
the territory of the lazyges, stood a Roman fort or 
outpost called, from its relative position, Contra- 
Acincum (Not. Imp.), which was connected with 
Acincum by a bridge. Contra- Acincum is named 
n4aatoy by Ptolemy (iil 7. § 2). [W. B. D.] 

ACI'NIPO {'AKudmra: Honda la Vieja, Ru. 
2 leagues N. of Jionda)j a town of Hispania Baetica, 
on a lofty mountain. Ptolemy calls it a city of the 
Celtici (iL 4. § 15.) Its site is marked by the ruins 
of an aqueduct and a theatre, amidst which many 
coins are found inscribed with &e name of the 
place. (Florez, Esp. Sagr, vol. ix. pp. 16 — 60; 
Eckhel, vol. i. p. 14.) [P. S.] 

COW OF Aconro. 


ACmS ('Ajcipis), m rirer of Lncania, mentioned 
Wtk hy Pfinj and Strabo, as flowing near to He* 
ivlea on the N. side, as the Siiis did on the S. 
it is ffdil caQed the Aeri or Agri, and has a coarse 
«f skrre 50 miks, nsaag in the Apennines near 
JTarMOS Xwovo, and flowing into the Golf of Ta^ 
mtam, a littfe to the N. (^ PolioorOj the site of 
the aodeDt Heradea. (Plin. iS. 11. s. 15 ; Strab. 
PL 264.) The Acn>u» of the Itinerary is snpposed 
It Chxveriiis to be a corraptim of this name, bnt it 
wodd spfetr to be that of a town, rather than a 
dnr. (Itin. Ant. p. 104.) [£. H. B.] 

ACIS CA«»)i a river of Sidlj, on the eastern 
of the ishmd, and inunediatelj at the foot of 
It is oel^Fated on aocoont of the mytho- 
fidde connected with its origin, which was 
ascribed to the Mood of the yoathlul Ads, crashed 
ladder an enonnooa rock by his rival Polyphemus. 
(Orid. UbL xiiL 750, &c ; SiL ItaL xiv. 221—226 ; 
Antk Lat. L 148 ; Serr. ad Virg. Eel ix. S9, who 
cmaeoQsly writes the name Adnios.) It is evi- 
daaly in allnsion to the same stocy that Theocritos 
ifcaks of the "sacred waters of Acis." ("AjciSos 
ufim »«y>, Id^ i. 69.) Fiom this fitble itself we 
BMy infer that it was a small stream gashing forth 
bma onder a reck; the extreme coldness of its 
waters noticed by Solinas (Solin. 5. § 17) also 
pcnte to the same amclaaan. The last cinmm- 
Maaoe might lead ns to identify it with the streun 
aor csScd Fimme Frtddo^ bat there is every ap- 
pearance that the town of Adam derived its name 
from the river, and this was certainly fartho' soaih. 
There can be no doabt that Claverios is right in 
idBBtifyix^ it with the little river still called Fwmt 
A Jmcx, kiKiwn abo by the name of the Aeque 
Gramdij which rises under a rock of lava, and has 
a very short course to the sea, passing by the 
modem town of Act BeaU (Adam). The Ads* 
«as certainly quite distinct from the Acesines or 
Auaes, with which it has been oonfonnded by 
semal writers. (Clover. SieU pi 115; Smyth's 
Sm%, pi 132 ; Ortolani, IHt, Gtogr. p. 9 ; Fenara, 
Jkmru. deff ftea, p. 32.) [£. H. B.] 

A'CTUM, a small town on the £. coast of Sialy, 
lawtinned only in the Itinerary (Itin. Ant p 87), 
idnch places it on the high road from Catana to 
Tsoiancnhmi, at the distimoe of 9 H. P. from the 
faaer dty. It evidently derived its name from 
Hie little river Ads, and is probably identical with 
die nodem Ad Reakj a considerable town, aboat a 
■ale from the sea, in the neighboarhood of which, 
IB the road to CatamOf are extensive remains of 
BooMD Thermae. (Biscari, Viaggio in Sicilia, 
fi 22 ; Ortolani, Dm. Gtogr. p. 9.) [E. H. B.] 

ACMCTKU CA/c^iM'ta: Eth. 'AMfwrif^n, 'Air/M. 
not, Acmonensis), a dty of Phrygia, mentioned by 
Ckere {Pro Flacc 15.) It was on the road firam 
Dotykenm to Philadelphia, 36 Boman miles SW. of 
Cotjac nm ; and under the Romans bekmged to the 
Onventos Joridicns of Apamea. The site has been 
£sed at Akatbn; bat it still seems doabtful. (Ha- 
Bahoo, R*uafThet, 4^ vol. L p. 115.) [G. L.] 




ACCNTIA or ACUTIA ('AKOw/a, Strab. p. 
152; 'Airo^reia, Steph. B.), a town of the Vaccad, in 
Hispania Tanaconensis, <» the river Durius (J)ouro\ 
which had a finrd here. Its site is unknown. [P. S.] 
ACONTISMA, a station in Macedonia on the 
coast and' on the Via Egnatia, 8 or 9 miles eastwaid 
of Neapolis, is placed by Leake near the end of tho 
passes of the Sapad, which were formed by the 
moantainoos coast stretching eastward from KavMa. 
Tafel considers it to be identical with Christopolis 
and the modem Kaodia. (Amm. Marc, xxvii. 4 ; It. 
Ant. and Hierod. ; Leake, Northern Greecey vol. iii. 
p. 180; Tafd, De Ftoe Egnatiae Parte Orient. 
p. 13, seq.) 

A'CORIS (*Aicopis), a town of Egypt, on the east 
bank of the Nile in the Cynopolite Nome, 17 miles 
N. of Antinoopolis. (Ptol. iv. 5. § 69 ; Tab. Pent.) 
ACRA LEUCE (;'hKpa Awic?), a great dty of 
Hispania Tanaconensis, fbnnded by Hamilcar Barx^as 
(Died. Sic xxv. 2), and probably identical with the 
Castrom Album of Livy (xxiv. 41). Its position 
seems to have been on the coast of the Sinus Ilici- 
tanus, N. of Dici, near the modem AUcante (TJkert, 
voLiL ptl,p. 403). [P-S.] 

ACRAE ('AKpoUy Thuc. et alii; "Avpa, Steph. 
B.; "AKpauUy PtoL; 'AirfMuol, Steph^ B.; Acren- 
ses, Plin.; Pakuaoh)^ a dty of Sidly, situated in 
the southem portion of the island, on a lofty hill, 
nearly due W. of Syracuse, from which it was distant, 
according to the Itineraries, 24 Roman miles (Itin. 
Ant. p. 87 ; Tab. Pent). It was a colony of Syra- 
cuse, founded, as we leamfrom Thncydides, 70 years 
after its parent city, t. e. 663 b. c. (Thuc. vi. 5), 
but it did not rise to any great importance, and con- 
tinned almost always in a state of dependence on 
Syracuse. Its podtion must, however, have always 
given it some consequence in a military pdnt of 
view; and we find Dion, when marching upon Syra- 
cuse, halting at Acrae to watch the efifclct of his pro- 
ceedings. (Plut. Dionf 27, where we should certiunly 
read "AKftas for meuepds.) By the treaty concluded 
by the Romans with Hieron, Idng of Syracuse, Acrae 
was included in the dominions of that monarch (Died. 
, xxiii. Exc p. 502), and this was probably the period 
of its greatest prosperity. During the Second Pnnio 
War it followed the fortunes of Syracuse, and afforded 
a place of refuge to Hippocrates, after his defeat by 
IdaroeUus at Acxillae, b. c. 214. (Liv. xxiv. 36.) 
This is the last mention of it in history, and its name 
is not once noticed by -Cicero. It was probably in 
his time a mere dependenqr of Syracuse, though it is 
found in Pliny's list of the ^' stipendiariiae dvitates,'' 
so that it must then have possessed a separate muni- 
dpal existence. (Plin. iii. 8 ; Ptol. iii. 4. § 14.) 
The dte of Acrae was correctly fixed by Fazello at 
ihe modem PalaezolOj the lof^ and bloik situation 
of which corresponds with the description of Silius 
Italicus (^'tomulis gladalibus Acrae," xiv. 206), and 
its distance from Syracuse with that assigned by the 
Itineraries. The summit of the hill occupied by the 
modem town is said to be still called Acremonte, 
Fazello speaks of the ruins visible there as *'cgregiuni 
urbis cadaver," and the recent researches and excava- 
tions carried on by ^e Baron Judica have brought 
to light andent remains of much interest. The most 
considerable of these are two theatres, both in very 
fair preservation, of which the largest is turned to- 
wards the N., while immediately adjacent to it on 
the W. is a much smaller one, hollowed out in great 
part from the rock, and supposed from some pecu- 
1 liarities in its construction to have been intended to 




serve as an Odeum, or theatre for music. Numerous 
other architectural firagments, attesting the existence 
of temples and other bmldings, have akw been brought 
to light, as well as statues, pedestab, inscriptioDS, 
and other minor relies. On an adjoining hill are 
great numbers of tombs excavated in the rock, while 
on the hill of ^cremonte itself are some monuments 
of a angular chancier; figures as largo as life, hewn 
in relief in shallow niches on the 8ur£ftoeof the native 
rock. As the principal figure in all these sculptures 
appears to be that of the goddess Isis, the j must be- 
long to a late period. (Fazell. de Beb. Slc yqL i. p. 
452 ; Serra di Faloo, Antkkiih di SidHa^ toL iv. p. 
158, seq. ; Judica, AntichUa tUAcre.) [E.H.B.] 

AC£LA£ ("Aif^), a town in Aetolia of xmcer- 
tain site, on the road from Metapa to Conope. 
Stephanus erroneously calls it an Acainanian town. 
(Pol. y. 13; Steph. B. s. v. "Ajc/ml) 

ACRAEA (^'Affchia\ a mountain in Aigolis, op- 
posite the Henienm, or great temple of Hera. (Pans, 
il 17. § 2; Leake, Marea, voL ii. p. 393, Fdopon- 
fMMOca, p. 263.) 

PHIUM, ACRAEPHNIUM C^paupla, Steph. B. 
«. «.; Herod. yiiL 135, Acraephia, liv. xxxiiL 29; 
Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; *AKfMUp(ai, Strab. p. 410; 'Ak/mU- 
pioy, Strab. p. 413.; 'Anpoi^ruM', Paus. iz. 23. § 5: 
rd *AKpal<pMMf Theopomp. ap. Steph. B. a. v. ; Eth, 
'Ajcpcu^uMSf *Aicpal^ioSy *AKpa(^iof , *AKpanpfu»- 
n}T, 'Airpoi^ici/f, Steph. B. «. o.; 'AxptuptfiSty 
Bockh, In$cr. 1587: nr. Kardhitta), a town of 
Boeotia on the slope of Mt. Ptonm (IItwoi') and on 
the eastern bank of the lake Copais, which was here 
called 'Axpat/pls A(^tn| from the town. Acraephia 
is said to have been founded bj Athamas or Acrae- 
pheus, son of Apollo; and according to some writers 
it was the same as the Homeric Ame. Here the 
Thebans took refuge, when their dtj was destroyed 
by Alexander. It contained a temple of Diwysus. 
(Steph. B. s. V. ; Strab. p. 413 ; Pans. I c.) At the 
distance of 15 stadia horn the town, on the right 
of the road, and upon Mt. Ptoum, was a celebrated 
sanctuary and oracle of Apollo Ptons. This oracle 
was consulted by Mardonius before the battle of, 
Plataea, and is said to have answered his emissaiy, 
who was a Carian, in the language of the latter. 
The name of the mountain was derived by some 
fnm Ptons, a son of Apollo and Euxippe, and by 
others frxMn Leto having been frightened (irro4») by 
a boar, when she was about to bring forth in this 
pUoe. Both Acraephia and the oracle belonged to 
Thebes. There was no temple of the Ptoan Apollo, 
properly so called; Plutarch ((rv^fiw, 7) mentions a 
%6koSf but other writers speak only of a ri/unSf 
Up6y, Xfni<^f>»^ or fuanwiv, (Steph. B. a. v. ; 
Strab. l.c; Paus. /. c, iv. 32. § 5; Herod. Tiii.135; 
Pint. Pelop, 16.) According to Pausanias the oracle 
ceased after the capture of Thebes by Alexander; 
but the sanctuary still continued to retain its cele- 
brity, as we see from the great Acraephian inscription, 
which Bockh places in the time of M. Aurelius and 
his son Gommodus after a.d. 177. It appears from 
this inscription that a festival was celebrated in honour 
of the Ptoan Apollo every four years. (Bockh, Itucr, 
Ko. 1625.) The rums of Acraephia are situated at 
a short distance to the S. of Kardhitza, The re- 
mains of the acropoUs are visible on an isolated hill, 
a spur of Mt. Ptoum, above the Copaic sea, and at 
its foot on the N. and W. are traces of the ancient 
town. Here stands the church of St. George built 
oat of the stones of the old town, and oontaining 


many fragments of antiquity. In this chorch Leake . 
discovered the great inscription alluded to above, " 
which is in honour of one of the citizens of the place i 
called Epaminoodas. The ruins near the fountain, ' 
which is now called Perdik6bryM$y probably bdong 
to the sanctuary of the Ptoan Apollo. The poet 
Alcaeus (ap. Strab. p. 413) gave the epithet rpucd- 
peofov to Mt. Ptoum, and the three summitB now 
bear the names of Po^ Strutzma, and Skropomi 
respectively. These foim the central port of Mt 
Ptoum, wluch in a wider signification eirtended from 
the Tenerian plain as fiu- as Larymna and the En- 
boean sea, separating the Copaic lake on the £. from 
the lakes of Hylae and Harxna. (Leake, NcrAtr% 
Greece^ yd. ii. p. 295, seq.; Ulrichs, Rdtm m 
Griechenlandf voL i. p. 239, seq.; Eorchhammfr, 
HtUmika, p. 182.)4riU4jr/%^./>ft&S^Z^ 

A'CIUAE or ACRAEAE CAKpul, Paus. iii. 21, 
§ 7, 22. §§ 4, 5; Pol. 5. 19. § 8; ^PucpoMi, Strab. 
pp. 343, 363; "Axpcca, Ptol. iii. 16. § 9 : Etk. 'Axpi- 
dn^f ), a town of Laconia, on the eastern side of the 
Laoooian bay, 30 stadia S. of Helos. Strabo (l c) 
describes the Eurotas as flowing into the sea betwem 
Acriae and Gythium. Aciiae possessed a sanctuary 
and a statue of the mother of the gods, which was 
said by the inhabitants of the town to be the most 
andent in the Peloponnesus. Leake was unable to 
discover any remains of Acriae; the French expedi- 
tion phice its ruins at the harbour of Kokmo. 
(Leake, Morea^ vol. i. p. 229 ; Boblaye, Rechtrcku^ 
p. 95.) 

AGRIDOTHAGI (*Ajepi8o^oi), or ''Locust- 
eaters," the name given by IModonis (iii. 29) and 
Strabo (p. 770) to one of the half-eaTage tribes of 
Aethiopia bordering on the Red Sea, who reodved 
their denomination from their mode of life or their 
staple food. [W.B.] 

ACRILLA or ACRILLAE C'A«yMAXa),a townof 
Sicily, known only from Stephanus of Byzantium 
(«. «.), who tells us that it was not far fixim Syia^ 
cnse. But there can be no doubt that it is the same 
place mentioned by Livy (xxiv. 35) where the Syra- 
cusan army under Hippocrates was defeated by Mar- 
cellns. The old editions of Livy have Aocilule, 
for which Acrillae, the emendation of Cluverius, has 
been received by all the recent editors. From this 
passage we learn that it was on the line of march 
from Agrigentum to Syracuse, and not iar frtan 
Acrae; but the exact site is undetermmed. Plutarch 
(MarceU. 18), iu relating the same event, writes the 
name 'AicUat or ^hxlKXas. [E. H. B.] 

ACRITAS (^Sxpirasi C. GaOo), the most sontfi- 
erly promontory in Messenia. (Stxab. p. 359 ; Pans, 
iv. 34. § 12 ; Ptol. iii. 16. | 7; Phn. iv. 5. s. 7; 
Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 443.) 
ACROCERAU'NIA. [Cebattioi MoirrBS.] 
ACROCORINTHUS. [Corihthus.] 
ACRO'NIUS LACUS. [Brioantinus Lacus.] 
AGROREIA (*Aicp<6p«m), the mountainoos dis- 
trict of Elis on the borders of Arcadia, in which the 
rivers Peneius and Ladon take their rise. The in- 
habitants of the district were called Acrocreii 
('Ajc/w^cibi), and their towns appear to have been 
Thraustus, Alium, Opus, and Eupagiura. The 
name is used in opposition to KoiKri or Hollow Elis. 
Stephanus («. v.), who is followed by many modem 
writers, makes Acrocreii a town, and places it in 
Triphylia ; but this error appears to have arisen 
from confounding the Acrocreii with the Pannreatae 
in Triphylia. (Died. xiy. 17; Xen. HeU, iii 2. § 

' • ,-;i f.JL '/"i 

r , -^ * y ^, \ ' ^ 

t • w 

T *,' 

M. ID. 4. S 14: Laike, Mono, toL ii. p. 303; 
Mkn. Aetankn, p. 1S3.) 

ICBOTHOTH. <r ACROTH01 C^fiitim 'Kw p iam n , Thnc. ir. 109; Stnb. p. 
SJI:SnLp.H: Stcpti. B. t.*.; Aomithai, Md. 
■ - ■ ■ "■ ■ -. 10. t.n: Elk. 'AiipM»t, 
in the pHiiiianla of Acte, in 
n. dlniMl nai tbe eitiemilj 
a me pamMn, pnlaiblr npoo tha liM of the mo- 
dn /.nrs. Stnbo, Plinr, ud Ud* ntm to hare 
ttqiprnt dut A^TOthocnn stood npcn the nte of Mt. 
IAmi taltbianuiiinpinlHfitj. [Athos.] It 
mm MiM by HcU ud other udnit irritoi th^ 
.. ^ Aootln lircd kiD^;er thin ordi- 


ACTE' CAcrt), si{;iiifiid k piece of lud nmning 
tea the aw, ud Wtadied to uwdKr lar)^ piece rf 
hal, kit not necMirilT I7 * uamnr TxeA. Thiu 
Rovletas gi>a the iwne rf Acte to Aaii Miocir u 
eaip^ with the not of Aob (iv. 38), and bIso ts 
Afrn iliiir ■■ JDttiiig out fma AiU (ir. 41). 
Attici lbs «u origitiiJIy oiled Acle. (Steph. B. 
■L ».) tAtnci.] The mum of Atte, however, 
WM mn IpRtficiIlj Applied to the eutenmuBt of 
Ifae Ihne [nomtaiM jotting out from Ctulddin 
a HiTt^mie. na which ML Athos Btisds. It is 
tfAa of ondei Athos. 

A'CT[UM('AitTiar: £1*. 'Arriei, Adiiis ; ^({f. 
'Acnsitif, AttisRU, sloo 'Aimat, Actios), s pro- 
■■iLij in Acsrasiiis at the eatnnct oT Um Am. 
kuDt'Colf {Galf of Arta) off which Anguttiu 
pSBcd his cdetHated tictorj orer AMaoj snd 
Ckif^n, «B September Sod, B, c 31. There was 
■ templa of ApoUo on this pr«D(ntorj, which 
TbcjdidM meotiau (L S9) as sitosted in the 
taiit^ U Ansctsriant. This temple was of great 
mlufiiq, md ApoDo deiiTed from it the unmame 
tlAttmiaAActiaau. Then was also an ancicDt 
fatinl iMOied AeHa, cetebnled heie in hoooor of 
At c«d. Anp>Mns after his Tidor; eslaTged tbe 
tniffc, nd icriTed the ancient teetiTil, which wu 
kanfeith t ehhu ted once in fbor yean (nrraf- 
Ttfit, Ui Ymaummaia), with miuicsl and gjvt- 
■■k HBtiats, and hone ncea. (INco Cats. IL 1 ; 
Sact. imj. 18.) We kvn &om a Git4 bucriptioo 
fend (B the lile of Actimn, and which ia prnbahty 
piir te the time of Aogtutnt, that the chief print 
•f tbe temple was adkd 'Itpn-oAoi, and that hii 

rie ma snplofed in fActal documenta, like thst 
the fint Airboo at Athena, to mark the date. 
(BvU. CorjKH JteripC No. 1733.) Stiabo e»j> 
{f. Jti) tbtt (be tonple wai ntnated oa an 
eauA*, and that below wai a pbdn with a gnre 
rftna,aad adock-jard; and in another pinage 
(p. til) he d»*rf)ea the harimoi ■■ eitoatcd oot- 
)Ue gf the gulf. On the oppoite ccaat of Epinu, 
Aifaattu (Mmded the aKj vt Nioopolis in hononi 
rf hk Tietey. [NidwOLia.] AMiam waa jw 
f(dj Dot a town, thongh it it aometimeB dcscribi 
M neh; bat after the tbmulatini of Kicopolia, 
Int biitdingi ipnng up armnd (he temple, and 
■md as a kan of stibnit to Nicopolis. 

Tte Mta ct Actimn has been a solject of diapnta. 
7k accoBapaoTing plan of the entrance of the 
Aadnoot gnl^ taksi titro tbe map pnbliihed by 
UaL W«lfe (JomrnJ q/" tie Royal Geographical 
Smtlf. rol iiS.) win give "- —' '— ■■'- -^ 

le nador a clor idea of 

uice of the Ambntciot pilf lies belirecn 

the low pdnt off Acamania, on which standa fort 

La Prnita (5), and tbe promontoty of Epinu, on 

rhich stands the modem town of Praiaa (1), 

ear the site of the ancient NtcopoUs. The iiar- 

ruweat part ot thia entrance ia only 700 yocds, 

but the arerage distance between the two shores is 

iile. After passing thmogh this strait, the 

'nsabruptlyronndasmallpaint to the SE., 

forming 1 bay aboot 4 miles in width, called the 

Bag o/Prti>aa(_?). A secraid entrance is then , 

formed to the larger laein of the gnlf bj the tvo 

high capei of La Scara (3) in Epeinu, and of 

Madonna (4) in Acarnania, the width of this 

second enlrsBca being aboot one mile ami a half. 

modern writers, among others D'Anville, 

.ctinm ta have been situated on Cap« 

Madoma, and Anactorium, nhich Stralo (p. 451) 

describes as 40 stadia from Actiom, on La Punto. 

reasons bare led them to adopt this cmclosioo; 

becanse the raias on C. Sfadorma are some- 

i called Acio (8). which name is appurenlly a 

iption of the ancient Aetioni; and, secondly, 

becanse the temple of Apollo is said by Strabo (0 

hate stood ai a h«ght, which descriptim answers 

the iwky eminence on C. Madomia, and not to 

e low peninsula of La Punta, Bat these r^uvou 

e not conclusive, and there ran be no donbt that 

B mte of Actinm corrcaponds to La Funta. For 

shoald be observed, first, that the name A^ 

Dnknown to the Greeks, and appears to have been 

trodnced by the VenetiBiis, who conjectured that 

the ruioa cd C, Jfodonna were thoee of Actinm, 

and therefore invented the word ; and, secondly, that 

thongh Strabo places the temple of Apollo on a 

height, he does not say that this height waa on the 

sea, but on tbe contruy, that it was at some little 

distance from the sea. In other respects Slmbu's 

evidence is decisive in ivour of the identification of 

Actinm with La Panla. He says that Actium ia 

cue pirint which forms the entrance of the bay; and 

it is clear that he considered tbe entrance of tba 

hay to ha between iVn>eH and La Futtla, because 

he makes the breadth of the strut " a little more 

than Ibur Madia," or halt a mile, which is troe 

when afflied to the firat narrow entnncf, bat not 

to Hu second. That the stimt between Frreria 

and La Am(a was regarded as the cntrsnce of tbe 

Ambradot gulf, is clear, not only fkim tho diolanro 

asdgncd to it by Strabo, bat from tho statements of 



Polybius (i7. 63), who makes it 5 stadia, of Scylax 
(v. KBuratnrot), who makes it 4 stadia, and of 
Pliny (iv. 1) who makes it 500 paces. Anactoriom 
is described by Strabo as "situated within the bay," 
while Actiom makes **the month of the bay." 
(Strab. pp. 326, 451.) Anactorinm, therefbre, 
must be placed on the promontory of C, Madonna, 
[For its exact site, see Akaciobium.] The testi- 
mony of Strabo is confirmed by tiiat of Dion 
Cassius. The latter writer says (1. 12) that 
*< Actium is a temple of ApoUo, and is situated 
before the mouth cS the strait of the Ambradot 
gulf, over against the harbours of Nicopolis.'* 
Cicero tells us (ad Fam, zvL 6, 9) that in ooasdng 
from Patne to Corcyra he touched at Actium, 
which he could hardly have done, if it were so far 
out of his way as the inner strait between C. La 
Scara and C. Madonna. Thus we come to the 
conclusion that the promontory of Actium was the 
modem La Punta (3), and that the temple of 
Apollo was situated a little to the S., outside the 
strait, probably near the Fort La Punta (5). 

A few remarks are necessary respecting the site 
of the battle, which has oonferTed its chief celebrity 
upon Actium. The fleet of Antony was stationed 
in the Bag ofPrevua (P). His Snoops had built 
towers on each side of the mouth of the strait, and 
they occupied the channel itself with their ^ips. 
Their camp was near the temple of Apollo, on a 
leyel spacious ground. Augustus was encamped 
on the opposite coast of Epirus, (m the spot where 
Nicopolis afterwards stood; his fleet appears to have 
been stationed in the Bay of Gomaros, now the 
harbour of Mitika, to the N. of Kicopolis, in the 
Ionian sea. Antony was absent from his army at 
Patrae; but as soon as he heard of the arrival 
of Augustus, he proceeded to Actium, and after 
a short time crossed over the strait to Prevesa, 
and pitched his camp near that of Augustus. But 
having experienced some misfortunes, he subse- 
quently re-crossed the strait and joined the main 
body of his army at Actium. By the advice of 
Cleopatra he now determined to return to Egypt 
He accordingly siuled out of the strait, but was 
compelled by the manoeuvres of Augustus to fighL 
Aft^ the battle had lasted some hours Cleopatra, 
who was followed by Antony, sailed through the 
middle of the contending fleets, and took to flighL 
They succeeded in making their escape, but most 
of their ships were destroyed. The battle was, 
therefore, fought outside of the strait, between La 
Punta and Prevesa (l(» t&p arwuv^ Dion Cass. 
1. 31), and not in the Bay of Prevesa, as is stated 
by some writers. (Di<m Cass. L 12, seq.; Leake, 
Noritiem Greece^ voL iv. p. 28, seq.; Wolife, L c.) 

A'DADA CA8a«o: Eth. 'AJofiftij, PtoL; 'A8a- 
8e(rn in old edit, of Strabo; 'OSdSo, Hierocl.), a 
town in Pisidia of uncertain site. On ooins of Var 
lerian and Gallienus we find AAAAEHN. Adada 
is mentioned in the Councils as the see of a bishop. 
(Artemiod. ap, Strab, xii. p. 570; Ptol. v. 5. §8; 
Hierocl. p. 674, with Wesseling's note.) 

A'DANA (ri "AJoko: Fth, 'AJoyei/f), a town of 
Cilicia, which keeps its ancient name, on the west 
side of the Sams, now the Syhoon or Syhan, It 
lay on the militaiy road from Tarsus to Lssus, in a 
fertile ooontiy. There are the remains of a portico. 
Pompey settled here some of the Cilician jnrates 
whom he had compelled to submit. (Appian, Mith. 
96.) Dion Cassius (xlvii. 31) speaks of Tarsus 
and Adana being always quarrelling. [G. L.] 


ADANE CA«<£w», Philostorg. H, E. iii. 4), called 
ATHANA by Plmy (vi. 28. s. 32), and ARABIA 
FELIX ('A^k cv8at/i«v), in the Periplus of 
Arrian (p^ 14), now Aden^ the chief seaport in the 
country of Homeiitae on the S. coast of Arabia. 
It became at a very early period the great mart 
for the trade between Egypt, Arabia, and India; 
and although destroyed by the Romans, probably by 
Aelius Gallus in his expedition against Arabia, iu 
the reign of Augustus, it speedily revived, and has 
ever since remained a place of note. It has revived 
conspicuously within the last few years, having 
feUen into the possession of the English, and become 
one of the stations for the steamers which navigate 
theRedSAu [W.R.] 

A'DDUA (b 'ASoiJas: Adda), a liver of Gallia 
Cissipina, one of the largest of the tributaries which 
bring down the waters of the Alps to the Po. It rises 
in the Rhaetian Alps near jBormio, and flows through 
the VaUeUine, into the Lacus Larius or Logo di 
Como, from which it again issues at its south- eastern 
extremity near Lecco, and from tiienoe has a coui^ 
of above 50 miles to the Po, which it joins between 
Placentia and Cremona. During this latter part of 
its course it seems to have formed the limit between 
the Insubres and the Cenomani. It is a broad and 
rapd stream: the clearness of its blue waters, re- 
sulting from their passage through a deep lake, is 
alluded to by Claudian (Be VL Cons, Hon, 196). 
Strabo erroneously places its sources in Mt. Adula, 
where, according to him, the Rhine also rises: it is 
probable that he was imperfectly acquainted tiith 
this part of the Alps, and supposed the stream which 
descends from the Splugen to the head of the lake 
of Como to be the original Addua, instead of the 
much larger river wliich enters it from the Vat- 
tellme. (Strab. iv. pp. 192,204; v. p. 213; PUn. 
iii. 16. 8.20; Pol.ii. 32, xxxiv. 10; TacJ^u^u. 
40.) [E. H. B.] 

ADL^E'NE CA5i<rfi|i^). [Assyria.] 

ADIS or ADES ('A^is/Ahis: prob. Rkades),tL 
considerable city of Africa, on the Gulf of Tunis, in 
the Carthaginian territory, which Regulus besieged 
and took, and before which he defeated the Cartha- 
ginians, in the 10th year of the first Punic War, 
B. c. 255. (PoL i. 30.) As there is no subsequent 
mention of the place, it is supposed to have been 
supplanted, or at least reduced to insignificance, by 
the kter town of Maxula. [P. S.] 

ADO'NIS CAa«K«: Nahr el Ibrahim), a smaU 
river of Syria, which rising in Mount Libanus enters 
the Mediterranean a few miles to the S. of Byblu^ 
Maundrell records the fact which he himself wi? 
nessed, that after a sudden fall of rain, the river 
descending in floods is tinged of a deep red by the 
SOU of the hills in which it takes its rise, and imparts 
this colour to the sea for a considerable distance. 
Hence some have sought to explain the legend of the 
beautiful Adonis, who was killed by a wild boar on 
Mount Libanus (Strab. p. 755; Lucian, de Dea 
Syr. I; Plin. v. 20.; Nonn. Dionys. iiL 80, xx. ' 
144.)' [W.R.] 

ADOREUS, the name of a mountain of Galatia, 
Tiow Elmah Dagh, in the neighbourhood of Pessinus, 
in Asia. Livy (xxxviii. 18.) says that it omtaina 
the source of the river Sangarius. [G. L.] 

ADORSI. [AoBsi.] 

ADRAA CAJprfa, Euseb. OnomasL : "A^pa. Ptol. 
V. 15. § 23: LXX. 'EZpativ, *E^paiv : Eng.'Vers. 
Edrei : and probably the *hlpaxrc6s of Hierocles, 
p. 273 : Drat^, a town in Palestine, near the sources 

rf tkt inv Himmu, and deep]/ onbiycd in tbe 
■pot ii 1^ noviOiD chaiD of HoiThm. Befoie 

tfaf na((v>t nf Canua hj JoehiiK, it wu one of Ibe 
ilKfdintfOg.king nf BuhwL After hii defeat 
~ Iba half triba of Ma- 
sitem aide of Jo 
at of a Chmtian biabap at an (wlj tiine, 
«id ■ ^aabop of Adna sat in tbe oooDcjl of Sdflu^ 
(jt.[k38l).BdofChal«idoo (a.d. 4S1). Bj tbe 
Giwki il na csUod Adna, and bj tbe Cnuadoi 
- - - »at a mifca, 

a largfl nctangolar 
a doaUa covoid colonnadfl, 
in tinmiddlo. (Nimibon,iiL33; 
. L 10 ; Jishu liL i. xiii. IS, 31 ; 
.laftg. IT. 5. I 43 : Bnckingbam. Triadt, 
iAB.f.H6:itmkiaiit,id.y,m.') [W.RD.] 
ADRAISTAE ('A^ioIiiW), a peo(de of N. India 
(ikx P^ab). siib a capital dtj Pimpnuna (ni^ 
rfrnfin}. shich Aknndrr nached in a daj'a joainej 
{nan tiM Hjdraota (^Rji^rt), on bia march to 
Sueala. (AniuL^aoi. T.2S. §30 Laasea iden- 
tifib liksn vith t^M modem ilrof^u (^PtniapotamiOj 
p. 45). [P.S.] 

ADRAMITAE or ATBAMl'TAE (Plin. ri. 28. 
a 33; 'AV*>^«. rtoL; hrntn^ Perip. p. IS), an 
Ai^aan tribe in Ibr diitiict Cfaatnmotitii of Aj*bia 
ftb. TlRjwciTntaatedontlieajaitoftlioIiedSea 
mtavd of Adra, and their luum is eliU pnaeired 
m ibc nndmi Badnmaml, Like tbur immediate 
B^4biiiin in Aialua Felii, the Adiamitaa van 
acbt^r rapigrd in the dmg and ajace trade, of 
■ikkh tber raplal Sabfaatha was tbe empohnm. 
Tbrr Kire |>0TvnAi hj a race of kinga, who b«t 
tb bmilj v flffirial title of iJeatar. [ClUTRA- 
■OTTIiM.] [W. fl. D.] 

ADBAMTE'STTUS SINUS. [Adramtttium i 


TW: Etk. 'AifBiirmirit, Adnmyttcniu : Adra- 
■■iior£ifraHl).a townatDBt«d at thebtad of the 
kn, oOed fran it Adnmytttniu, and on the riTcr 
Cacaa, in Mjioa, and to tbo read from the Hellcs- 
piHida to PfT^ajatmi. According to tradition it naa 
fTnrifil hj Adramja, a brother of Croeaiu, king of 
Lfdia; bol a admj of AtbanianB lb said to hare anb- 

dthere. (Stnb. p. 606.) The place 

came a Greek Iowa. Thucjdidel (*. 1 ; 
alio menticna ■ Mttlannt here fn^n 
a bf the Deliaiii whom the Atheniana 
am the uilaad B. c 433. After the 
be djnaatj of the kings of Per- 
tt waa t seaport td some note; and that it 
had vBoe iblppng, aj^iean frcm a passage in tbe 
iOt at the AjnstlH (nrii. 3). Under the 
BoOHia it TB* a Ccnrennu Joriiliciu in the pro- 
liace <i Asa, or placv to wluch the inbabilanta of 
tka i&drict reaortad a> the cocnt town. Then an 
■ ncaoTaiKiaitreniaina. [0. L.] 

ADRAMA (EAr), » riier of Cemuuij in tbe 
tsRiLr!r(fclHChatti,iHiarCa(SeJ: (Tae. ^ml LS6.) 
^ c, 4i; RuiMAxa, Itiner. Hieros. p. 560: SL 
OiaUm tbe Draoberg), » town in Noricnm, litn- 
Ssi bona the towns Aenuna and Celeia, in tho 
nlrr irptntiDg UU Cetioa ftom Mt. Cajrancas. 
A ^abge of iu Boman origin or occupation still 
mm m ila loc*l ■ppiiIl»tion of Trajaner-darf or 



Steph. B. HADiiAiruM, SI. Ilal. : Elh. *Al^|n)i, 
HadiulUnua : AdemB),M citjof the inlerics' cf Sidlj, 
stoated at the foot if the wcBlem slope if Mt. Aetna 
aboi% the Tallej of the Simelo, and about 7 mike from 
Centnripi. We leant fnm Diodoms (lir. 37) that 
there existed hen from tctj ancient limes a temple 
rf a local deitj named Adnnos, whcee wonhip waa 
eiCenaiTely simiHl tbrongbSiGil7,tuidappHnlohaie 
beenconnected with thatcf the Palid. (Hajcb.s.c. 
noAiinf.) Bnt (here was no dig of the name until 
the ;ear 400 b. c. when it waa founded bj the elder 
I^onjaina, with a view to extend his power and io- 
floence in the interior of the island. ([Mod. L c.) 
It pnbablj eontinned to be a dependency t£ Sjra- 
cossi but in 345 B. c. it fell uito the hands of Ti- 
moleon. (Id. ivi. 68; Plut. nmol. 13.) It was 
one of the citiee taken hj the Komans at tbe com- 
mencement of the Fint Panic War (Died, iiiii. 
Eic. Hoeech. p. 501), and pntabl; on this account 
continued aAerwards in a rektioD to Rome inferior 
to that of meat other Sicilian citua. This ma; per- 
haps account for tbe circumitaiioe that its name is 
not once mentioned bj Cicero (see Zampt ad Cie. 
Verr. m. 6, p. 437); but we l«ni from Phnj that 
it was m his time included iu the class of the " sti- 
peodiariae ciritales " of Sidlj. (if, K. lii, 8.) 

Both Diodoma and Plutan;h apeak of it as a small 
town owing its importance chicflj to the sanctitj of 
iu tem[Jo; but eiistiog ntnains prore that it must 
have been at one time a pUce of atane cousideration. 
Th«e consist of portions of the andent wmlU and 
toweis, built in a masiive style of large squaied blocks 
of lava ; of massive substructions, sapposed to hais 
been Ihoee of the temple of Adnnue ; and tbe ruins 
ff a large building which appears to have belonged 
to Rotuan Thermae. Numerona Kpolchres also 
have been discovered and eicarated in the immediatB 
neighbourhood. The modem town of Adeni t«. 
tains the andent rite aa well as name ; it is a consi- 
derable place, with above 60CXI inhabitants. (Bis- 
caii, Viaggio w Sicilia, pp. 57 — 60; OrWani, Diz. 
Gfogr. della Sidlia, p. 13; Bull dell. Init. Arch. 
1843, p. 129.) 

Stephanos Bfiantinus speaks of the dtja* ritnated 
ou a river of the same name: thia was evidently QO 
iKher than the narthem branch if the Sinela (Sy- 
maethus) which is still afttai called tlie fiune iT 
Ademi. [£. H, B.] 


CAt|iIa or 'Arpla). It is impceaiblB to establish any 
distinctifa between these fbiius, cs* to aasign the eoe 
(as has been done by seretal anthm) to ons city, 
and another to tbe other. The oldest form appeara 
to have been HatkU, which vre find oo corns, while 
HadbiA is that used in all inscriptions: some MbS. 
of Livy have AdriA, and others Atria. Pliay 
tells us that AtbiA was the more ancient form, 
which was afterwards changed into Al>RIA, but the 
Gncks seem la have early used 'Aipfa for Ih* cdty, 



as well as *A9pias for the sea. 1. A city of Gis- 
alpine Gaol, atnated between the Padus and the 
Atbesis, not far from their months, and still called 
AdricL It is now distant more than 14 miles from 
the sea, bat was originally a sea-port of great cele- 
brity. Its fonndation is ascribed to Diomed by 
Stephanns Byzantinnw, and some other late writers: 
Justin also (xx. 1), probably following Theopompos, 
calls it a dty of Greek origin; but these testimonies 
are fiir oatwdghed by those of the Boman writers, 
who agree in describing it as an Etruscan colony. 
It was probably established at the same period with 
their other settlements on the north side of the 
Apennines, and became, from its position, the prin- 
cipal empcniam for their trade with the Adriatic; 
by which means it attained to so flourishing a con- 
dition, as to have given name to the gnlf, or portion 
of the sea in its immediate neighbourhood, from 
whence the appellati<xi was gradually extended to 
the whole of the inland sea still called the Adriatic. 
To this period may also be ascribed the great canals 
and works whidb facilitated its communications with 
the adjoining rivers, and through them with the 
interior of Cisalpine Gaul, at the same time that 
they drained the marshes which would otherwise 
have rendered it uninhabitable. (liv. v. 33 ; Plln. iii. 
16. s. 20; Strab. v. p. 214; Varro de L, L. v. 161 ; 
Festus, p. 13, ed. MiUler; Plut. ComtS. 16.) 
Notwithstanding its early celebrity, we have scarcely 
any informaticm concerning its history; but the de- 
cline of its power and prosperity may reasonably be 
ascribed to tLs conquest of the neighbouring countries 
by the Gauls, and to the consequent neglect of the 
canals and streams in its neighbourhood. The in- 
creasing commerce of the Greeks with the Adriatic 
probably contributed to the same result. It has 
been supposed by some writers that it received, at 
different periods, Greek colonies, one from Epadamnus 
and the other fh)m Syracuse; but both statements 
appear to rest upon misconceptions of the passages 
of Diodoros, from which they are derived. (Died. ix. 
Exc Vat. p. 17, XV. 13; in both of which passages 
the words rhv 'AHplav certainly refer to the Adriatic 
sea or gulf, not to the city, the name of which is 
always feminine.) The abundance of vases of 
Greek manufacture found here, of precisely similar 
character with those of Nola and Vnlci^ sufficiently 
attests a great amount of Greek intercourse and 
influence, but cannot be admitted as any proof of a 
Greek colony, any more than in the parallel case of 
Vulci, (B. Rochette in the Annali delF Irut, Arch. 
vol. vi. p. 292; Welcker, Vcui cU Adria in the 
BuOeUino deW Inst. 1834, p. 134.) Under the 
Romans Adria appears never to have been a place of 
much consequence. Strabo (/.c.) speaks of it as a 
small town, communicating by a short navigation 
with the sea; and we learn from Tacitus (Hist iii. 
12) that it was still accessible for the light Libur- 
nian ships of war as late as the time ^ Vitellius. 
After the fidl of the Western Empire it was included 
in the exarchate of Ravenna, but fell rapidly into 
decay during the middle ages, though it never ceased 
to exist, and always continued an episcopal see. 
Since the opening of new canals it has considerably 
revived, and has now a population of 10,000 souls. 
Considerable remains of the ancient city have been 
discovered a little to the south of the modem town 
towards Ravegncmo ; they are all of Roman date, and 
comprise the ruins of a theatre, baths, mosaic pave- 
ments, and part of the ancient walls, all whidi have 
been buried to a considerable depth under the accu- 


mulations of alluvial stnl. Of the nmnenms ndna 
antiquities discovered there, the most interestii^ an 
the vases aJieady alluded to. (See MQller, Etrwhtr, 
1. p. 229, and the authors there cited.) The eabi 
ascribed to thb city certainly belong to Adzia in 

A river of the same name (6 *A5pla$) is men* 
tioned by Hecataeus (ap. Steph. Byz. 9. v.), and hj 
Theopompus (ap. Strab. vu. p. 317); It is caUed 
by Ptolemy 'Arptta^s iroroiUsj and must pro- 
bably be the same caUed by tiie Romans Tartans 
(Plin. iii. 16. s. 20), and still known in the uppa 
part of its oouBse as the Tartaro, It rises in the 
hiDs to the SE. of the Logo di GordOy and flowi 
by the modem Adria, but is known \fj the name d 
Canal Bianco in the lower part of its course; 11 
communicates, by canals, witii the Po and the Adage. 

2. A city of Picenum, still called Atri, dtaated 
about 5 miles from the Adriatic Sea, between the 
rivers Vomanns and Matrinos. Accovding to tht 
Itinerary it was distant 15 Roman miles from Cas- 
tmm Novum, and 14 fitnn Teate. (Itin. Ant pp. 
308, 310, 313; comp. Tab. Pent.) It has been 
supposed, with much probability, to be of Etruscan 
origin, and a colony from the more celebrated city d 
the name (Mastoochi, Tab. Berad. p. 532; MuJler, 
EtrvskeTf vol. i. p. 145), though we have no his- 
torical evidence of the fact. It has also been 
generally admitted that a Greek colony was founded 
there by Dionysius the Elder, at the time that hf 
was seeking to establish his power in the Adriatic 
about B. c. 385 ; but this statement rests on vei^ 
doubtful authority (Etym. Magn. v. 'AipUis), and 
no subsequent trace of the settlement is found ii 
history. The first certain historical notice we find oi 
Adria is the establishment of a Roman colony then 
about 282 B.C. (Liv. Epit. xi. ; Madvig, de CoUmiis 
p. 298.) In the early part of the Second Ponii 
War (B.C. 217) its territory was ravaged by Han- 
nibal; but notwithstanding this calamity, it wasoM 
of the 18 Latin colonies which, in b. g. 209, wen 
faithful to the cause of Rome, and willing to con- 
tinne their contributions both of men and money 
(Liv. xxii. 9, xxvii. 10; Polyb. iii. 88.) At a lata 
period, as we learn from the Liber de Coloniis, il 
must have received a fresh colony, probably undei 
Augustus: hence it is termed a Colonia, both b} 
Pliny and in inscriptions. One of tiiese gives it tfa< 
tides of " Colonia Aelia Hadria," whence it woold 
appear that it had been re-established by the em- 
peror Hadrian, whose family was originally deritec 
from hence, though he was himself a native d 
Spain. (lib. Colon, p. 227 ; PHn. H. N. iii. 13 
s. 18; Orell. In»cr. no. 148, 3018; Grater, p. 1022 
Zumpt de Colon, p. 349; Spartian. Hadrian. \. 
Victor, Epit^ 14.) The territory of Adria (ag« 
Adrianus), though subsequentiy included in Picenum 
appears to have originally formed a separate and in* 
dependent district, bounded on the N. by the rivei 
Vomanns ( Vonyino\ and on the S. by the Matrinui 
(la Piomba); at the mouth of this latter river wai 
a town betuing the name of AL^trinum, whicl 
served as the port of Adria; the ci^ itself stood 01 
a hill a few miles inland, on the same site stil 
occupied by the modem Atri, a place of some con- 
sideration, with the title of a city, and the see of 1 
bishop. Great part of the circuit of the ancieii' 
walls may be still traced, and mosaic pavement 
and other remains of buildings are also preserved 
(Strab. V. p. 241 ; Sil. Ital. viii. 439 ; Ptol. iii- 1 
§ 52} Mela, u. 4; RoroanelU, vol. iii. p 307.) Ao 



tilbe hin. Ant. (pp. 906, 310) Adik wb 
t of juDcCioii of the Via Salaria and Valeria, 
which probably ccntribated to its 
■■d Air iahmg cffl fidjtjon Under the 



h is vm gcaaerally admitted, that the coins of 
Aim (vitk the legend Hat.) belong to the dtj of 
PioeBBin; but great diflEerence of opinion has been 
cBlotunBd as to tiieir age. They belong to the 
dm fwrnmly known as Acs Gnve, and are even 
amoBg ^ beavkst spednftens known, exceeding in 
vdgbt the most ancient Roman asses. On this 
seoosDt they hare been assigned to a very remote 
Mdqoitj, some veferxing them to the Etruscan, 
stibos to the Greek, settlers. Bat there seems much 
saaeii to betieve that they axe not reaUy so ancient, 
sad iidflog, in &ct, to the Roman colony, which was 
looaded pcenoQB to the general redaction of the 
Itdisa boss coinage. (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 98 ; Miller, 
£iiM>>r,ToLLp.306; B«ckh, i/e<ro/o^ p. 379 ; 
Dot Romiachf^ Jfanevesea, p. 231 ; Mil- 
I de ritaUe, p. 216.) [E.H.B.] 


ADRIATICUM MARE (6 'AZpioa), is the name 
^!Xf«n both by Greek and Latin writers to the inland 
aea stiU called the^c2riaf»e, which separates Italy from 
Bhricom, Dahnatia and Epeiros, and is connected 
at'fts southem e x tre mi ty with the Ionian Sea. It 
a|ipesn to haTe been at first regarded by the Greeks 
as a moe golf or inlet of the Ionian Sea, whence the 
ioo h *Aip(as (mJAvot sc.), which first came 
e, became so firmly establisbed that it always 
JM d its groond among the Greek writers of 
the best age, and it is only at a later period or in 
* E> » |rf M M ^ cases tiiat we find the expressions ^ 
'AMptini or 'ASpcoruH^ 3d\ao-cra. (The former ex- 
js t aauu is empkiyed by ScTnmns Chins, 868 ; and 
€bt kfcter in one instance by Strabo, iv. p. 204.) 
The LadiM fire^iently termed it Mare Supsrum, 
the Upper Sea, as opposed to the Tyrrhenian or 
Lower Sea (Mare Inferam); and the phrase is copied 
firam tiiem by Polybios and other Greek writers. It 
appears probahfe indeed that tins was the common or 
^t it mt i i^f ex pre ssi on among the Romans, and that 
tbe WDS of the Adriatic was a mere geographical 
^MgxMtian, perhaps borrowed in the first instance 
bam the Greeks. The nse of Adria or Hadria 

. for the name of the sea, was certainly a 

Graedsm, first introdnced by the poets (Hor. 
Cm-m,l$. 15, in. 3. 5, &c.; Catnll. xxxn. 15), 
^MMigfa it is sometimes nsed by prose writers also. 
(Senee. Ep. 90; Mefa^ iL 2,&c.) 

Aecading to Hei^xkytas (i. 163) the Phocaeans 
were the first of the Greeks who diacorered the Adri- 
ade, or St least the first to explore its recesses, bat 
the Fboeocaas most hare been well acqnmnted with 
itlo^ befofe, as thej had traded with the Venetians 
fcr smber from a Tcry early period. It has, indeed, 
braeoDtended, that 6 'A9pivs in Herodotos (both 
k tUf fasMge and in it. 33, t. 9) means not the 

sea or golf so called, bat a region or district about 
the h€»d of it. Bat in this case it seems highly 
improbable that precisely the same expression shooid 
have come into general nse, as we certainly find it 
not long after the time of Herodotos, for the sea 
itsdf.* Hecataeos also (if we can trast to the ac- 
coracy of Stephanas B. «. v. 'A8^»(ar) appears to have 
nsed the fall expression kSKkos *ASpias. 

The natnral liooits of the Adriatic are Tery deariy 
marked by the contraction of the opposite shores at 
its entrance, so as to form a kind oi strait, not ex- 
ceeding 40 G. miles in breadth, between the Acro- 
ceraanian promontory in Epiras, and the coast of 
Calabria near Hydrantom, in Italy. This is accord- 
ingly correctly assnmed both by Strabo and Pliny as 
the soathem limits of the Adriatic, as it was at an 
earlier period by Soylax and Poljbias, the latter of 
whom expressly tells as that Oricus was die first city 
on the right hand after entering the Adriatic. 
(Strab.Tii. p.317; Plin.iii.ll. s. 16; Scylax,§14, 
p. 5, § 27, p. 11 ; PoL viL 19; Mela, ii. 4.) Bat 
it appears to have been some time before the appel- 
lation was received in this definite sense, and the use 
of the luune both of the Adriatic and cf the Ionian 
Golf was for some time very vagne and flnctuating. 
It is probable, that in the earliest times the name of 
6 'AHpias was confined to the part of the sea in the 
immediate neighbonrhood of Adria itself and the 
moaths of the Padus, or at least to the upper part 
near the head of the gulph, as in the passages of 
Herodotos and Hecataeos above cited; but it seems 
that Hecataeos himself in another passage (op. 
Steph. B. 8. V. "loTpoi) described the Istrians as 
dwelling on the Ionian gulf, and Hellamcas (t^, 
Dion, Hal. i. 28) spoke of the Pados as flowing into 
the Ionian gulf. In like manner Thucydides (i. 24) 
describes Epidamnus as a city on the right huid as 
yon enter the Ionian ga]£ At this period, there- 
fore, the latter expression seems to have been at 
least the more common one, as ai^)lied to the whole 
sea. Bat very soon after we find the orators Lysias 
and Isocrates employing the term A'ASpfar in its 
more extended sense: and Scylax (who most have 
been nearly ocmtemporary with the latter) ex- 
pressly tells OS that the Adriatic and Ionian golfs 
were one and the same. (Lys. Or. e. Diog, § 38, 
p. 908; Isocr. PhiUpp. § 7; Scyhuc, § 27, p. 11.) 
From this time no change appears to have taken 
place in the use of the name, I *A^piat being fami- 
liariy used. by Greek writers for the modem Adriatic 
(Theo^.iv. 5. §§ 2, 6; Pseud. Aiistot. de Mirab. 
§§ 80, 82; Scymn. Ch. 132, 193, &c.; Pol. ii. 
17, iii. 86, 87, &c) ontil after the Christian era. 
But sobseqoently to that date a very singolar change 
was introduced: for while the name of the Adriatic 
Gulf {6 *A9plaSj or *A9ptaruchs kSXwos^ became re- 
stricted to the upper portion of the inland sea now 
known by the same name, and the lower portion nearer 
the strait or entrance was commonly known as the 

♦ The expressions of Pdybias (iv. 14, 16) cited by 
Mttller {EtrusheTj i. p. 141) in sopport of this 
view, certainly cannot be relied on, as the name of 
6 'Aiplas was fully established as that of the sea, 
long before his time, and is repeatedly used by him- 
self in this sense. But his expressions are singu- 
larly vague and fluctuating : thus we find within a 
few pages, 6 Kwrii rov *ASpwy K&Kiros, 6 rod ircands 
'ASpiov fufx^s, 6 *A^piaruc6s iarx6s, ^ Kvrh, rhv 
*A9pica' ddKarra^etc, (See Schweighauser's Index to 
Po^bius, p. 197.) 



Ionian Gulf, tlie sea without tliat entnmce, previouslj 
known as the Ionian or Sicilian, came to be caM&i 
the Adriatic Sea. The beginning of this altera- 
tion TD&j already be found in Strabo, who speaks of 
the Ionian Gulf as a part of the Adriatic: but it 
IS found fullj developed in Ptolemy, who makes the 
promontory of Garganus the limit between the Adri- 
atic Gulf (6 ^Ahpieu KoXwos) and the Ionian Sea 
(t3 'I^yiov ir4Xajoi)y while he calls the sea which 
bathes the eastern shores of Bmttium and Sicily, 
the Adriatio Sea (r6 'ASpiartKdi^ wiXaryos): and 
although the later gec^raphers, Dionyaus Periegetes 
and .^athemems, apply the name of the Adriatic 
vnthin the same limits as Strabo, the common usage 
of historians and other writers under the Roman 
Empire is in confonnity with that of Ptolemy. Thus 
we find them almost uniformly speaking of the 
Ionian Gulf for the lower part of the modem Adri- 
atic: while the name of the latter had so completely 
superseded the ori^nal appellation of the Ionian Sea 
for that which bathes the western shores of Greece, 
that Philostratus speaks cf the isthmus of Corinth 
as separating the Aegaean Sea from the Adriatic. 
And at a still later period we find Procopius and 
Orosius still further extending the appellation as fiir 
as Crete on the one side, and Malta on the other. 
(Ptol. iii. 1. §§ 1, 10, 14, 17, 26, 4. §§ 1, 8; 
Dionys. Per. 92 — ^94, 380, 481 ; Agathemer. i. 3, ii. 
14; Appian, J^. 63, B. C. ii. 39, iii. 9, ▼. 65; 
Dion Cass. xli. 44, xIt. 3 ; Herodian. viii. 1 ; Phi- 
lostr. Imagg. iL 16; Pausan. v. 25. § 3, viii. 54. § 
3; Hieronym. Ep. 86; Procop. B. 0. i. 15, iii. 40, 
iv. 6, B, V. i. 13, 14, 23; Oros. i. 2.) Concerning 
the various fluctuations and changes in the applica- 
tion and signification of the name, see Laxcher's 
NoUs on Herodotus (vol. i. p. 157, Eng. transl.), 
andLetronne(i2ecA«rc^ swDicuil. p. 170 — ^218), 
who has, however, carried to an extreme extent the 
distinctions he attempts to establish. The general 
form of the Adriatic Sea was well known to tiie an- 
cients, at least in the time of Strabo, who correctly 
describes it as long and narrow, extending towards 
the NW., and corresponding in its general dimen- 
sions with the part cf Italy to which it is parallel, 
from the lapygian promontory to the mouths of the 
Padus. He also gives its greatest breadth pretty 
correctly at about 1200 stadia, but much overstates 
its length at 6000 stadia. Agathemerus, on the 
contrary, while he agrees with Strabo as to the 
breadth, assigns it only 3000 stadia in length, 
which is as much below the truth, as Strabo exceeds 
it. (Strab. ii. p. 123, v. p. 211; Agatliemcar. 14.) 
The Greeks appear to have at first regarded the neigh- 
bourhood of Adria and the mouths of the Padus 
as the head or inmost recess of the gulf, but Strabo 
and Ptolemy more justly place its extremity at the 
gulf near Aquileia and the mouth of the Tilavemptus 
iTagUamento). (Strab. ii. p. 123, iv. p. 206 ; Ptol. 
iu. 1. §§ 1, 26.) 

The navigation of the Adriatic was much dreaded 
on account of the frequent and sudden storms to 
which it was subject : its evil character on this ac- 
count is repeatedly alluded to by Horace. (^Camu 
I 3. 15, 33. 15, ii. 14. 14, iii. 9. 23, &c.) 

There is no doubt that the name of the Adriatic 
was derived from Ihe Etruscan city of Adria or 
Atria, near the mouths of the Padus. Livy, Pliny, 
and Strabo, all concur in this statement, as well as 
in extolling the ancient power and commercial in- 
fluence of that city [Adria, No. 1], and it is pro- 
bably only by a confusion between the two cities of 


the sibne name, that some later writers ^ve derived 
the appellation of the sea from Adria in Picenum, 
which was situated at some distance from the coasts 
and is not known to have been a place of any im- 
portance in eurly times. [K. H. B.] 

ADBUMETUM. [Hadrumetom.] 

ADRUS {Albaragena)j a river of Hispania Lusi- 
tanica, flowing from the N. into the Anas (G^inm^ 
ana) opposite i^Badajoz (^Itin, AfU, p. 418 ; Ukert, 
vol. ii. pt. 1 , pp. 289—392). [P. S.] 

ADUA'TICA or ADUATUCA, a casteUum or 
fortified place mentioned by Caesar (jS. G, vi. 32) 
as situated about the centre of the country of the 
Eburones, the greater part of which country lay 
between the Mosa (JIfaas) and the Rhenus. There 
is no further indication of ita position in Caesar. 
Q. Cicero, who was posted here with a legion in 
B. c. 53, sustained and repelled a sudden attack of 
the Sigambri (B. G. vi. 35, &c.), in the same camp 
in which Titurius and Aurunculeins had wmtered in 
B. c. 54 (jS. G. v. 26). If it be the same place as 
the Aduaca Tungrorum of the Antonine Itineraiy, 
it is the modem Tongem^ in the Belgian province 
of Limburg, where there are remains of old walls, 
and many antiquities. Though only a castelluni or 
temporary fort in Caesar's time, the place is likely 
enough to have been the site of a larger town at 
a later date. [G. L.] 

ADUA'TICI ('Atowoti«o(, Dion Cass.), a peo- 
ple of Belgic Gaul, the neighbours of the Eburones 
and Nervii. They were the descendants of 6000 
Cimbri and Teutones, who were left behind by the 
rest of these barbarians on their march to Italy, 
for the purpose of looking after the baggage which 
their comrades could not conveniently take with 
tliem. After the defeat of the Cimbri and Teutones, 
near Aix by C. Marius (b. c. 102), and again in 
the north of Italy, these 6000 men maintained them- 
selves in the country. (Caes. B, G. ii. 29.) Their 
head quarters were a strong natural position on a 
steep elevation, to which there was only one ap- 
proach. Caesar does not give the place a nanoe, 
and no indication of its site. D'AnvUle supposes 
that it is Falait on the Mehaigne. The tract 
occupied by the Aduatid appears to be in SotUh 
Brabant. When their strong position was taken by 
Caesar, 4000 of the Aduatid perished, and 53,000 
were sold for slaves. {B. G. ii. 33.) [G. L.] 

ADITLA MONS (6 'A8ou\aO. the name given 
to a particular group of the Alps, in which, accord- 
ing to the repeated statement of Strabo, both the 
RUne and the Addua take their rise, the one flowing 
northwards, the other southward into the Larian 
Lake. This view is not however correct, the real 
source of the Addua being in the glaciers of the 
Rhaetian Alps, at the head of the ValtilUne, while 
both branches of the Rhine rise much farther to tlic 
W. It is probable that Strabo <K>nadered the rivei 
which descends from the Splugen to the head of the 
lake of CoTno (and which flows from N. to S.) as 
the tme Addua, overlooking tlie greatly superioi 
magnitude of that which comes down ^m the Vol- 
telUne. The sources of this river are in £M:t not £ai 
from those of tlie branch of the Rhine now called the 
Zf inter Rhein, and which, having the more direct 
course from S. to N., was probably regarded by the 
andents as the true origin of the river. Mt. Adula 
would thus signify the lofty mountain group about 
the passes of the Splugen and S. Bernardino^ and at 
the head of the valley of the Hinter Jiheinj rathoi 
than the Mt. St. Gothard, as supposed by most 


nodm geofpxpheR, but we most not expect great 

■oconcT ID the use of the torn. Ptolem j, who also 

vepcmii the Rhine as xising in Mt. Adala, says 

mtfaii^ of the Addoa; but eiiooeu u sly describes this 

put d the Alps as that when the chain alters its 

wmsi dhcdiaD finom N. to E. (Strab. ir. pp. 192, 204, 

T. PL 213: PtoL ii. 9. § 5, iai. 1. § 1.) [£. H. B.] 

ADCXE cr ADUUS Ca«oAmj, PtoL iv. 7. § 8, 

Til. 16l § 11; Anian. PiripL; Eratosth. pp. 2, 3; 

'AImAi5, Steph. B. a. v.; 'A5a^\ci, Joseph. Antiq. 

a. 5; Pnioop. B. Pert. i. 19; oppidnm adoofitoo, 

Pfia. ff. y. >-i. 29. s. 34: JSth. 'ASovAfrnr, PtoL 

ir. 6; AdnUta, Plin. L c: Adj. 'A9ovkrTiK6s), 

thepriacipa] hav«n and dtj of the Adulitae, a people 

•f imxed origin in the r^o Troglodytica, situated on 

a la? ef the Bed Sea cdled Adnlicns Sinns ('A8ou- 

Xitiht n^Mtj Aa nedey Bag), Adnle is the modem 

fMis or ZiiOa, proooonoed, according to Mr. Salt, 

JjwWe, and stands in ht 15^^ 35' N. Rnins are 

sttd to erist there. D'AnviUe, indeed, in his Map 

ti the Bed Sea, phMses Adnle at Arkeeko on the 

AMBe eoask, about 22^ N. of TMb. According in. 

dead ta Cosmas, Adnle was not immediatelj od the 

eaBat,faat aboot tiro miles inland. It was founded bj 

fa^nine ekres from the neighbonring kingdom of 

l^pt, and under the Romans was ihe biven of 

Aznaeu Adnle was an emportnm for hides (river- 

L riuBooeros), ivory (elephant and rhixioceros 

■X aal toctoise-ehelL It had also a large 

Anv^aailcet, and was a canTftn station for the 

tale of the interior of Africa. The apes which the 

ftaasB Uies of high birth kept as pets, and for 

vUch they often gave high prices, came principally 

ftom AdoicL At Adnle was the celebrated Monu- 

latefi AdaStamaUj the inscription of which, in 

Greek ietten, was, m the 6th oentuiy of the Chris- 

tiaa en, eopied by Cosmas the Indian merchant (In- 

ftepkostes ; see DicL of Biog. art CotmoB) into 

the Koond book of his *' Christian Topt^raphy." 

The monament is a throne of white marble, with a 

fiA of some different stone behind it. Both throne 

aad ebb seem to have been oorered with Greek cha- 

GoBoas appears to have put two inscrip- 

into one, and thereby occasioned no little per- 

pkxity to leariwd men. Mr. Salt's discovery of the 

iaxripdon at Ajnnne,and the oootents of the Adnlitan 

Mcriptioa itself^ show that the latter was bipartite. 

The first portion is in the third person, and re- 

CDfdi that Ptolemy Energetes (b. c. 247 — ^222) 

neeifed from the Troglodyte Arabs end Aethio- 

pius eertain elephants which his father, the second 

kinf of the Macedonian dynasty, and himself, had 

tdoEB IB banting in the region of Adule, and trained 

la war in their own kingdom. The second portion 

cf the inscription is in the first person, and com- 

anaorates the conquests of an anonymons Aethio- 

fiu kiog in Aralna and Aethiopia, as far as the 

6«tier ii Egypt* Among other names, which we 

ca identify with the extant appellations of African 

4itriela,occnz8 that of the most monntainoos region 

ia Abyssinia, the Semenae, or Samen, and that of a 

lifer which is evidently the Astaboras or Tacatai^ 

a BBin tributary of the Nile. The Adnlitan in- 

seriptni is printed in the works of Cosmas, in the 

CettBct Nop. Pair, et Scr^ Graec. by Mont- 

&ieaB, pL ii 1^ 11^—546; in Chisoll's Antiq. 

AmA; and in Fabrictns, Bibl. Graac. ir. p. 245. 

The bat eoDDnentaiy upon it is by Buttmann, JAis. 

d^ Jttrtkmuv. n. 1. p. 105. [W. B. D.] 

ADULITAE. [Aduub.] 

ADTSMA'CHIDAE QAl^ftaxfiat), a people of 



K. Africa, mentioned by Herodotus as the first 
Libyan people W. of Egypt. (Herod, iv. 168.) Their 
extent was from the frontier of Egypt (that is, ac- 
cording to Herodotus, from the Snns Plinthinetes 
(iL 6), but according to Scylax (p. 44, Hudson), 
from the Canofac mouth of the Kile), to the harbour 
of Plynos, near the Catabathmus Major. Herodotus 
distinguishes them from the other Libyan tribes in 
the £. of N. Africa, who were chiefly nomade (iv. 
191), by saying that their manners and customs 
resembled those of the Egyptians (iv. 168). He 
also mentions some remarkable usages whidi pre- 
vailed amongst them (/. c). At a later period they 
are found further to the S., in the interior of Mar- 
marica. (PtoL; Plin. v. 6; Sil. HaL ilL 278, foil., 
iac 223, foil.) [P-S.] 

AEA. [CoLcms.] 

AEACE'UM. [Aegina.] 

AEA'NTIUM (Ai(imov: TnifeerO, a promontoiy 
in Magnesia in Thessaly, forming the entrance to 
the Pagasaean bay. According to Ptolemy there 
was a town of the same name upon it. Its highest 
summit was called Mt. Tisaenm. (Plin. ir. 9. s. 16 ; 
PtoL iiL 13. § 16; Leake, Northern Greece j voL iv. 
p. 397.) [TisAKUM.] 

AEAS. [Aous.] 

AEBUHA (A»ovpa: Eth. Aieovpatos : prob* 
Cuervo), a town of the Carpetani, in Hispsnia Tar- 
xaconensis (Liv. zL 30; Stnib. op. Steph. B. «. v.), 
probably the Ai€6pa of Ptolemy (iL 6). Its name 
appears on coins as Aipora and Apora. (Mionnet, 
voL L p. 55, Supp. voL L pp. Ill, 112). [P. S.] 

AECAE ( Aficai : EtK. Aecanus : Trqfa), a town of 
Apulia mentioned both by Polybius and Livy, during 
the military operations of Hannibal and Fabius in 
that country. In common with many othor Apulian 
cities it had joined the Carthaginians sfter the battle 
of Cannae, but was recovered by Fabius Maximus 
in B.C. 214, though not without a regular siege. 
(Pol. iii. 88 ; Liv. xxiv. 20.) Pliny also enumerates 
the Aecani smong the inland towns of Apulia (iii. 
11); but its position is more clearly determined by 
the Itineraries, which place it on the Appian Way 
between Equus Tuticus and Herdonia, at a distance 
of 18 or 19 miles from the latter city. (Itin. Ant. 
p. 116; Itin. Hier. p. 610; the Tab. Pent, places it 
between Equus Tuticus and Luoeria, but without 
^ving the distances.) This interval exactly accords 
with the position ci the modon dtj of Troja, and 
confirms the statements of several chroniclers of the 
middle sges, that the latter was founded about the 
beginning of the eleventh centuiy, on the ruins of 
the ancient Aecae. Cluverius erroneously identified 
Aecae with Acoadiaj a village in the mountains S. 
of Bovino; but his error was rectified by Holstenius. 
Troja is an episcopal see, and a place of some con- 
aderation; it stands on a hill of moderate elevation, 
rising above the fertile plain of Puglia, and is 9 miles 
S. of Zocera, and 14 SW. of Foggia. (Holsten. 
Not. tn Cluver. p. 271 ; Bomanelli, vol. ii. p. 227; 
Giustaniani, Diz. Geogr. vol. ix. p. 260.) [E.H.B.] 

Appian, PtoL: Eih. Aecnlanus, Plin.; but the con- 
tracted form AecUmus and Aedanensis is the only one 
found in inscriptions: — the reading Aeculanum in 
Cic. €bd Att. xvi. 2, is very uncertain : — later inscrip- 
tions and the Itinentries write the name Eclaitum), 
a dty of Samnium, in the territory of the Hirpini, is 
correctly placed by the Itinerary of Antoninus on 
the Via Appia, 15 Roman miles from Beneventum. 
(Plm. iii. U.S. 16; PtoL iii 1. § 71; Itin. AnL p 

a ., 


» /t t 0, 




120; Tab. Pent) No maition of It is fonnfl iil 
history daring ^e wars of the Romaiu with tha 
Saoimtes, though it appears to hove been one of tha 
chief cities of the Hirpini: but daring the Social War 
(b. a 89) it iras taken and plundered by Solla, 
idiich kd to the sabimssion of ahnost all the neigh' 
boaring dties. (Appian, B,C,L 51.) It appears 
to have been soon after restored: the erection of its 
new waUS) gates, and towns being recorded by an in- 
acriptioii st^ extant, and which probably belongs to 
a dat« shortly after the Social War. At a kter 
period we find that port of its territoiy was portioned 
oat to new colonists, probably nnder Oetovian, bat 
it retained the condition of a mnnicipiam (as we: 
learn from Fhny and several inscriptions) trntO l<mg 
afterwards. It was probably in the reign of Trajan 
that it acquired the rook and title of a colony which 
we find assigned to it in later inscriptions. (Lib. 
Ookm. pp. 210, 260; Orel!. Irucr, no. 566, 3108, 
5020; Zompt, de Colonus, p. 401.) 

The site of Aeculanum was erraneoosly referred 
by Cluverius (Ital, p. 1203) to FrigmUo, Holstenios 
was the first to point out its true position at a place 
called le GroUe^ about a mile from MirabeUa, and 
close to the TctvenM del Paam, on the modem high 
rood from Naples into JPitgUa, Here the extensive 
xenudns of an ancient dty hove been found: a consi- 
derable part of the ancient walls, as well as rtaoB 
and foundations of Thermae, aqaedncts, temjdes, an 
ompUtheatre and other buildings have been disco- 
vend, though many of tiiem have since perished; 
and the wh^ site abounds in coins, gems, brcHizes, 
and other minor relics of antiquify. The inscriptions 
found here, as well as the ntuotion on the Appian 
Way, and the distance from Benevento, clearly prove 
these remains to be those of Aeculanum, and attest 
ito splendour and importance under the Roman em- 
pire. It continued to be a flourishing place until 
the 7th centnry, but was destroyed in A. d. 662, by 
the emperor Constons II. in his wars with the Lom- 
bards. A town arose out of ite ruins, which ob- 
tained the name of Quixtodecimubc from ite posi- 
tion at that distance from Beneventmn, and which 
continued to exist to the 1 1th centuxy when it had 
fidlen into complete decay, and the few nnnoining in- 
habitante removed to the castle of MirabeUa^ erected 
by the Normans on a neighbouring hill. (Holsten. 
Not in Cluver, p. 273; Lupuli, Iter Venumn, pp. 
74—128; Goorini, Ekereke suff antioa CUta di 
£elanOy 4to. Napoli, 1814; Bomanelli, vol. ii. pp. 
323—328.) [E. H. B.] 

AEDEPSUS {AShr^s: Eth, AlZiriftos : Upw), 
a town on the NW. ooest of Euboeo, 160 stadia 
from Gynus on the opposite coast of the Opuntian 
Locri. It oontamed warm baths sacred to Hercules, 
which were used by the dictetor Sulla. These warm 
baths ore still found about a mile above L^mo^ the 
site of Aedepsus. (Strab. pp. 60, 425 ; Athen. p. 
73; Plat SuH 26, Stfmp. iv. 4, where TdKn^fos is 
a fiilse reading; Steph. B. s. v.; PtoL iii 15. § 23; 
Plin. iv. 21 ; Leake, Northern Greece, yoL ii. p. 
176; Walpole, TrtweU, ^., p. 71.) 

AE'DUI, HEDUI (AiSoSw, Strabi p. 186), a 
Celtic people, who were separated from tiie Sequoni 
by the Ariir (<Saofw), which formed a large part of 
their eastern boundary. On the W. they were 
sepamted frtxn the Bituriges by the upper course 
of the Ligeris {Loire)^ as Caesar states (B. G. vii. 
5). To the N£. were the Lingonee, and to the 
S. the Segusiani. The Aedui Ambarri (J9. G. i. 
11), kinsmen of the Aedui, were on the borders 


of the Allobroges. The chief town of the Aednt 
in Caesar s time was Bibracte, and if we aasnme 
it to be on the site of the later town of Aagasto- 
dunmn (^«ton), we obtain profaaUy a iized cen- 
tral posidon in the territoiy of the Aedoi, in the 
old <^vision of Bowfogm, The Aedoi were one 
of the most powerful of the Celtic nations, but 
before Caesar's proeonsulship of Gallia, they had 
been bnmglrt under the dominion of the Seqnani, 
wiw had invitsd Germans from beyond the Bhine 
to assist them. The Aedui had been declared 
friends of theBoman people before this cahmiity 
beiel them; and Divitiacus, an Aeduoiif went to 
Borne to ask for the assistanoe of the senate, bat 
he retaned vrithoat accomplishing the object of 
his missian. Caesar, on his arrival in Gaul (b. c« 
58), restored these Aedui to their ibime^ indepen- 
dence and power. There was among them a body 
of nobifity and a senate, and they had a great nnm- 
her of dientes, as Caesar caUs them, who appear to 
have been in the nature of vassals. The dientes of 
the Aedui are enumerated by Caesar (JB. G, vii. 
75). The Aedui joined in the great rebellion 
agiunst the Bomans, which is the subject of the 
seventh book of the Gallic war (£. G. viL 42» &c.>; 
bat Caesar reduced them to subjection. In thw 
reign of Tiberias a. d. 21, Julias Sacrovir, a C^cd, 
attempted an insurrection among the Aedoi said 
seized Augostodanum, bat the rising was sow put 
downbyCl^his. (Tac. Jiml iiL 43— 46.) Tlie 
head of the oommonwealth of the Aedoi m Coesax'a 
time was called Vergobretus. He was elected by 
the priests, and held his ofilce for erne year. Ho 
had the power of life and death over his people, ae 
Caesar says, by which ezpressian he means probably 
that he was supreme judge. (B. (?. i. 16, vii. 33.) 

The clientes, or small commtmities dependent od 
the Aedui, were the Segusiani, already mentioned; 
the Ambivareti, who were apparently on the northern 
boundary of the Aedui trans Mbsam, {B. G. ir. 9) ; 
and the Aulerd Brannovices [Aulebci]. The Am- 
barri, already mentioned as kinsmen of the Aedtd^ 
ore not enumerated among the clientes (B. G. vii. 
55). One of the pagi or divinons of the Aedtxi 
was called Insnbres (Liv. v. 34). Caesar allowed 
a body aS Boii, who hod joined the Helvetii in 
their attempt to settie themselves in Gaol, to re- 
main in the territoiy of the Aedui {B. G, i. 28>. 
Their territoiy was between the Loire and the 
AUier, a branch of the Loire. They hod a town, 
Gergovia {B, G, vii. 9), the site of which is un- 
certain; if the reading Gergovia is accepted in this 
passage of Caesar, the place must not be confounded 
with the Gebooyia of the Arvemi. [G. L.] 

AEGAE in Europe (Atyol: Eih, Alymos^ 
AhytdTTfSf Afyoic^s). 1. Or Ajbga (Afycf), a town 
of Achaio, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was 
sitoated upon the river Craithis and upon the coast, 
between Aegeira and Bum. It is mentioned by 
Homer, and was celebrated in the earliest times ibr 
ite worafaip of Poseidon. It was afterwards deserted 
by ito inhabitanto, who removed to the neighbouring 
town of A^ira; and it had already ooised to be 
one of the 12 Achaean cities on the renewal of the 
League in b. a 280, ite plaee beazig oceuined by 
Ceryneia. Ite name does not occor in Polybius. 
All traces of A^ae have disappeared, but it pro- 
bably occupied the site of the Khim oSAbrata^ whidi 
is situated upon a commanding hcaght rising from 
the left bank of the river. Neither Strabo nor Pan- 
sanias mention on which bank of the Crathis- it 


doaiiViiil it pnibdUy stood on the left bank, sinoe 
Uk ligM » liMr UMi often immdated. (Horn. 77. Tiii. 
203; Bend. L 145; Stnb. pp. 386—387; Pans. 
viL tS. f IS; Leake, Jfores, toL iii. p. 394; Cor- 
tina^ AiopoMWffW, vol. i p. 472.) 

S. A tova m Emadua in MMedonia, and the 
boiiiJ^fhca of the Iboedoman kings, is probablj 
tibe aene as Edesaa, ihoogh sonw writers make 
then two different towns. [Edessa.^ 

ft. A town in Eaboea on the western coast N. of 
CUcis, sad a little S. of Orobiae. Strabo says 
t^ it was UO stadia from Anthedon in Boeotia. 
It is B i ei i li ii i e d hy Homer, but had disappeared in 
Aa tiBo flC Stnho, It was celebrated for its ww- 
^ip of FoseidaB from the earliest times; and its 
•■■pie flf this god still continued to exist when 
Stnhe wrcte, bekig ahnated upon a loftj moantain. 
Tkm latter wnter derives the name of ih» Aegaean 

Leake supposes it to have 
(Horn. IL xiii. 21; Strab. pp. 
38^ 405; Steph. B. s. p. ; Leake, Northern Greece^ 
«d. n. pi 275.) 
AEGL^S in Ask, 1. (AfM A2>«uai, A3V«w : ^tA. 
t; Aya» Ktda^ or Kalaat§\ a town 
of Ciiida, on the north side of the baj 
It is now separated from the outlet of the 
(/ytasa) bj a ki^ narrow aestoaiT' called 
iKay. In Stnabo^s time (p. 676) it was a 
dty with a port. (Campi Lncan, iii. 227.) 
> a Gra^ town, but the origin of it is 
A Greek inscripdon of the Roman period 
has been d is c oveitid there (Beaufixt, Karamania, 
p. 299); sod under the Boman domimon it was 
afiheeof someimpoctanoa. Tadtna calls it Aegeae 

2. (Aryoi: £U.AJ>acbr,Aryaic^), an Aeolian dty 
(Hnod. L 149), a little distance firom the coast <^ 
Ihda, end m the ndghboux&ood of Cume and 
TcBsas. It IB mentioned by Xenophon (HdUn, 
iv. 8. § 5) undnr the name hiytis^ which Schndder 
has altered into Afyo/. It snfiered from the great 
aartbqnake, whkh in the time of Hberius (a. d. 
17) desolated 12 of the dties of Asia. (Tadt 
Am a. 47.) [G. L.] 

AEGAEAE. [Akgiae.] 

AEGAEUM MAKE (rh KtymoP frdXayos, 
Hood. iv. 85 ; Aesch. Affam, 659 ; Strab. pauim; or 
■Bfily rh Alrpm, Herod. viL 55 ; 6 Kiymos wt- 
iUnpt, Herod. iL 97), the pert of the Mediterranean 
■■V eiUed the ArdiipdagOf and bj the Turks the 
WUte Seoy to distingnish it from the Black Sea. It 
was bnmded on the N. by Macedonia and Thrace, 
« tfae W. by Greece and on the E. by Ada ^Gnor. 
At its KE. oonier it was connected with the Pro- 
poads by the HcUespont. [HEU^BSPOirrus.] Its 
oteot was differently estimated by the andent 
■ritcci; bat the name was generally applied to the- 
k as fcr S. as tbs islands of Crete and 
Its name was vazionsiy derived by the an- 
I, dther from the town of Aegae 
a Eaboea; or fiora Aegens, the fitther of Theseus, 
«b» threw himself into it; or from Aegaea, the 
^peoflf the Amazons, who perished thoe; or from 
Jk|;aeon, who was represented as a marine god living 
ia te sea; or,last]j, from cSyls, a squall, on account 
«f its stocBi& Its real etymology is uncertain. Its 
dangeroos to andent navigators on 
of its jmmeroils islands and rocks, which 
fddirs of wind sod a confused sea, and also 
cX the Etesian or northerly winds, which 
\km aith great fiiry, especially ahont the etjdnoses. 



To the storms of the Aegaean the poets frequently 
allude. Thus Horace (Corm. ii. 16): Otimn diwa 
rog<U m patenii prenaus Aeffo/eo; and Virgil (Aen. 
zii. 365) : Ac velut Edoni JBoreae cum tpirktu dUo 
iftaomU Aegaeo, The Aegaean contained numerous 
isknds. Of these the most numerous were in the 
southern part of the sea ; they were divided into 
two prindpal groups, the Cyclades, lying off the 
coasts of Attica and Peloponnesus, azid ^e l^porades, 
lying along the coasts cf Caria and Ionia. . [Cr- 
CLADEs ; Spobadbs.3 In the northern part of the 
sea were the larger islands of Euboea, Thasos and 
Samothrace, and off the coast of Asia those of Samos, 
Chios and Lesbos. 

The A^;aean sea was divided into: 1. Mabs 
Tbracipm {b SptriKios w6moSj Horn. IL zziii. 230; 
rb 9fniticu)P wcAcryoj, Herod, vii. 176; comp. Soj^. 
Oed. JR, 197), the northern part of the Aegaean, 
washing the shores of Thrace and Macedonia, and 
extending as far S. as the northern coast of the island 
of Eubo^ 

2. Mare Mtbtouh (Hot. (7<srm. i. I. 14; rh 
MvpTwov wf Aoryor), the part of the A^aean S. of 
Eulwea, Attica and Argolis, which deri^ its name 
from the small island Myrtas, though others suppose 
it to c(xne from Myrtilus, whom Pelops threw into 
this sea, or from the maiden Myrto. Pliny (iv. 11. 
s. 18) makes the Myrtoan sea a part of the Aegaean; 
but Strabo (pp. 124, 323) distinguishes between 
the two, representii^ the Aegaean as terminating 
at the promontory Stmium in Attica. 

3. Mare Icarium (Hor. (7«rm. i. 1. 15; ^Udpios 
w6yroi, Horn. 11 u. 145; *lKdptoy weAayot, Hterod. 
vi. 95), the SE. part of the Aegaean along the coasts 
of Caria and Ionia, which derived its name from the 
island of Icaria, tiiough according to tradition it was 
so called from Icarus, the son of Daedalus, having 
fallen into it 

4. ^Iare Creticum (t^ KpririKhtt w^Acryof, 
Thuciv. 53), the most southerly part of the Aegaean, 
N. of the island of Crete. Strabo (/. c), however, 
makes this sea, as well as the Myrtoan and Icarian, 
distinct from the Aegaean. 

AEGAXEOS (/3yd\(t9Sy Herod, viii. 90 ; rh 
Alyd\€u¥ Qposy Thuc. ii. 19: Skcannamga), a range 
of mountains in Attica, lying between the plains of 
Athens andEleusis, from which Xerxes witnessed the 
battle of Sakmis. (Herod. /.<;.) It ended in a promon- 
torj, called Akphiale ('Aj^uiA77),oppodte Salamis, 
from which it was distant only two stadia according 
to Strabo (p. 395). The southern part of this range 
near the coast was called Cortdalus or Cort- 
DALLUS (Kopv^aX6sy Kopv8aAA<$t) from a demus of 
this name (Strab. /. c), and another part, through 
which there is a pass fh)m the plain of Athens into 
that of Eleusis, was named Poeoilum (IIotK^Aoy, 
Pans. i. 37. § 7.) (Leake, Demi of Attica^ p. 2, 

AEGA'TES I'KSULAE, the name given to a 
group of three small islands, lying off tiie western 
extremity of Sicily, neariy oppodte to Drepanum and 
Lilybaenm. The name is supposed to be derived 
from the Gredc Alyd^cr, the ^^Goatishmds;" but 
this form is not found in any Greek author, and the 
Latin writers have universally Aegates. Silius Ita- 
licus also (i. 61) makes the second syllable long. 
1. The westernmost of the three, which is distant 
about 22 G. miles from the coast of Sicily, was called 
HiBRA Cl«pd i^o-of, Ptol. Polyb. Diod.); but at a 
later period obtained the name of Maritima, from 
its lying so £eu: out to sea (Ittn. Marit. p. 492), and 



is stQl called JUaretimo, 2. The soathemmost and 
nearest to Lilybaenm, is called, both by Ptolemj and 
Plmj, Aeouba (^Aiyovffd) ; but the latter erroneously 
confounds it wi^ Aethusa. It is the largest of the 
threei on which account its name was sometimes 
eictended to the whole group (eU KoXo^fuvai Alyov- 
acu, Pol. i. 44) ; it is now called Favignanaj and 
has a codsiderable population. 3. The northem- 
most and smallest of ^e group, nearly opposite to 
Drepanum, is called by Ptolemy PnoRBAiraiA 
(^piarrla), but is pit^Mbly the same with the 
BuciNNA of Pliny, a name erroneously supposed by 
Steph. B. (s. V. BooKiyya) to be that of a city c^ 
SicUy. It is now called Levamo. (Ptol. ill. 4. § 
17 Plin. iii.8.s. 14; Smyth's Skily, pp.244--247.) 

These islands derive au historical celebrity from 
the great naval victory obtained by 0. Lutadus 
Gatulns over the Carthaginians in b. c. 241, which 
put an end to the First Punic War. Hanno, the 
Carthaginian admiral, had previous to the battle 
taken up his station at the island of Hiera, and 
endeavoured to take advantage cf a fair wind to run 
straight in to Drepanum, in order to relieve the 
army uf Hamilcar Barca, then blockaded on Mount 
Exyx; but he was intercepted by Catulus, and com- 
pelled to engage oa disadvantageous terms. The 
consequence was the complete defeat of the Cartha- 
ginian fleet, of which 50 ships were sunk, and 70 
taken by the enemy, with nearly 10,000 prisoners. 
(Pol. 1. 60, 61; Died. mv. Exc H. p. 609; Liv. 
Epit. xix.; Ores. iv. 10; Flor. ii. 1; Eutrop. ii. 27; 
Com. Nep. Eamilc. I ; Mela, ii. 7 ; SH. Ital. i. 61.) 

The bland of Aegusa has been supposed by many 
writers to be the one described by Homer in the 
Odyssey (ix. 116) as lying opposite to the land of 
the Cyclopes, and abounding in wild goats. But all 
such attempts to identify the localities described in 
the wanderings of Uljnsses may be safely dismissed 
as untenable. [£. H. B.} 

AEGEIBA (Alytipa: Eth. Alytipdriis^ fern. 
A<7cif)aTtT), a town of Achaia, and one of the 12 
Achaean dties, situated between A^ae and Pellene, 
is described by Polybius as opposite Mount Parnas- 
sus, situated upon hills strong and difficult of ap- 
proach, seven stadia from the sea, and near a river. 
This river was probably the Crius, which flowed 
into the sea, a little to the W. of the town. Ac- 
cording to Pausanias the upper city was 12 stadia 
from its port, and 72 stadia from the oracle of 
Heracles Buraicus. (Herod. L 146; Strab. viii. p. 
386; Pol. ii. 41, iv. 57; Pans. vu. 26. § 1; Plin. 
iv. 6.) Pausanias (/. c.) relates that Aegdra occu- 
jned the site of the Homeric Hyperrsia {'TjrtpTjcirif 
IIM 573,xv.254; Strab. p.383: Eth/rirfpnauvs), 
and that it changed its name during the occupation 
of the country by the lonians. He adds that the 
ancient name still continued in use. Hcnce^we find 
that Icarus of Hyperesia was proclaimed victor in 
the 23rd Olympad. (Pans. iv. 15. § 1.) On the 
decay of the neighbouring town of Aegae its inhab- 
itants were transferred to Aegeira. (Strab. p. 386.) 
In the first year of the Social war (b.c. 220) 
Aegeira was surprised by a party of Aetolians, who 
had set sail from the opposite town of Oeantheia in 
Locris, but were driven out by the Aegiratans after 
they had obtained possession of the place. (Pol. iv. 
57, 58.) The most important of tiie public build- 
ings of Aegeira was a temple of Zeus. It also con- 
tained a very ancient temple of Apollo, and temples 
of Artemis, of Aphrodite Urania, who was worshipped 
in the town above all other divinities, and of the 


Syrian goddess. (Pans. viL26.) Theportof Aegein 
Leake places at Mavra LUharia^ i. e., the Black 
Rocks, to the left of which, on the summit of a hill, 
are some vestiges of an ancient d^, which most 
have been Aegeira. At the distance of 40 stadia 
from Aegeira, through the mountains, there was a 
fortress called Phelloe (4cAA<(i}, near Zakhuli)^ 
abounding in springs of water. (Pans. vii. 26. § 10; 
Leake, Morea^ vol. iii. p. 387, seq.) 

AEGEIRUS. [Aeoiboessa.] 

AEGIAE or AEGAEAE (AiVeu, Pans, ill 2L 
§ 5 ; Alyoiai, Strab. p. 364: Limm)^ a town of La^ 
conia, at the distance of 30 stadia frtnn GythluiDf 
supposed to be the same as the Homeric Angeise. 
(Avyciof, U. ii. 583; comp. Steph. B. b.v.) It 
possessed a temple and lake of Neptune. Its site is 
placed by the French Commission at lAmnL, so called 
from an extensive marsh in the valley of the eastern 
branch of the river uf Pauavd, (Leake, Pdopo»- 
nesiaca^ p. 170.) 


AE'GIDA, a town of Istria, mentioned only by 
Pliny iii. 19. s. 23), which appears to have 
been in his time a place of little importance; but 
from an inscription dtcd by Cluverius (/tai.p.210) 
it appears that it was restored by the emperor 
Justin IL who bestowed on it the name of Jusn- 
Nopous. This inscription is preserved at Capo 
cTIstria, now a considerable town, situated on a 
small idand joined to the mainland by a causeway, 
which appears to have been termed Aeoidis Im- 
suiA, and was probably the site of the Aegida of 
Pliny. [E. H. B.] 

AE'GILA (ra ATyiXa), a town of Laconia with 
a temple of Demeter, of uncertain dte, but placed 
by Leake on the gulf of Skutari. (Paus. iv. 17. § 1 ; 
Leake, Morea, vol. L p. 278.) 

AEGI'LIA (A^y*Ai«). 1. Or AEOiLua (h At- 
yiKoSf Theoo*. L 147 : Eth. AiytXx^ds), a demos in 
Attica bd(mging to the tribe Antiochis, situated on the 
western coast between Lamptra and Sphettus. It 
was celebrated for its figs. (At^tXidcs hrx^^^t 
Athen. p. 652, e. ; Theocr. Z. c.) It is placed by 
Leake at TzurelUf the site of a ruined village on the 
shore, at the foot of Mt Eljrmbo. (Strab. p. 398 ; 
Haxpocrat, Steph. B. s. v. ; Leake, Demi, p. 61.) 

2. Or Aeoileia (Ai7{A6ia), a small i^sland off 
the western coast of Euboea, and near the town of 
Styra, to which it belonged. Here the Persians left 
the captive Eretrians, before they crossed over to 
Marathon, b. c. 490. (Herod, vi. 101, 107.) 

3. Or Aegila {^1yi\a : Cerigottd), a small 
island between Cythera and Crete. (PluL CUom. 31 ; 
Steph. B. 8, V. ; Plin. iv. 12. s. 19.) 

AEGILIPS. [Ithaca.] 

AEGIMUUUS {hiyliJLOfios : Zotoamour or 
Zembra), a lofty island, surrounded by dangerous 
difls, off the coast of Africa, at the month of the 
gulph of Carthage. (Liv. xxx. 24; Strab. pp. 123, 
277, 834.) Pliny calls it Aegimori Aiae (v. 7); 
and there is no doubt that it is Sie same as the Arae 
of Virgil (Aen. i. 108). [P. S.] 

AEGI'NA (ATyiyo: Eth, Alytv^rnis, AeginSta, 
Aeginensis, fern. Alyivrrris: Adj. Alyiycuos, Alyanj- 
rut6sj Aegineticus : Eghina),aai island in the Saronic 
gulf, surrounded by Attica, Megaris, and Epidauros, 
from each of which it was distant about 100 stadia. 
(Strab. p. 375) It contains-about 41 square Englii^ 
miles, and is said by Strabo (I c.) to be 180 stadia 
in circumferoice. In shape it is an irregular triangle. 
Its western half consists of a plain, which, though 


itoBf, audi coltiTated iritli oom, btit the Temainder 

oftfetalud ii moontaiiKMis and improdnctiTe. A 

nngnficent oonical hill noir called ML St, EUas^ or 

Orm (4p*f , L c the moantam), oocapies the whole 

df the iwUKm part of the idand, and is the most 

ranuUUe amang the natural features of Aegina. 

There is another monntain, xnnch inferior in size, on 

tke Bortb-easteni ade. It is snTroonded bj nunie- 

raos rocks and ahallows, which render it difficult and 

kuvdooB of approach, as Paosanias (ii. 29. § 6) 

his oorrectlj obaored. 

Kotvithstanding its small extent Aegina was one 

«f the most odehrated islands in Greece, both in the 

BTthieal and historical period. It is said to have 

boEtt origiBallj called Oenone or Oenopia, and to have 

reeeifsd the name of Aegina from A^ina, the 

dHJf^hla of the river-god Ast^ms, who was carried to 

the ishnd \tj Zeos, and there bore him a son Aeacns. 

It was inrtfaer rdated that at this time A^na was 

wirnhshited, and that Zees changed the ants (jdp- 

nws) of the islaDd into men, the Mynnidones, over 

«homAeaiCQsni]ed(Pans.ii.29.§2.; ApoUod.iiLl2. 

f 6; Or. MeL viL 472, seq.) Some modem writers 

sappQse that this legend contains a mythical accoont 

cf the eoknixatioD of the island, and that the latter 

reedved wJnnisfa fitm Phlins on the Asopos and 

fran Pfathia in Tliessalj, the seat of the Mjnnidons. 

Aeans was legarded as the tutelary deity of Aegina, 

hot his SOBS abandoned the island, Telamon going 

ta Sshmis, and Peleos to Phthia. AH that we can 

Bsfidy infer from these legends is tiiat the ori^nal 

inhabilBntB of A^;ina were Achaeans. It was i^er- 

wards taken possesmon of by Dorians from Epidaums, 

who intzodoced into the island the Doric cnstoms 

and dialect (Herod. viiL 46 ; Pans. iL 29. § 5.) 

Together with Epidanms and other cities on the 

nwfnltiid it became subject to Pbeidon, tyrant of 

Argos, about b. c 748. It is nsnaUy stated on the 

aB&ority of Ephoms (Strab. p. 376), that silver 

■uney was fint coined in A^ina by Pheidon, and we 

know that the name of Aeginetan was given to one 

cf the two acaks of weights and measm'es current 

dMnghont Greece, the other being the Enboic 

Ihere seems, however, good reason iinr believing with 

Xr. Grote that what Pbeidon did was done in Argos 

nd lia w hne else ; and that the name of Aeginetan 

was given to his coinage and scale, not from the 

place where tfaej first originated, but from the 

people whose commercial activity tended to make 

them Dost geDexaDy known. (Grote, iJiff. of Oeece, 

v«L iL p^ 432.) At an early period Aegina became 

a place of great commercial importance, and gradually 

a nqj ir e d a powerful navy. As early as b. a 563, in 

the reign of Amasis, the Aeginetans established a 

feoting lor its merchants at Nancratis in Egypt, and 

thereencteda temple of Zeus. (Herod. iL 178.) With 

the moease of power came the desire of political 

adepndenoe ; and they renounced the authority of 

the Epdaarians, to whom they had hitherto been 

sabjecL (Herod, v. 83.) So powerful did they be- 

eme that about the year 500 they held the empire 

«f the sea. According to the testimony of Aristotle 

(AthoL p. 272), the island contained 470,000 

sJavea ; but this number is quite incredible, although 

vc may admit that A^ina contained a great popu- 

litMn. At tlie time of their prosperity Uie Aegine- 

taas ibonded various colonies, such as Gydonia in 

Crete, aad another m Umbria. (Strab. p. 376.) The 

was in the hands of an aristocracy. Its 

beesme wealthy by commerce, and gave great 

to the arts. In fe«q^, for the half 



century before the Persian wars and fin* a few years 
afterwards, Aegina was the chief seat of Greek art, 
and gave its name to a school, the most eminent 
artists of which were Gallon, Anazagoras, Glaudas, 
Simon, and Onatas, of whom an account is given in 
the Diet. ofBiogr, 

The Aeginetans were at the height of their power 
when the Thebans applied to them fer aid in their war 
against the Athmians about b. c. 505. Their request 
was readily granted, since there had been an an- 
cient feud between the A^;inetans and Athenians. 
The Aeginetans sent their powerful fleet to ravage 
the coast of Attica, and did great damage to the 
latter coontiy, since the Athenians had not yet any 
fleet to resist them. This war was continued with 
some inteiTuptians down to the invasion of Greece by 
Xerxes. (Herod. v.81, seq., vi. 86, seq.; Thuc i. 41.) 
The Aeginetans fought with 30 ships at the battle 
of iSftlamis (b. c. 480), and were admitted to have 
distmguished themselves above all the other Greeks 
by their bravery. (Herod, viii. 46, 93.) From this 
time their power declined. In 460 the Athenians 
defeated them in a great naval battle, and laid 
siege to their principal town, which after a long de- 
fence suzrendered in 456. The Aeginetaqs now 
became a part of the Athenian empire, and were 
compelled to destroy their walls, deliver up their ships 
of war, and pay an annual tribute. (Thuc. L 105, 
108.) This humiliation of their ancient enemies did 
not, however, satisfy the Athenians, who feared the 
proximity of such discontented subjects. Pericles 
was accustomed to call Aegina the eye-sore of the 
Peiraeus (Ji Xiifiri rod Ilfipcu^MS, Arist. Hhet. iii. 
10.; oomp. Cic. de Off, iii. 11); and accordingly on 
the breaking out of Uie Peloponnesian war in 431, 
the Athenians expelled the whole population from 
the island, and filled their place with Athenian 
settlers. The expelled inhabitants were settled by the 
Lacedaemonians at Thyrea. They were subsequently 
collected by Lysander after the battle of Aegos- 
potami (404), and restored to their own country, but 
they never recovered their former state of prosperity. 
(Thuc ii. 27 ; Plut. Per. 34 ; Xen. ffelL il 2. § 9 ; 
Strab. p. 375.) Sulpicius, in his celebrated letter to 
Cicero, enumerates Aegina among the examples of 
fallen greatness {ad Fam. iv. 5). 

The chief town in the island was also called 
Aegina, and was sitoated on the north-western side. 
A description of the public buildings of the city is 
given by Pansanias (ii. 29, 30). Of these the most 
important was the Aeaceium (AlcCiccioi'), or shrine of 
Aeacns, a quadrangular indosure built of white 
marble, in the most conspicuous part of the city. 
There was a theatre near the shore as large as that 
of Epidaurus, behind it a stadium, and likewise nu- 
merous temples. The dty contained two harbours: 
the prindpal one was near the temple of Aphrodite; 
the other, called the secret harbour, was near the 
theatre. The site of the andent dty is marked by 
numerous remuns, though consisting for the most 
part only of foundations of walls and scattered blocks 
of stone. Near the shore are two Doric columns of 
the most el^ant form. To the S. of these columns 
is an oval port, sheltered by two andent moles, which 
leave only a narrow passage in the middle, between 
the remains of towers, which stood on dther side of 
the entrance. In the same direction we find another 
oval port, twice as large as the former, the entrance 
of which is protected in the same manner by andent 
walls or moles, 15 ot 20 feet thick. The latter of 
these ports seems to have been the large harbour, 



■ud tha fbcmar tli« Mcrst harixnu, mentioned bj 
Pbosuuu. Tho walla of the city are atill traced 
thicngh Uwir whale extent oa the land side. The; 
were abaiit 10 feet thick, and anulmcted nith 
towers at intovaU not slwaja ainaL Then appeal 
to haye been three {smapal entnucea. 

On the hill m the Dorth-autem eitnnutj of the 
Uland are the tcduuds of a magmficoit t«in^ of the 
Doric order, ntui; of the <uliuiuu of ithieh an atill 

atanding. It itood nan the ae> 
londj Bpot, coconundin^ a view of the Athenian 
coast and of the acropoUA at Athene. The beaadful 
acnlptures, which accujued the tympana of the pedi- 
ment, were difcoverod in 1811, boriedonder the riiiiu 
cf the t*Di{bL Thsf an now preesrred at Munich, 


and then an caal< fran them in Iba Britiih UtHimi. 
The aobject of the eaatcm pediment appeare to be 
the eipedition of the Aeaadae or Aeginetan hens 
■gainst Troj nnder the gnidance of Athena: that of 
the weateni probabLj npreeenta the oonteat oS tlu 
Gneki and Trojani orer tho bodj of Fatrodni. Tdl 
ctoupaiatiTely a lata period it was conaidenl that 
this teiaplB nas that of Z«ai PanheUenins, which 
Aeacni waa aaid lo haie dedicated to tlui gid. 
(Paos. iL 30. SS 3, 4.) Bat in 182G Btaektlt«j, 
in hia work on the temple of Fbigalia, ataited the 
hjpotheBa, that the tampk, cf which we han been 
nealdng, via iu naGtj the templa of Athma, mot- 
tnned 1^ Hendotaa (iiL SB); and Ihiit the temple of 
Zeoa Panhelleiiiai wu atnat«d en the loi^ moontaiii 
m the S. of the island. (Stickelbere, £(r JpoUb- 
(anpef w Auxu M jlroaiSaa, 8om, 1836.) Ihiiu 
qHnioa haa been adopted b; •eTeralGenDaDWTiUn.r 
and alao by Dr. Wordswcrth, hut hai been Mj 
oombated by Leake. It would require tmae ipace 
than our limiti will allow to eater mta thia onlio- 
veny ; and we mnut therefbn content ooiaelne nth 

the mbjeot, to the worka of Wordsworth and Lake 
qooted at the old of this article. Thia t«nple wu 
probably erected in the nith oantniy b. c, and ^ 
patently before a. O. 563, •inoa we hare ahtadf 
Been that abont thia lime the A^inetans boilt at 
Naucistii a temple to Zeni, which we may reuon^y 
oondode waa m imitation of the great tanple In Uuir 

In the interior of the ialand waa a town <alled | the cajntal, and whm the 
Oea (OIn), at the distance of SO stadia from the which draw popolati 
city ot A^ina. It coal«ined statne* of Damia and ' " 

AoieaiB. (Herod, t. 83 1 Paos. ii. 30. § *.) The 
poeiCion of Oea haa not yet been determined, but in 
name auggeeta a connectiim with OeDone, the an- 
cient name of the island. Hence it has been conjec- 
tured Chat it waa originally the chief place of the 
island, whm safety reqaiied an ialand ^tuation fbi 

n and naval powa 

this soppoaiCion Lfflke anppooa 

that Oea occuiaed tha site of Paled-Kluira, which 
has been tho cajntal in modera tiina wheneier safety 
his rnqnired an inland eitnition. Paiisaniai (iij. 30. 
§ 3) mentions a temple of Apbaea, ntnated on the 
road to the temple of Zens Panhellenios. Tho 
Hcracleiuu, or temple of Hercnlee, a^ Tripyraia 
■. .= . ■ 'fr-fl.. ?-•" :, ■. 'i 



CTF>Ylb}.>Ppnntl7 ■ moonUin, at the duUnm 
t( IT iOAt bom the (arOKr, an bodi nMntioned br 
X«fbn(ffeILT. 1. § 10), but Ih«Lr pailiDn ii 
■MBiB. (DnhrcU, row tAnd^t (;«(«, toI. L 
^Ut.H).; Leake, iforta, valll p. 431, seq.. 
Afcpi-™™™, p.STO, BR).; Vordiwtttih, Alifnt 
miiAaia,f.Ki,»>i[.;B6h]xjri.JUcitrcia Gto- 
j i ^ li pii i, p, 64; Prduncli, AaOwvnJi^lnteft, 
mLi. IL4C0, aeq.; UOIlsr, ^ranwticMvm Z,i6er, 
Benl 111;.) 

AEGnnUH (AtrlRw: fei. Aiyvub, Aeginl. 
aw: S^igii), a lain] of the Trmi^iel in Thewalj, 
B dcKribcd ij Liij ai a place of great atrenglli aul 
■■rii iiiipngiiiUe(UT. zuu. IS). It ii facqaeul; 
UBiHDHi in ihe Bomau wan in Greece. It ni 
pm np lo plondcr b; L. Aemilins Paulas for 
haiigg itfiutd to opca its gates after the buttle of 
^4bl It frai ben that Caeur in bia mvdl finm 
AfolkBia ribcted a jouctioii wilh Bomitina. It 
•ccqitd iht Htc i£ tba tooixra Slagii, a town at a 
dun diKUKa from tbe Penens. At thia pUce 
lake tnnd an iiueri|^cii, in which Acgininm i« 
■hiIubL tu BtnatioD, lortiGed on two (idea bj 
penieuiiciilar rocks, accurda with lArfe account at 
if pK6iML (StaiL p. 3271 Li»- "»"- '5, urn. 
IS, xiit. 46, ih-. 27; Caea. B. C. iii. 73) Leake, 
Xtriiv% Grtea, toL L p. 4:11, aeq.) 


AEGISOESSA (Airifntwira), a dCy whidi 
BmdgCat (L 149) smmentn among the II citiea 
af AecJia; b<jt nothing b known of it. Forbiger 
™j«.Ui M that the historian maj mean Aegcima 
(AfT«««>, in the island of Lesbos. [G. L.] 

AEOISSUS or AEGYPSIIS (Alyioooi, Hierod. 
p. S3J ; AfTwm, Proixip, 4, 7 ; Afpjpena, Oi.), i 
km io Uoaia, near the moalh rf the Daaobe. It 
a Wiilimwl 1^ Orid aa baring beoi taken from 
tka kBg 1^ Thrace, at that time under tbe pro. 
MitB aBome, bj a lodden incnraian of the Getae, 
Bd reewaed bj Vllslltu, who waa in command of 
a Bmwi Kimj in that qnajter. Grid celebratea 
tha nJoDi' dii^jed by his trisid Vcalaiis apon the 
tamm. (Ep.exFonto,la.l3.iy.T.i1.) [H.W.] 

AEGITHALLCS (AiyttaUjK, Diod.; Alyl- 
h)«, ZoDBT. ; AlfU^'i PtoL) ft frvoonUiry aa 
tkt V. oait i/ Sidlf, near LilybMiuii, which was 
■ajatil and brtifltd bf tbe Rmiaii conatd L. Junina 
tei^ the rust Punk War (b. c. 349), with t 
nv u> atqiport (he ouratiiau againal Lilftmeom, 
hi ■!> noorend bf the Carthaginian geocnJ Car- 
lk^ mi occapol with > itroag gairison. Diodoros 
Ub M it ma aDcd in hii time Aobuum, bat it 


1 1> erldenllj ths aame with the AfylAifiiii tapa of 
Ptolomr, which he places betweoi Dreiommi and 
Lilfbaaim; and (a probahlj the htadlaod now called 
Capo 5. Teodora, which ia imiiKdiale]; opposts to 
the lalaod tt Bmrme. (Diod. udr. Eic H. p. SOi 
Zonal. riiL 10; PtoL iii. 4. J 4; Clnrer. SiaL 
P- 248.) [E. H. B.] 

AEGITIUM iUytrior), a town hi Aelolia Efic- 
tetns, en the bordera of Locrii, aituated in the midit 
of moontaina, abont SO Btadia from tbe aea. Hen 
Demoethenea wai defeated b; the AetoUaoa, a.o. 42G. 
Leake places it near Vanuiova, where bs fimnd 
tbe remaini of an ancient citj. (Thuc. iii. 97 ; Leile, 
N'otlAer* Greea, »ol. ii. p, 617.) 

AE'GIUM (Aryior, Jitynor, Alben. p. 606: 
Eth. Atrrifii, Aegienaii: VoMtitai), a town of 
Acbwa, and one cf ths IS Achaean dtiea, was 
■itnated npcai the coast W. of the lirer Selhina, 
30 stadia from Rbfpae, and 40 stadia from Helics. 
It stood between two promonlories in Iha coner of a 
bsy, which formed tbe best harbonr in Acbaia next 
to that of Patrsa. It ia said to have been formed 
ont of an tmioc of 7 or 8 yillagea. It ia mentioned 
in tbe Homeric catalognt ; and, after the deslmctjoa 
of tbe Deighboufing dty of Uelice bj an earth- 
quake, in B. 0. 373 [Heuck], it obt«ned the 
temtciy of the latter, and thua became the chief 
dtf of Acbaia. From thia time Aeginin was 
choBOi as the place of meeting for the Leagne, and 
it ntained thu distioctioD, on tike rerira] of ths 
LeagDe, till PhikipoeDieu carried a law that the 
meeting might be held in aDf of the towns of tbe 
oonfedemcy. - ' ■■ ~- 

» keepn; 


their periodical meetings at A^iom, just aa the 
Amphictjons were pcrmitfcd to meet at Ther- 
mopjlae and Delphi, (Paus. rii. 34. % 4.) The 
meelinga were hdd in a grove near the sea, called 
Bomagj/riam nt Bonariun, aacred to Zeus Ho. 
magynns at Homariua ('O^uvT^cor, 'O/ui^or; in 
Btrab. pp. 38i, 3S7, 'Ofiifior ihoold be read in. 
stead of 'Apw^ioi' and ^Iripitr). Clws lo this 
grove wsfl a temple of Denielcr PandiMa. The 
words namagyrima, " Maemblj," and Horaarmm, 
" union," * have reference to those meetings, tbongb 
in later times the^ were explained aa indicating the 
spot where Agsmemnnn aseembled tbe Gredan 
chiel\aina befc™ tbe Trojan War. There were 
Bereral other lemplee and pubUc bnildings at 
A^om, of which an a ' '- ■ " 

(Horn. II. ii. ST4; Hemd,"L 145; Pol. i 
. 93; Stiab. ^ 337, 389, aeq.; Psn 

23. 24; Liv. inviiL 30; P .., . , 

hich occnioee the lite of the andent Acgium, ig 
place of some importance. It derirea its name 
frran the gardena bj which it !■ auironnded (iran 
P6rra, Pomiwi, garden). It stands on a biD, 
terminating towards the sea m a cliff ahont 50 feet 
high. There is a rraiarkable opening in tho chff, 
IriguuQj perhaps irti£dal, wbidi l^ds Irom the 

>, MS Welckn, Epitdf 



town to the ordinaiy place of embarlcatioiL A 
great part of the town was destrojed by an earth* 
quake in 1819, of which an account is given under 
Helice. The prindpal remainfl of the ancient 
town have been lately disooTered on a hill to the £. 
of Vostitza. There are also several fragments of 
architecture and sculpture, inserted in the waUs of 
the houses at Vostitza. (Leake, Morea^ toL iii. p. 
185, seq.; Gnrtias, PelcponnesoSf vol. i. p. 459, 

AEGOSPOTAMI (Ai^^j vorofiol, Aegos flu- 
men. Pomp. Mel. ii. 2 ; Plin. iL 59 : £th. Alyoa-- 
woTCifjtirris}, L o. the Goat-River, a stream in the 
Ghersouesus, with, at one time, a town of the same 
name upon it It was here that the ihmons defeat 
of the Athenian fleet by Ljsander took place, b. o. 
405, which put a dose to the Pdoponnesian war. 
There seems, however, to have been no town there 
at this time, for it is mentioned as a great error on 
the part of the Athenian generals, that they re- 
mained at a station where they had no town at hand 
to supply a market for provisions. (Plut. Ale 36-^ 
Diod. xiii. 105; Strab. p. 287; comp. Grote, Hitt, 
of Greece^ vol. viii. p. 293.) In later times there 
must have been a town there, as the geographers 
espedally mention it (Steph. Byz. «. v.), and there 
are coins of it extant. [H. W.] 


AEGO'STHENA (tA Aly6<T$(va: Eth. Alyo- 
ffdivirns : 6herman6)t a town in Megaris, on the 
Alcyonian or Oorinthian gulf, at the foot of Mount 
Githaeron, and on ihe borders of Boeotia. It pos- 
sessed a temple of the seer Mdampns. Between 
Aegostheua and Oreuais, the port-town of Boeotia, 
there was no passage along the shore ^oept a path 
on the mountain's side. The Lacedaemonians under 
Gleombrotus, in marching from Greusis to A^osthena 
along this road in the winter of b. c. 379 — 378, were 
overtaken by a violent tempest ; and such was the 
force of the wind, that the shields of the soldiers 
were wrested from their hands, and many of the asses 
that carried the burthens were blown over the pre- 
dpioes into the sea. It was by this road that Uie 
Lacedaemonians retreated after Uieir defeat at Leuc^ 
tra in 371. There was a sweet wine grown at Ae- 
gostheua. (Paus. i. 44. § 4, seq. ; Xen. EdL v. 4. 
§§ 16—18, vi. 4. §§ 25—26 ; Athen. p. 440.; 
Steph. B. 8. V. ; Leake, Northern Greece^ vol. ii. p. 

AKGU'SA. [Aeoates.] 

AEGYPSUS. [Aegissus.] 

AEGYPTUS Oi Atyvrrros : JEth. Aty^imos, 
Aegyptius). L Ncmes and boundaries of Egypt, 
Egypt, properly so called, is that portion of the 
v^ley of the Nile which lies between lat. 24° 3' 
and lat. 31° 37' N., or between the islands of 
Philae and Elephantine, and the Mediterranean Sea. 
In the language of the earliest inhabitants it was 
entitled Ghemi, or the Black Earth; by the He- 
brews it was called Mizraih; by the Arabians 
Mesr (comp. Mc<rrf>i}, Joseph. Awtiq. i. 1); by 


the Greeks ^ AfyinrroT; and by the Oopts £l- 
KEBIT, or inundated land. The boundaries of 
Egypt have in all ages been nearly the same, — 
to the S., Aethiopia; to the £., the Arabian Gulf, 
the Stony Arabia, Idumaea, and the southwestern 
frontier of Palestine; to the N., the Mediterranean 
Sea; and to the W., the Libyan desert. Homer 
(^Od. iv. 477) caUs the Nile itsdf & AXyvwros; nor 
is the appellation misapplied. For the Valley of 
Egypt is emphatically the <^ Gift of the Nile," 
without whose fertilising waters the tract from 
Syene to Gercasornm wcmld only be a deep furrow 
in the sandy and gravelly desert nmning parallel 
with the Bed Sea. 

An account of the Nile is given elsewhere. 
[NiLUS.] Here it is suflident to remark that the 
valley which it irrigates is generally, except in the 
Delta or Lower Egypt, a narrow strip of alluvial 
deposit, occupying leas than half the space between 
the Arabian mountains and the Libyan desert. The 
average breadth of this valley from (Hie of ihese 
barriers to the other, as &r as lat. 30° N., is about 
7 miles; while that of the cultivable land, depend- 
ing upon the overflow of the river, scarcely exceeds 
5j^ miles. Between Cairo in Lower and Edfoo 
(Apollmopolis Magna) in Upper Egypt the extreme 
brradth is about II miles: the narrowest part, in- 
cluding the river itself, is about 2 miles. But 
northward, between Edfoo and Assouan (Syene), 
the valley contracts so much that, in places, there 
is scarody any soil on either side of the river, and 
the granite or limestone springs up from its banks 
a mural entrenchment. The whole area of the 
valley between Syene and the bifurcation of the Nile 
at Gercasornm contains about 2255 square miles, ex- 
clusive of the district oiFayoom (Ansinoe, Moeris), 
which comprises about 340. The Ddta itself is 
estimated at 1976 square miles between the main 
branches of the river — the modem Damietta and 
Bosetta anns. But both £. and W. of this tract 
stretches a considerable level of irrigated land, 
which, induding the Delta, embraces about 4500 
square miles. The length of Egypt from Syene to 
the Mediterranean is about 526 miles. The total 
sur&ce of modem Egypt is somewhat larger than 
that of the country in andent times, since, in spite 
of a less regular system of irrigation, the inunda- 
tions of the Nile have increased since the eras of 
the Pharaohs and the Ptolemies. 

Egypt, in its general configuration, is a lon^ 
rock-bound valley, terminating in a deep bay, and 
resembling in form an inverted Greek npsilon [x]]- 
Its geological stmcture is tripartite. The Kile- 
valley shelves down to the Mediterranean in a series 
of steps, consisting of sandy or gravdly plateaus, 
separated by granite or limestone ridges, which the 
river cuts diagonally. From Syene to Edfoo granite 
or red sandstone prevails : at Edfoo limestone suc- 
ceeds; until in lat. 30° 10' the rocks diverge N£. 
and NW., and the alluvial Delta fills up an embayed 
triangle, whose apex is at Gercasornm, and whose 
base is the sea. 

The pohtical and physical divisions of Egypt 
so nearly cdncide that we may treat of them 
under one head. From Syene to Gercasornm the 
whole of the Nile-vaJley was denominated Upper 
Egypt : with the fork of the river Lower Egypt 
beg&n. This was indeed a natural division between 
the primitive and the alluvial regions: and the 
distinction was recognised from the earliest times 
by difierent monumental symbols — natural and 


wa Tw ii o M JL Tbe oommon lotos (Nymphaea), 
niaf: oat of a dod of cmrth, represented the Upper 
oootij; the not of the papjms, upon a clod, the 
Lower. Sdicna was tbe goddess of the Upper, Ndth 
cf the Loirer ooimtrj. A white crown dodoted the 
iboner, a red crown the latter; white and red crowns 
mated compoeed the diadem of the king of all the 
had. Tbe TJypa conntiy, however, was generally 
sobdivided into two portioDS, (1) Upper Egypt 
Proper, or tbe Thebaid (^ Bijftits, ol iyw rihirot), 
vhicfa czteoded fram Syene to Hennopciis Magna, 
in ht. 28^ N.: and (2) Middle Egypt, also called 
Heptanomis, or tbe Seven Cant(R]8(^M^o{^X<^^: 
'EvTSM^sy, which reached from the neighboor- 
hood of Hetmopolis to the apex of the Delta. This 
threefold partitkn has be»i adopted by the AraHb, 
who denombaated Upper, Middle, and Lower Egypt 
lopMlively, Said, Witstcmi, and E!rRtf, 

The tcavvUer who ascends the Nile frcHn its 
nootbi to Syene passes throngh seven degrees of 
htztade, and virtually surveys two distinct regions. 
Lonrer Egypt is an immense plain: Upper Egypt, a 
nanoviqg valley. The ibnner, in Uie main, re- 
■mUea the neighboorxng ooastland of Africa; the 
biter is more akin to Nabia, and its climate, its 
Fsma and its Fkia, indicafft the approaching tropic. 
The Ene of deoiarcatiaa commenoes aboat tibe 27th 
dq;ree of N. latitode. Bain rardy falls in the The- 
Ud: the sycamore and the acacia almost disappear; 
the liver pbnts and mollosca assume new types: the 
Tbetwi or Dbomn palm, with itsdivaricated branches, 
jcraws beside tbe date palm: the crooodfle, the jackal, 
the river-hone, and hyena become more nnmeroos. 

We must now retnm to the general bonndaries of 
E^rpt which affected, in various dorses, the cli- 
ante, tbe popolation, and the social and political 
cfafliacler of the Nile-valley. 

1. The Eagtem hotutdaij. In this region lay 

tbe pnncipal mineral wealth of Egypt, indnding the 

^sanies, which famished mato^^fds for this land of 

nooameDtB. B^inning with tfie Pelasiac month of 

tbe Kife, and ak^ the frontier of Stony Arabia, we 

fad the barren and level r^on of CasioUs, whose 

only elaratian is tbe ridge or table land of Mt Car 

sias (6 fUUriof, Strab. pp. 38, 50, 55, 58, &&; 

Mek, L 10; Plin. v. 11, zii. 13; Lucan. viu. 539, 

X. 433> Tbe Egyptian Casins (^El Km or El 

KalUk) is, acoarding to Stnbo (xvi. 2), a round 

fm»<|rt4^ftf ridge (X6^s J^utMh^f). It contained the 

pxwe of Co. Pompeins Magnna, and a temple of 

Zens Caaos. At a very early period the Egyptians 

established colonies npon the Idnmaean and Ara- 

Han border. Copper, mixed with iron ore, and 

heaps of scoriae from Egyptian smelting-honses, are 

sdn found on the western flank of Mt. Sinai, and 

iasenptioDs at Wady-Magara in this district, and 

laerQi^jpfaioa and fragments of pottery at Surabit- 

El-Kai^m^ on tbe modem road from Snez to Sinai, 

attest tbe existence of settlements coeval with at 

bast the 18th dynasty of kings. Ascending from 

dK bead of tbe Mta, and about 50 miles frcm the 

Anfaian Sea, we come upon a range of tertiary 

BnM^tipnfli hills (TpMurov \lBov 6poSj Ptol.; &Aa- 

iarrpiwrnf ip9t, id.) parallel with the Heptanomis, 

raDDB^ north and south, and sloping westward to 

tbe MIe, and eastward to the Bed Sea (fifrn rit, 

'hfdtyd, Herod, ii. 8). A region of basalt and 

pajji f iy b^ins in the parallel oi Antaeopolis, and 

extends to that of Tentyra or Coptos (Tlopipvplrav 

Spn, id.). This is again succeeded by limestone 

at Aos or Aeaa (AZbs, id.; Plin. vi. 29. § 33), 



and at Acabe fAicd^i;, Ptol.), where, nearly oppo- 
site Latopolis, are vast quarries of white marble. 
From Mt. Smaragdus, which next follows, the Egyp- 
tians obtjuned the fine green breccia {Verde cP 
Egitto)y and emenUds in abundance. The breccia 
quarries, as inscriptifms testify, were worked as fiur 
back as the 6th dynasty of kings (Manetho). The 
principal quarry was at Mount Zaburah. From 
Berenice southward are found, in various propor- 
tions, limestone and porphyry again. Mt. Bi^anites 
(BcuroMiTou Xidov Spos^ Ptol.), consisting of a spe- 
cies of h<»iiblend, terminated the eastern boundajy 
of the Nil&-VBlley. Beyond this, and of uncertain 
extent, are the gold mines S£. of the Thebaid. 
They are about ten days' journey S£. frt>m Apolli* 
nopolis Magna, in the present Bishdree desert. 
The process of gdd-washmg appears to be repre- 
sented on tombs of the age of Osirtasen. Silver 
and lead were also found, and sulphur aboimded in 
this mineral region. 

The eastern frontier was mostly arid and barren, 
but neither uninhabited nor unfrequented by tra- 
vellerB. More than one caravan track, whose bear- 
ings are still marked by ruined cisterns and brick 
pyramids, followed the gorges of the hills; and occa> 
sional temjdes imply a settled population in towns 
or villages. The sides and passes of the moun- 
tains afforded also pasture for flocks and herds, 
and wild deer, wolves, &c found here their abode. 
Two principal roads, diverging from Coptos on the 
Nile — the northern leading to Philoteras (Kosseir), 
lat. 26^ 9', and Myos Hormoe or Arsinoe; the 
southern to Berenice — penetrated the mountain- 
barrier, and connected the Nile-valley with the Bed 
Sea. The population of this district was more Ara- 
bian than Coptic, and its physical characteristics 
were Arabian, not Libyan. 

2. The Western bomdary of Egypt is more par- 
ticularly described under Oasis. The Libyan desert 
is not, as the ancients believed, merely an ocean of 
drifting sand, tenantitd by serpents, and swept by 
pestilential blasts (Lucan, ix. 765) : on the contrary, 
its gravelly surfiM» presents considerable inequalities, 
and the blasts are noxious only in relaxing the 
human frame, or by obliterating Uie traveller's path 
with eddies of blinding sand. Everywhere this 
plateau rests upon a limestone basis, imd descends 
in shelves to the Mediterranean. 

3. The Northern boundary is the Mediterranean. 
From the western limit of Egypt to Pelusium the 
coast-line extends to about 180 geographical miles, 
and presents the convex form common to the allu- 
vial deposits of great rivers. From the depression 
of its shore, the approach to Egypt is diuigeroua 
to the navigator. He finds himself in shallow water 
almost brfore be detects the low and sinuous mud 
banks which mask the land. Indeed, from Parae- 
toninm in Libya to Joppa in Syria, Pharos afforded 
the only secure apinroach, and the only good an- 
chorage (Diod. ii 31). Nor is it probable that any 
considerable advance of the shore has taken place 
within historical times. 

4. The Southern boundary is spoken of under 

n. Inhabittmtt, 

The ancient Egyptians bdieved themselves to bo 

autochthonous. This was no improbable conception 

in a land yearly covered with the life-teeming mud 

of the Nile. "When the conquests of Alexander had 

I rendered the Greeks acquainted vnth Western In>lia, 




tiiey inferred, ft6ta certain eimiUrities of doctrine 
and nsages, that the Indians, Ethiopians or Nnbians, 
and Egyptians were derived from the same stock 
(Arrian, Indk. vi. 9); and Diodoms, who had con- 
versed with Aethiopian enyoys in Egypt aboat b. c 
58, derives both the Egyptians and then* civilisation 
from Meroe (iii. 11). Both opinions have found 
nmnerons supporters in ancient and modem times, 
and Heeren has constructed upon Diodonu a theoiy 
of a priestly colonisation of Egypt from MeroS, which 
is interesting without being convincing. 

No nation has bequeathed to tu so many or such 
accurate memorials of its fbnn, oomplezian, and 
I^ysiognamy as the Egyptian. We have in its 
mummies pcrtnuts, and upon its tombs pictures 
of its people as they looked and lived, individually 
and socially. That the Egyptians were darker in 
hue than either the Greeks or even the neighbour- 
ing Asiatics, is shown by the terms in which Greek, 
Latin, and Hebrew writers mention them. To 
their progenitor the Hebrews gave the name of 
Ham, or adutt (Genet, x. 6): Herodotus, speak- 
ing of the Golchians, sa3rB that they were an Egyp- 
tian colony because they were blade in complexion 
(^fitkdyxpon)^ and curly-haired (ovA^ptxcs, iL 
104): Ludan, in his Navigwm (vol. viiL p. 155, 
Bipont ed.), describes a young Egyptian mariner 
as like a n^ro: and Ammianus (xxiL 16. § 23) 
calls them tubfutadi et atrati. But the Egyptians 
were not a negro race — a supposition contradicted 
alike by osteology and by monumental paintings, 
where negroes often appear, but always either as 
tributaries or captives. It is probable, indeed, that 
the Nile-valley contained three races, with an 
admixture of a fourth. On the eastern frontier 
the Arabian type prevailed : on the western, the 
Libyan; while the fourth variety arose frx>m inter- 
marriages between the Egyptians Proper and the 
Nubians or Aethiupians of MeroS. The ruling 
caste, however, was an elder branch of the Syro- 
Arobian fiunily, which in two separate divisions 
descended the Tigris and the Euphrates; and while 
the northern stream colonised the land of Canaan 
and the friture emigres of Babylon and Nineveh, the 
southern spread over Arabia Felix, and entered 
Egypt from the cast. This supposition, and this 
alone, will account for the Caucasian type of the 
Coptic skull and facial outline, and corresponds with 
the Mosaic ethnology in the 10th chapter of Genesis, 
which derives the Egyptians from Ham. We may 
allow, too, for considerable admixture, even of the 
ruling castes, with the cognate races to the south 
and east; and hence, on the one hand, the friUness 
of lips, and, on the other, the elongated Nubian eye, 
need not compel us to define the inhaUtants of the 
Nile-valley as an African rather than an Aaiatio 
race. The Egyptians may be said to be intermediate 
between the Syro- Arabian and the Ethiopic type; 
and as at this day the Copt is at once recognised 
in Syria by his dark hue (unpeau notrd^re, Volney, 
Vojf<^, vol. L p. 114), the duskier complexion^ 
brown, with a tinge of red — of the ancient Egyp- 
tians may be ascribed solely to their climate, and to 
those modifying causes which, in the course of gene- 
rations, affect both the osteology and the physiology 
of long-settled races. Nor does their language 
contradict this statement, although the variations 
between the Coptic and Syro- Ambian idioms are more 
striking than those of form and colour. The Coptic, 
the language of the native Christian population of 
Egypt, is now universaUy acknowledged to be sub- 


siantially the same as the old Sgypiaan. It ift 
Imperfectly understood, since it has long ceased to 
be a living speech. Yet the ultimate analyas of 
its elements shows it to have been akin to the Se- 
mitic, and derived fixnn a common source. 

ni. PcpukUion, 

Many causes combined to give the Greek and 
Roman writers an exaggerated conception of the 
population of Egypt, — the great works of masoniy, 
the infinitesimal cultivation of the soil, and the fiurt 
that, the kings and higher order of priests excepted, 
every Egyptian was either a husbandman or a manu- 
fiicturer. To these causes, implying a vast amount 
of dispoeable labour, yet arguing also a complete 
command of it by Uie government, must be added 
the cheapness of food, and the small quantity of it 
consumed by the people generally. Health and 
longevity were common in a land where the climate 
was salubrious, diet simple, and indolence almost 
unknown. The Egyptian women were unusually 
fruitful; though we can hardly give credence to the 
statements of ancient writers, that five children at 
a birth were common (Aristot. Bist. Anim. vii. 5), 
and that even seven were not reckoned prodigious 
(Plm. H. jY. vii. 3; Strab. xvi. 605). Still there 
is reason to think that the population fell short of 
the estimates transmitted by ancient writers. 

That a census was periodically taken, is probable 
from the fact that S^ostris caused the land to bo 
accurately surveyed, and Amasis, towards the end 
of die monarchy, compelled every male to report to 
a magistrate his means of livelihood. (Herod, ii. 
109, 177.) Herodotus, however, gives no estimate 
of the population, nor has any record of a census 
been hitherto discovered on the native monuments. 
Diodorus (i. 31) says that it amounted, in the 
Pharaonic era, to seven millions, and that it was not 
less in his own day (b. c. 58). Germanicus (Tac. 
^rm. ii. 60; compare Strab. p. 816) was informed, 
in A. D. 16, by the priests of Thebes, that Egypt, in 
the reign of Rameses Sesostris, contained 700,000 
men of the military age. If that age, as at Athens, 
extended from eighteen to sixty, and | be allowed 
for adults between those periods of life, the entire 
popuLition (5 x 700,000) will amount to 3,500,000. 
Allow 500,000 for error, and add | for slaves and 
casual residents, and 6,000,000 will be the maxi- 
mum of the census of Egypt. In the llaoedoniaa 
and Roman eras, 300,000 must be indnded for the 
fixed or floating population of Alexandria (Joseph. 
B.J. il 16). According to Herodotus (ii. 177), 
there were, in the reign of Amasis, 20,000 inhabited 
towns, and Diodorus (/. c.) says that 18,000 towns 
were entered on the register. Many of these, how> 
ever, were probably little more than walled villages, 
nor have we any means of knowing their average 
area or popuktion. Yet it should be remembered 
that, even allowing for the less perfect system of 
embankment and irrigation in modem times, the 
extent of productive soil has not decreased. Two 
centuries ago the population of modem Egypt was 
loosely estimated at 4 millions. During the French 
occupation of the country in 1798 — 1801, it was 
computed at 2^ millions. Sir Gardner Wilkinsan 
{Modem Egypt and Thebes^ vol. i. p. 256) reduces 
it to 1 1 million. 

rV. TheNomet. 

The Nile-valley was parcelled out into a number 
of cantons, varying in size and number. Each of 


tfam enteoB wm called a nome (p6fiiti) hj the 
GmitSk pncfeetnni oppidonun by tiie Rcanans. 
£idi htd ito dnl governor, the Nomarch (v6fAap- 
xn)f who c«Dected the crown levennes, and presided 
m tie hal capital end duef court of justioe. Each 
mmtj too, had ita aeparate priesthood, its temple, 
cUtf and inferior towns, its magistrates, registration 
and pecdiar craed, ceremonies, and customs, and 
eich «aa appaienUy independent of every other 
■flBBL At certain seaaons delegates from the various 
oBtans met in the palace of the Labyrinth fin- con- 
nJtatian on pnUic affiurs (Strab. p. 811). Accord- 
i^ to Kodoras (L 54), tiie nomes date from 
Sesoitris. Bat they did not originate with that roon- 
aith, bat emanated probaUy from the distinctians 
cf animal worship; and the extent of the local 
wanhip probably determixied the boondary of the 
Bone. Thns in Uie nome of Thebais, where the ram- 
kaded deity was worshipped, the sheep was sacred, 
the goat was eaten andsacrificed: in that of Mendes, 
whoe Xhe goat was worshipped, the sheep was a 
neam and an article of food. .A^in, in the nome 
of OmboB, divine hflnonra were paid to the croco- 
^: in that of Tentyra, it was hnnted and abomi- 
nated; and between Ombos and Tentyra there 
CBstod an internecine fend. ( Juv. Sat. zy.) The 
extcflt and nnmber of the names cannot be asoer- 
They probably varied with the political 
of Egypt. Undo' a dynasty of conquerors, 
tikej vroold extend eastward and westward to the 
Bed Sea and Lilian deserts: nnder the Hyksos, the 
AetUopian cooqneet, and the times of anarchy snbse- 
^mt to the Persian invasion, they would shrink 
vithm the NUe-TaUcj. The kingdoms of Sals and 
Xois and the foundation of Alexandria probably 
fluhiplied the Deltaic cantons: and generally, com- 
mote, or the zesidenoe of the militaiy caste, would 
attnet the nomes to Lower Egypt According 
t» Sliabo (pp. 787, 811), the Labyrinth, or hall 
of the Momaicha, contained 27 chambers, and thus, 
at ens period, the nomes must have been 27 in 
naaiber, 10 m the Thebaid, 10 in the Delttt, and 
7, as its name implies, in tiie Heptanomis. But 
tiie Heptanomis, at another period, contained 16 
MDes, and the sum of these cattt<ms is variously 
pmL From the dodecarchy or government of 12 
and from Herodotus' assertion (ii 148) that 
only 12 halls in the Labyrinth, we are 
to ii^, that at one time iben were only 
12 rf these cantons, and that there were always 
IS Inger or prepoaderating nomes. According to 
the firts given by Plmy (v. 9. § 9) and Ptolemy, 
there Binst have been at least 45 names; but each 
of theae writers gives several names not found in 
tbe ether, and if we should add the variations of 
the one Gai to the other, the sum would be much 



TbcvB was, under the Macedonian kings, a sub- 
dhiaian of the nomes into toparchies, which was 
pnfaabiy an arrangement to meet the fiscal system 
sftheGiedcs. (Herod. iL 164; Diod. i. 54; Strab. 
xvn; CyrilL Alex, ad Itaiamj xix. 2 ; Epiphan 

The ftilowing fist of the principal Koines will 
iBastiate the variety of theae territorial subdivisians 
as r^prds ie%ioas worship. 

A. KoMBB OF THK Delta. The most un- 
pwtaot wwe: — 

1. The Menelaite; chief town Canobus, with a 
ceUntad temple and oracle of Serapis (Strab. p. 801 ; 
IbLli,9t Onr, c. 27.) 

2. The Andropolite; chief town Andropolis. 

3. The Sebennytic; capital Pachnamunis (PtoL), 
worshipped Latona. 

4. Tlie Chenmiite (Herod, ii. 165); capital Bnto. 
Its deity vras also called Buto, whom the Greeks 
identified with Leto. Ptolemy calls this canton 
^%t¥&rn%, and Pliny (v. 9) Ptenetha. 

5. The Onuphite; chief town Onuphis. (Herod, 
ii. 166.) 

6. The Phthemphuthite; capital Tava. («9c/i. 
^vtfl vopAs^ Ptol.; Phthempha, Plin. v. 9.) 

7. The Saite; chief city Sais, worshipped Neith 
or Athene, and contained a tomb and a sanctuary of 
Osiris. (Herod, ii. 170; Strab. p. 802.) Under the 
dynasty of the Saitic Kings this was the principal of 
the Deltaic cantons. 

8. TheBusirite; capital Bnsiris, worshipped Isis, 
and at one epoch, according to Hellenic tradition at 
least, sacrificed the red-coloured men who came over 
the sea, L e. the nomades of Syria and Arabia 
(Herod. L 59, S3, 165; Strab. p. 802; Plat. c2e It. 
e< 0». p. 30.) 

9. llie Thmuite; chief town Thmuis (Herod, il. 
168), afterwards incorporated with the following: 

10. The M^desian; capital Mendes (Herod, ii. 
42, 46 ; Diod. i. 84), worshipped the goat Mendes, 
or the homed Pan. 

11. The Tanite; chief town Tanls. (Hefod. ii. 166; 
Strab. p. 802.) In this nome tradition affirmed 
that the Hebrew l^slator was bom and educated. 

12. The Bubastite; capital Bubastus, contained a 
noble temple of Bulnstis or Artemis. (Herod, ii. 
59, 67, 187.) 

13. The Athribite; capital Athribis, where the 
shrewmouse and crocodile were held in reverence. 

14. The Heliopolite, west of the Delta, and sacred 
to the sun, from whom its capital Heliopolis (On) 
derived its name. (Herod, ii. 9 ; Diod. v. 56 ; Joseph. 
AtA. iL 3.) 

15. The Heroopolite; chief town Heroopolis, a 
principal seat of the worship of Typhon, the evil or 
destroying genius. 

Besides &ese the Delta oontamed other less im- 
portant nomes, -~ the Kitriote, where the Natron 
Lakes, Nitrariae (Plin. v. 9) were situated; the 
Letopolite (Strab. p. 807); the Prosopite; the Leon- 
topoiite; the Mentelite; the Pharbaethite; and the 

B. NoMBS OF TBB Hbptanomis. The most 
important were :-~ 

1. The Memphite, whose chief city Memphis was 
the capital of Egypt, and the residence of the Pha- 
raohs, who succeeded Psammetichus B.C. 616. The 
Memphite Nome roee into importance on the decline 
of the kingdom of Thebais, and was itself in turn 
eclipsed by the Hellenic kingdom of Alexandria. 

2. The Aphroditopolite; chief town Aphrodito- 
polis, was dedicated to Athor or Aphrodite. 

3. The Arsinoite, the Fayoom, celebrated for its 
worship of tlie crocodile, from which its capital 
Crooodilopolis, afterwards Arsinoe, derived its name. 
[Absucob.] The Labyrinth and the Lake of 
Moeris were in this canton. 

4. The Heracleote, in which the ichneumon was 
worshipped. Its principal town was HeracleopoUs 

5. The Hermopolite, the border ncnne between 
Middle and Upper Egypt. This was at a very 
early period a flourislung canton. Its chief city 
Uermopolis stood near the frontiers of the Hepta- 




noiniB, a litUe to the north of the castle and toU-hoase 
('Ep/unroAir(£n} ^vAwr^, Strab. p. 813), where ^e 
portage w#8 loyied on all craft coming firom the 
Upper Country. 

6. The Cynopolite, the seat of the worship of the 
hoond and dog-headed deity Anabis. Its capital 
was C jnopolis, which must however be disdngoished 
from the Deltaic city and other towns of the same 
name. (Strab. p. 812 ; PtoL ; Plat. I», et OHr, c. 72.) 

The (Greater Oasis (Ammoniom) and the Lesser 
were reckoned among the Heptanomite Cantons: but 
both were considered as one nome only. [Oases.] 

C. NoMES OF Upfeb Eotpt. The most im* 
portant were: — 

1. The Ljroopolite, dedicated to the worship of 
the wolf. Its <^f town was Lycopolis. 

2. The AntaeopoUtei probably worshipped TTphon 
(Diod. i. 21); its capital was Antaeopolis (Plat 
deSoUrt. Anim. 28.) 

3. Tlw Aphroditopolite [Comp. Nome (2), Hep- 
tanomis.] In cases where a southern and a northern 
canton possessed similar objects of worship, the 
latter was probably an ofiaet or colony of the former, 
as the Thebaid was the original cradle of Egyptian 
dvilisation, which advanced northward. 

4. The Panopolite or, as it was afterwards called, 
the Chemmite, offered hero-worship to an apotheosized 
man, whom the Greeks compared to the Minyan hero 
Perseus. (Herod, ii. 91.) This canton, whose chief 
town was Panopolb or Chemmis (Diod. i. 18), was 
principally inhabited by linen-weavers and stone- 

5. The Thinite, probably one of the most ancient, as 
it was originally the leaduig nome of the Thebaid, 
and the nome or kingdom of Menes of This, the 
founder of the Egyptian monarchy. The Tlunite 
nome worshipped Osiris, contained a Momnoninm, 
and, in Roman times at least (Amm. Marc. zix. 12; 
Spartian. Hadrian. 14), an oracle of Besa. Its ca- 
pital was Abydus, or, as it was called earlier. This. 

6. The Tentyrite worshipped Athor (Aphrodite), 
Isis, and Typhon. Its inhabitants bunted the 
crocodile, and were accordingly at feud with the 
Ombite nome. ( Juv. zv.) Its chief town was 

7. The Coptite, whose inhabitants were principally 
occupied in the caravan trade between Berenice, 
Myos Hormos, and the interior of Arabia and Libya. 
Its capital was Coptos. [Coptos.] 

8. The Hermonthite, worshipped Osiris and his 
son Oms: its chief town was Hermonthis. 

9. The Apollonlte, like the Tentyrite nome, de- 
stroyed the crocodile (Strab. p. 817; Plin. v. 9 ; 
Aelian, H. An. x. 21 ; Plat Is. et Os. 50), and 
reverenced the sun. Its capital was ApoUinopolis 
Magna. This name is sometimes annexed to the 

10. The Omlnte (Ombites praefectura, Plin. ff. N. 
v. 9), worshipped the crocodile as the emblem of 
Sebak (comp. supra (6) and (9), and the Arsinoite 
(3), Heptanomite nomes). Ombos was its capital. 
The quarries of sandstone, so much employed in 
Egyptian architecture, were principally seated in this 

y. Animal Worship. 

Animal worship is so intimately connected with 
the division of the coontry into nomes, and, in some 
degree, with the institution of castes, that we must 
briefly allude to it, although the subject is much 


too extensive for more than allosioD. The wonhip 
of fluimaU was either general or particular, common 
to ^e whole nation, or several to the nome. Thus 
throughout Egypt, the ox, the dog, and the cat, the 
ibis and the hawk, and the fi^es lepidotos and 
oxyrrynchus, wore objects of veneratioin. The sheep 
was worshipped only in the Saitic and Thebaid 
nomes: the goat at Mendes; the wolf at Lycopolis; 
the cepus (a kind of ape) at Babylon, near Mem- 
phis; the lion at Leontopolis, the eagle at Thebes, 
the shrewmouse at Athribis, and othen elsewhere, 
as will be particularly noticed when we speak of 
their respective temples. As we have already 
seen, the object of reverence in one nome was ao- 
coonted common and unclean, if not, indeed, the 
object of persecution in another. Animal worship 
has been in all ages the opprobrium of Egypt (comp. 
Clem. Alex. iiL 2, p. 253, Potter; Diod. L 84> 
The Hebrew prophets denounced, the anthropo- 
morphic religionists of Hellas derided it To the 
extent to which the Egyptians carried it, especially 
in the decline of the n^ition, it certainly approached 
to the fetish superstitions of the neighbouring 
Libya. But we must bear in mind, that our vergers 
to the Coptic temples are Greeks who, being igno- 
rant of the language, misunderstood much that they 
heard, and being preoccupied by their own ritual ot 
philosophy, misinterpreted much that they saw. 
One good effect may he ascribed to this fann of 
superatition. In no country was humanity to the 
brute creation so systematically practised. The 
origin of animal worship has been variously, but 
never satisfiuitorily, accounted for. If they were 
worshipped as the auxiliaries of the hnshandnum in 
producing food or destroying vermin, how can we 
account for the omission of swine and asses, or for 
the adoption of lions and wolves among the objects 
of veneration? The Greeks, as was then* wont, 
found many idle solutions of an enigma which pro- 
bably veiled a feeling originally earnest and pious. 
They imagined that animals were worshipped be* 
cause their efSgies were the standards in war, like 
the Roman Dil Castronun. This is evidently a 
substitution of cause for effect The representations 
of animals on martial ensigns were the standards of 
the various nomes (Diod. i. 85). Lucian {Astrolog, 
V. p. 215, seq. Bipont) suggested that the bull, the 
lion, the fish, the ram, and the goat, &c. were 
correlates to the zodiacal mnblems; but this surmise 
leaves the crocodile, the cat, and the iUs, &c. of the 
temples unexplained. It is much more probable 
that, among a contemplative and serious race, as 
the Egyptians certainly were, animal-worship arose 
out of the detection of certain analogies between in- 
stinct and reason, and that to the inidated the reve- 
rence paid to beasts was a primitive expression of 
pantheism, or the recc^ition of the Creator in every 
type of his work. The Egyptians are not the only- 
people who have converted type into substancet or 
adopted in a literal sense the metaphorical symbols 
of faith. 

VL Castes and Political Institutions. 

The number of the Egyptian castes is very va- 
riously stated. Herodotus (ii. 164) says that they 
were seven — the sacerdotal and the military, herds- 
men, swineherds, shopkeepers, interpreters, and 
boatmen. Plato {TivuxeuSy iii. p. 24) reckons six; 
Diodoms, in one passage (i. 28) represents them as 
three — priests and husbandmen, from whom the 
army was levied, and ai'tisans. But in another 


(L 74)heateiMfa the nunber to five, hy iha addi- 

tioi o( Hldien and Bhepberds. Strabo limits them 

to tkw— jnattB, soJdiers, and husbandmen — 

mi m this partition ia Tirtnallj carrect, wb shall 

adqpt it after brief expbnatiaD. The existenoe of 

eisles is a eutrubtaatlve proof of the Aaatic origin 

of the I^TpCians. The stamp of caste was not in 

Ifjj^j as b aomedmes aaserted, indelible. The son 

vaaSr, bat not ineritablj, Mowed his fiithei^s 

tmlearpvofessioiL From some of the pariah classes 

iadaed— sQch as that of the ■wineherds — it was 

scmel^ possiUe to escape. 

The iand in Egypt npon which the insUtntion of 
«artei itsted bdar^ged in fee only to the king, the 
prieai,aiid the aoldiers. We know firom Genesis 
(xlriL 96) that all other proprietorB of the soil had 
sBiRBdEred their ri^ta to the crown, and received 
ihsir iaads again sabject to an annual rent of | 
tf iht prodooe. The priests we know (Genes. Z. c), 
tb» soldiens we infer (Diod. i. 74), retained their 
abolBte ownerdiip; and in so productive a oonntxy 
as Ef^Tpt the hasb«ndman was too important a per- 
m to be deprived mt once of all his political rights. 
Be WM in Act an integral although an inferior 
SKtkiB of the wmr-«aste. The privfleged orders 
bowercr were the king, the piieot, the soldier: — 

1. The Kmg was at first elective, and always a 
aembor of the priesthood. He ^erwaids became 
beneifitary, and was taken indifferently from the 
acericftal and nqUtazy orders. If however he were 
far faizth a aoldier, he was adopted on his accession 
^the priests. Even the Ptolemies were not allowed 
to icign withoat soch previona adoption. HIb xoiti- 
■noQ into the sacred mysteries was represented on 
aanmnenta by the tan, the emblem of life and the 
kcj cf secrecy, impressed npon his lips (Pint, de Is, 
<f On-. puS54, B.; Plat JR^. iL p. 290). 

The ting, when not engaged in war, was occupied 
is jgisdirtion and the serrioe of religion. The 
r<?al life was one kng ceremony. His rising and 
hu lying down; his meals, his recreations, and the 
arda* of his employments, were rigidly prescribed 
to Iffln. Some fib^r^ in law-maldng indeed was 
sOoved him, since we read of the laws of Sesostris, 
Anaaa, and other Egyptian rulers: and, with vigo- 
nns oecopaatB of the throne, it is probable that the 
nUier oocaaooally tzansgressed the priestly ordi- 
mces. As bat ferw, however, of tiie Egyptian 
■MBwcbs seem to have groedy abused their power, 
vemay wnrhirie that the hierarchy at least tempered 
nyal despotism. In paintings the king is always re- 
pw smted as many de^ees taDer and more robust than 
Ui Bidgect wanion. A thousand fly before him, 
od he hoJds strings of prisoners by the hair. The 
Eorptian king wean also the emblems and some- 
tines eren the featores of the gods; and it is fre- 
^jaeoUy difficult to distinguish on tlie monuments 
Swortaaen, Amonopht, &c. firom Osiris. It is re- 
laarinMs that females were not excluded firom a 
tbraie so aacerdotaL A queen, I^tocria, oocura in 
lbs sixth dynasty; another, Scemiophris, in the 
tedfth, and other examples are found in the sculp- 
tarv. On the decease of a sovereign a kind of 
pMhaBMOS judgment was exercised on his character 
sad govemmeDl. His embalmed body was phiced 
ia IIk sepulchre, and all men were permitted to bring 
■wwarinns against him. 'tortuous princes received 
a ^eoes of drifiration: condemned princes were 
Marred firom sepoltore. 

S. The PrietU however were, in ordinary times, 
d» nal governing body of Egypt Their lands were 



exempt finnn tribute: their persons werd greeted 
with servile hcsnage ; they were the sole depositaries of 
learning and science : and they alone were acquainted 
with aU the formularies which in Egypt regulated 
nearly every action of life. Their various and in- 
cessant occupations appear even in the titles of the 
subdivisions of the priest-caste. " Each deity," says 
Herodotus (iL 37), '* had several priests [priegtesses] 
and a high priest'' The chiefe or ponti^ were the 
.judges of the land, the councillors of the sovereign, 
the legishitorB and the guardians of the great mys- 
teries. The minor priests were prophets, inferior 
judges end magistrates, hierophants, hiero-grammats 
or sacred scriba, basilioo-grammats or rojal scribes, 
dressers and keepers of the royal and sacerdotal 
wardrobes, j^ysidans, heralds, keepers of the sacred 
animals, architects, draughtsmen, beadles, vergers, 
sprinklers of water, fan bearers, &c. (Wilkinson, 
if. and C. vol. 1. p. 238). So numerous a staff 
was not in the peculiar polity of Egypt altogether 
superfluous, neither does it seem to have been pe- 
culiarly burdensome to the nation, since it derived its 
support firom r^^olar taxes and firom its proprietary 
lands. Nowhere in the ancient world was the number 
of temples so great as in Egypt: nowhere were there 
so many religious festivals ; nowhere was ordi- 
nary life so intimately blended with religion. The 
priest therefine was mixed up in afikirB of the 
market, the law court, the shop, the house, in ad- 
dition to his proper vocation in the temple. His life 
was the reverse of ascetic: in the diinate of Egypt 
firequent ablutions, linen garments, papyrus sandals, 
were luxuries, — only polygamy was forbidden him. 
But he was enjoined to marry, and the son succeeded 
the fiftther in the sacred <^ce (Herod, ii. 143). 
Herodotus (comp. ii. 35, 55) contradicts himself 
in saying that females could not fulfil sacerdotal 
duties, — women might be incapable of tiie highest 
offices, but both sculptures and documents prove, 
that they were employed in many of the minor 
duties connected with the temples. 

3. The Soldiers, The whole militaiy fince of Egypt 
amounted to 410,000 men (Herod, ii. 165^166; 
Diod. i. 54). It was divideid into two corps, the 
Calashrians and the Hermotybians. The former 
were the more numerous, and in the most flourishing 
era of Egypt, the 18th and 19th dynasties, were 
estimated at 250,000 men. Each of tiiese divisions 
furnished a thousand men annually to perfinm the 
duty of royal body guards. During the term of their 
attmdance they received firom the king daily rations 
of bread, beef, and wine. When summoned to the 
field or to garrison duty, each soldier provided himself 
with the necessary arms and baggage. The prin- 
cipal gazrisoDS of Egypt were on its southern and 
eastern borden, at Syene and Elephantine, at Hiera^ 
oompolis and Eilethyas, which towns, on opposite 
sides of the river, commanded the Kile-valley above 
Thebes, and at Marea and Peluaium. The western 
firontierwas, until Egypt stretched to the Cyrenaica, 
guarded suffidentiy by the Libyan desert In time of 
peace the troops who were not in garrisons or at court 
were settied in various nomes principally east of the 
Nile, and in the Delta; sinoe it was in that quarter 
Egypt was most exposed to invasion from the pas- 
toral Arabs or the yet more fermidable nomade tribes 
of Assyria and Palestine. According to Herodotus 
(ii. 168), each soldier was allowed 12 arourae of 
land, or about six acres fi;ee from all charge or 
tribute, finm which allotment he defrayed the cost 
of his arms and equipment To the Egyptian soldier 



hsndicnft employment was feiindden, agricnltaral 
labours were enjinned. The moDumeiits exhibit offi- 
cers with recraitiDg parties, soldiers engaged in gjm- 
liAstac ezo'ciBes, wd in the battle pieces, which are 
extremely spirited, all the arts of offensive and de- 
ieaaive war practised by the Egyptians are repre^ 
Bented« The war-caste was necessarily a very im- 
portant element in a state which was frequently 
engaged in distant conquests, and had a wide extent 
of tmritoiy to defend. Yet until the reigns of 
ISethos, when the priests invaded its privileges, and 
of Psammetichus, when the king encroached upon 
them, we find no trace of mutiny or dvil war in 
Egypt, — a proof that the Galasirians and Hermo- 
tybians were not only well disciplined, but also, in 
the main, contented with their lot, 

Vn. Civil History. 

The History of Egypt is properly arranged under 
five eras. 

1. Egypt under its native rulers — the Pharaonic 
Era. Its commencement is unknown: it closes 
with the conquest of the land by Cambyses in b. c. 

2. The Persian Era, from b. c. 625, to the 
Macedonian invasion, b. c. 332. 

3. The Macedonian or Hellenic Era. This period 
is computed either from the foundati(»i of Alexan- 
dria, in B. c. 332, or from b. c. 323, when Ptolemy, 
the son of Lagus, converted the satrapy oi Egypt 
into an hereditary kingdom. This period extends 
to the death of Cleopatra, in b. c. 30. 

4. The Roman Era, from the surrender of Alex- 
andria to Augustus, in B. c. 30, to the capture of 
that city by the Khalif Omar in a. d. 640. 

5. The Mahonunedan Era, from A. d. 640 to the 
present time. 

The last of these periods belongs to modem his^ 
tory, and does not come within Uie scope of this 
work. The first of them must be very briefly 
treated, partly because it involves questions which 
it would demand a volume to discuss, and partly 
because Egypt came into the field of classical his- 
tory through its relations with the Persians, Gredcs, 
and Romans. For complete infbnnation the student 
of the Pharaonic era must consult the laiger works 
of Denon, Young, Champollion, Rosellini, Heeren, 
AVilkinson, Bunsen and Lepsius; or the very ludd 
abstract of this period in Kenric^s Ancient Egypt, 
which, indeed, contains all Uiat the general r^er 
oan requiro. 

1. Phantonui Era* 

AttthoriUe$. — The original records of Egypt 
were kept with no ordinary care, and wero very 
various in kind, sculpture, symbol, writing, all con- 
tributing to their contents. Herodotus (ii. 72 — 82\ 
Theophrastus {ap, Porphyr, d$ AbsHnmt. ii. 5;, 
Cicero (de Repub, iii. 8) concur in describing the 
Egyptians as the most learned and accurate of 
mankind in whatsoevel' concerned their native 
annals. The priests, Diodoms (L 44) assures us, 
had transmitted in unbroken succession written 
descriptions of all their kings — their physical 
powers and disposition, and their personal exploits. 
The antiquity of writing in Egypt is no longer a 
subject of dispute. Lepsius (^Booh of tkt Dead, 
Leipzig, 1842, Pref. p. 17) found on monuments 
as early as the 12th dynasty, the hieroglyphic sign 
of the papyros; and on the 4th that of the stylus 
•and inkstand. The Egyptians themselves also 


observed the distinction between tlie dry ponfificd 
chronicle and mythical and heroical narratives 
couched in poetiy and song. To this mass of 
written documents are to be added the sculptured 
monuments themselves, the tombs, obetisks, and 
temple walls, whose paintings and inscriptions have 
been partially decyphered by modem sdiolars, sod 
are found generally to correspond with the written 
lists of kings compiled, in the first instance, by the 
native historian Manetiio. Egyptian histoiy, hoir. 
ever, in the modem acceptation of the w(»Hi, began 
after the establishment df the Greek sovereignty of 
Egypt. The natives, with the natural pride of 
a once ruling but now subject race, were eager to 
impart to deir Hellenic masters more correct no- 
tions of their histoiy and religion tl&an could be 
obtained either fixnn the relations of Greek tia- 
vellers, such as Thales and Solo|i, or from the 
narratives of Hecataens, Demoeritns, and Herodotus. 
Of Manetho, of Sextus Julius Africanua, fixan whose 
chramcon, in five books, Eusebius derived a ood- 
eiderable portion of his own dironioon, of (korgios 
the Syncellus, of Eratosthenes, the Alexandrian 
mathematician, who treated largely of Egyptian 
chnmology, accounts have been given in the Di^ 
tionary of Greek and Roman Biography, and to its 
columns we must refer for the bibliogFaphy of 
Egyptian histoiy. Lastly, we must point out ^e 
extreme value of the Hebrew scriptures and of 
Josephna among the records of. the Nile-valley. 
The remote antiquity of Egyptian annals is not 
essentiaUy an objection to their credibility. The 
Syncellus assigns 3555 years as the duration of 
Manetho^s thirty dynasties. These being Egyptian 
years, are equivalent to 3553 Julian years, and, 
added to 339 b. c, when the thirtieth dynasty ex- 
pired, give 3892 b. o. as the commencement oS the 
reign ^ Moies, the founder of the monarchy. But 
although Bunsen and other distinguished Egypt- 
ologers are disposed to assign an historical persoD- 
ality to Menes, his very name, as the name of la 
individual man, seems suspicions. It too nearly 
resembles the Menu of the Indians, the Minyas and 
Minos of the Greeks, the Menerfa of the Etruscans, 
and the Mannus of the Germans — in all which 
languages the name is connected with a root — 
Man — signifying "to think and speak ** (see 
Quarterly Review, vol. 78, p. 1 49) — to be accepted 
implicitiy as a personal designation. 

The Pharaonic era of Egyptian history may be 
divided into three portions — the Old, the Middle, 
and the New monarehy. The first extaads fhHn the 
foundation of the kingdom in b. a 3892 to the 
invasion of the Hyksos. The seccmd from the con- 
quest of Lower Egypt by the Hyksos and the 
establishment of an independ^it kingdom in tiie 
Thebaid, to the ^pulsion of the Hyksos. The 
third from the re-establishment of the native 
monarehy by Amosis to the final conquest by Cam- 
byses in B. o. 525. (Kenrick, Ancient Egypi^ 
vol. ii. p. 110.) 

(1.) The Old Monarchy, The chronology of 
this and the succeeding division of the Egyptian 
monarchy is beset with, at present, insurmountable 
difficulties; since, in the first place, there are no 
synchronisms in the annids of other countries to 
guide the inquirer, and in the next, we know not 
whether the dynasties in Manetho should be taken 
as a series, or whether he enumerates contempo- 
raneous fiunilies of kings, some of whom reigned, 
at the same time, at Memphis, and others at Sais, 


IVteif &e. And even if Huitidio lum* 

idf ialHiM his ^rnasdes to foiOaw one anotlMr 

IB dims order, thsqnMtkn still lemuns wfaetbarhis 

did to too. Gods, spirits, deodgodB, and 

, or tfas sank at iiisDwere,sicoording toMsaetho, 

emSntn^tnciEgjpL Tbe^ began with Pths or 

nifhsiBliH and eloaed wHh JBbnis. Then follow 

dHTtf dyoastias of mortal kings, 300 in number, 

seeoriiag to the lovrast, and 500, acoording to the 

Ufhesi eBOfartatian. The time over which they 

extend lariis also between the limitB of 3556 and 

MMS jeais. llanetho's aoeoont of these dynasties 

ii iiti'mrd in three ^umes: Herodotos, DiodofoS, 

EestethaDBS and Ihnetfao, andd their manj dis- 

oncnr in this statemeni--4hstMenes of 

I the fint mortal king of MizRum, the doable 

bad, i. iL, Upper and Lower Egypt Here, indeed^ 

tbor eoinddcmM Olds. For Herodotos makes Menes 

the ftaader of Memphis, as wdl as of the monarchy 2 

wherese Diodoras states that Memphis, the embB&k-> 

Bois which supported its area, and tin direnion 

«f theKHe stream were the woiks of a Trtonarch. 

who lived many centnzies afterwards. The second 

name in the 4th dynasty is Snphis, to whom Mans' 

tho sscribeB the bmlduig of the Great Pyxamid. 

Hoc we seem to tonch upon historical giwrnd, 

nee ia a recently openad room of that pyramid 

has been decyphered the name of Chttfn or Shnfu, 

the Cheops of Herodotos, who, however, ]^aoe8 thai 

Boaudi much lower. The erectian of the Second 

Pjnmid is attrihotad by Herodotos and Diodoms 

to Chepfaien; and npcn the neighbooriag tombs, 

kr the pynmid itself seems to be nmnscribed, has 

been icad the name of Shafre, acoompaiiied by a 

l ya u ikhd figu«. There is sufficient approxima- 

IMD between Shafre and Chephren to ideotify them 

with each other, althoogh no corresponding name 

eecan in cither Eratosthenes or Msnetho. Fonrth 

ia the 4th dynasty is Mencheres, the bdlder of the 

tyid pymmid, the Mycerinos of Herodotos (iL 127) 

aad Diodoras (L S4); and their statement is folly 

'■Ww" ' *^] by the disooveiy of a mommy case in 

tbai pynndd, with the inscription, Menkern. Me^ 

BohB, indeed, makes Nitocris, a qneen of the 6th 

dynasty, the Nitocris of Herodotos (iL 100), to have 

Mt tin third pyramid. The 7th dyxuisty was 

sjniai e B i lj f a period of anarchy, since it contains 70 

MmnililiM khigs, vHm^ nigned for 70 days only* 

They w«re pr3)ably interr^ges or vice-kings* Of 

the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and llth dynasties not 

the names of the tings are known. Two of 

Memphite dynasties, two Heradeopolitani 

■od «ne Diaspoilitan, the dynasty being in each case 

anned ^iparently from the birth-place of ito 

fnBder. The 12th dynasty bears in Mianetho's 

Set a very historical aspect, since its catak^gne of 

Kvas Diespofitan kings is not only complete, but 

iin HMJ w j s also the name of Sesostris, or more pro- 

periy Scaortasen or Sesortosis, who, it is said, " sob- 

^aed all Asia in nine years, and part of Eorope as 

iv IS Thnwe," as well as that of Lacharis (Lamaris 

wMaasX ^"^ ^*o>^ ^ Labyrinth in the Aisinoite 

Mae. Yet, natfl recently this hst has lecetyed 

aoeoBfraiation from hierogfyphics. Even the con- 

laeito of Sesostris probably belong to the 18th 

^iietyaBd to BamesesIIL Both Herodotos and 

HSidonis place Sesostris much later: andthefonner 

kiMnao lelers the erection of the Labyrinth to the 

|bM of the Dodecarrhia, The 13th dynasty oon- 

mtd «f 60 Itopolite kmgs, who reigned, it is 

mUf 453 years, and the 14th of 76 Xoito kings, 



who reSgned 184 years, bnt the names knd acts of 
both hare perished. With the 14th dynasty closes 
the first poriod of the Phanumic era. 

(2.) ThB Middle Monarchy, The second pe- 
nod, consisting of three dynasties, is that of the 
Shepherd ffings. A passage of Manetho's lost work 
Aeffgptiaca, cited by Josephns in his rejoinder to 
the Gneoo-Egyptian grammaiian Apkm (Joeeph. 
0. Afdon. L 14), places this period in comparative 
light before ns. That a Komadic Arab horde for 
several centories oocnpied and made Egypt tribn* 
taiy; tiiat thehr cApttal was Memj^; that in the 
Sethroite nome they constructed an immense earth" 
camp which they called Abaris; that at a certain 
period of their oocnpation two independ/ent Idngdoms 
were formed ia Egypt, one in the* Thebaid, in intimate 
rdatioDS with Aethiopia, another at Xois, among the 
marshes of the Nile; that, finally, the Egyptians re- 
gained their independence and expelled the Hyksos, 
who thereopon retired into Palestine, are probably 
aathentic ficbb^ and indeed inTolve in themselves no 
jnst caose for doabt The only sospidons drcmn- 
stance in Hanetho's narratiTe is the exaggeration of 
nnmbers, bnt this is a defect common to all primeval 
record. The Hyksos indeed left behind them no 
architectnral memorials, and the Egyptians, when 
they recovered Lower Egypt, woold not be likely to 
peipetaate their own snbjection, nor the priests who 
instmcted Herodotos and Diodoms to confess that 
the Nile-valley had ever paid tithe or toll to an 
abominable race of shej^eid kings. The silence of 
annalists and monuments is therefore at least a 
negative aigoment in support of the troth of Ma- 
netho's account: nor is it improbable that the long 
and inveterate hatred with which the Egyptians 
regarded the pastoral tribes of Arabia owed its origin 
to their remonbranoe of this period of humiliation. 

The Middle Monarchy extended over a period of 
953 years according to tiie Syncellus and Africanus: 
but, acoording to Manetho, the Hyksos were lords of 
Egypt only 51 1 years. The Isiger number probably 
includes the sum of the years of the three contenv- 
poraneons dynasties at Xois, Memphis, and Thebes. 

(8.) 7%$ New Monarehjf. The thhrd period, or 
the New Monarchy, extends from the commencement 
of the 18th to the end of the 30th dynasty. 

The New Monarchy commences with the ezpulsian 
of the Hyksos, or rather perhaps with the revolt of 
the Thebaid which efiected it. The earlier kings of 
the 18th dynasty, Amosis, Afisphragmuthoeis, &c. 
were apparently engaged in successive attacks upon 
the intruders. But, after ito final victory, Egypt 
again, or perhaps now for the first time a united 
kingdom, attained a long and striking prosperity* 
The names of Thutmosis (Thothmes), of Ajneno- 
phis (the Greek Memnon ?), and above all, of Ba- 
meses III., are read on various monuments in Nubia 
and Egypt, and most conspicuously in the Thebaid 
temples at Luxor and Eainak. Tne 18th dynasty 
was the fioorishing age of Egyptian art: ito sculp- 
ture became bolder, ito paintings more artistic and 
ekborato: the appliances and inventions of civilisa- 
tion more diversified. Bameses, if indeed under his 
name are not embodied the acto of his dynasty, was 
the Alexander of the Nile-valley. Seventeen cen- 
turies after his rugn Germanicus visited Thebes, 
and the priesto read to him, on the mcmumento, the 
acts and wars, the treasures and the tributes, the 
subjecto and tho domains of this povrerful king 
(Tac. Aim. ii. 60). This was no Eastern exaggera- 
tion. The " Tablet of Eamak," says Keniick (vol. iL 



^. 229), whose inscription was interpreted 'tq Ger- 
xnanicuB in A. d. 1 6, " was stricUj an historical and 
statistical document. Its dates are precise; and 
though we may be unable to identify the countries 
nam^, the exactness with which thej are enume- 
rated, with the weights and numbers of the objects 
which they bring, proves that we have before us an 
authentic record, at least of the tribute enjoined 
upon the nations." About this time the southern 
frontier of Egypt extended beyond the Second Cata- 
ract: to the west the power of Thothmes or Ra- 
meses reached over the negro tribes of the interior: 
the east was guarded by strong fortresses: while by 
the north tiie Egyptian monarch went forth as a 
conqueror, and, proceeding along the Syrian coast, 
passed into Asia Minor, and planted his standard on 
the frontiers of Persia, and upon the shores of the 
Caspian Sea. His campaigns required the coopera- 
tion of a fleet; and Egypt became, for the first time 
in history, a maritime power. It is probable in- 
deed that its navy was furnished by its subjects, 
the inhabitants of the coast of Western Asia. The 
period of time assigned to this dynasty is about two 
centuries and a hdf. Rameses III., there is every 
reason to think, is the Sesostris or Sesortasen of 
Herodotus and Diodorus. 

The names of the monarchs of the 18th dynasty 
are obtained from two important monuments, the 
Tablet of Abydos and the Tablet of Kamak. 

The 19th dynasty is probably a continuation of 
its predecessor, and its details are extremely con- 
fused and uncertain. The 20th was composed 
entirely of kings bearing tiie name of Rameses (Ra- 
meses IV. — ^XIII.), of whom Rameses IV. alone 
maintained the military renown of his illustrious 
precursors. The 21st is uninteresting. But in the 
22nd we come upon the first ascertained synchro- 
nism with the annals of the Hebrews, 'and conse- 
quently at this point Egyptian chronology begins to 
blend with that of the general history of the world. 
There is no doubt that Abraham and his son visited 
^STPt; that the Kile-vall^ had at one era a He- 
brew prime minister, who married a daughter of 
the high priest of Heliopolis; or that the most il- 
lustrious of the Hebrew monarchs maintained close 
political and commercial relations with Egypt, and 
allied himself witii its royal funily. But although 
the facts are certiun, the dates are vague. Now, 
however, in the 22nd dynasty, we can not only 
identify the Shishak who took and plundered Je- 
rusalem with the Sesonchis or Sesonchosis of the 
Greeks and the Sheshonk of the native monuments, 
but we can also assign to him contcmporaneily with 
Rehoboam, and fix the date of his capture of Jeru- 
salem to about the year b. c. 972. By the esta- 
blishment of the date of Sheshonk^s plundering of 
Jerusalem, we also come to the knowledge that the 
Pharaoh whose daughter was espoused to Solomon, 
and the sister of whose queen Tahpenes was, in the 
reign of David, married to Hadad the Edomite, 
was a monarch of the 2 1st dynasty (1 Kings^ ix. 16; 
xi. 19, seq.). 

Osorthen or Osorcho, Sheshonk's successor, is 
probably the Zerah of Scripture (2 Kings, xvii. 4. ; 2 
Chron, xiv. 9). The Sesoetrid kingdom was now on 
the decline, and at the close of the 24th dynasty Egypt 
was subjugated by the Ethiopians, and three longs 
of that nation, Sdbaco, Sefnchot or Sevekos, and 
Tarhu, reigned for 44 years, and composed the 
25th dynasty. Sevckos is obviously the Seva, king 
of Egypt, with wh(nn Hoshea, king of Israel, in B.C. 


722, entered into an alliance (2 Kingf, xvii. 4); 
while Tarkus is Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, the 
enemy of Assyria and Sennacherib {Iscuahj xxxviL 
9). Herodotus indeed makes no mention of any 
Ethiopian king except Sabaco (Sebichos), who, 
according to his account, reigned for half a century, 
and then voluntarily withdrew into his own KubiaB 
dominions. (Herod, ii. 139.) The Aethiopian 
dynasty was the second foreign occupation of Egypt, 
but it differed materially from .the earlier usurpation 
of the land by the Hyksos. The 25th dynasty does 
not appear to have been regarded by the Egyp- 
tians themselves as a period of particular woe or 
oppression. The alliance between the country above 
and the oountiy below Elephantine and the Second 
Cataract was apparentiy, at all times, very close: 
the religion and manners of the adjoining kingdoms 
differed but little from one another: and the Aethio- 
pian sovereigns perhaps merely exchanged, during 
their tenure of Egypt, a less civilised for a mcare 
civilised realm. On the retuement of the Ethio- 
jnans, tiiere was an apparent re-action, since Sethos, 
a priest of Phtah, made himself master of the 
throne. His power seems to have been exercised 
tyrannically, if Herodotus (ii. 147) is correct in 
saying that after the death or deposition of this 
" priest of Hephaestos " the Egyptians were " set 
free." One important change, indicating a decay of 
the andoit constitution, occurred in this reign. 
The military caste was degraded, and the crown 
even attempted to deprive ^em of their lands. It 
is probable that this was a revolutionary phase 
common to all countries at certain eras. E|^^ had 
become in some degree a naval power. The com- 
mercial classes were rivalling in power the agricul- 
tural and mOitary, and the priest-king, for his own 
interests, took part with the former. Sethoe was 
succeeded (b. c. 700 — 670) by the dodecarchy, or 
twelve contemporaneous kings; whether this number 
were the result of convention, or whether the twelve 
reguliwerethe headsof the twelve Greater Names, can- 
not be ascertained. From the commencement of this 
period, however, we enter upon a definite chronology. 
Histoiy is composed of credible &cts, and the lists of 
the kings are conformable with the monuments. 

PsAHMETiCHUS I., who reigued 54 years, b. c. 
671 — 61 7, supplanted the dodecarchy by the aid of 
Greek and Phoenician auxiliaries, and in Lower 
Egypt at least founded a cosmopolite kingdom, such 
as tiie Ptolemies established three centuries aft«r- 
wards. (Diod. i. 66; Herod, i. 171; Polyaen. StraL 
vii. 3.) His Ionian and Carian or Milesian auxilia- 
ries he settied in a district on the Pelusiac branch 
of the Nile, between the Mediterranean and the 
Bubastite Nome; while the Phoenicians who had 
helped him to the throne were probably located near 
Memphis, in an allotmoit called tiie Tyrian camp. 
(Herod, ii. 112.) The native militia were now 
superseded by Hellenic regular soldiers, and a por- 
tion at least of the war-caste migrated, in dudgeon 
at this preference, to Aethiopia. Historians have 
too readily taken for granted that this was a ]iii> 
gration of the whole body of the Hermotybians and 
Calasirians. It was more probably a revolt of the 
southern garrisons on the Nubian frontier. In the 
roign of Psammetichus was also instituted the caste 
of interpreters or dragomans between the natives 
and foreigners; and it strikingly marks the decline 
of the ancient system that Psammetichus caused his 
own sons to bo instructed in the learning of the 
Greeks (Diod. i. 67). 


PaaBBrtiekvs yns snooeeded by his son Neoo or 
Xbcraov tile Phanflh Nedio of the aeoond bode of 
Kngtf w]io rdgned 16 yews, b. c. 617 — 601. 
ABKBg ibe greatest of hb works was the canal be- 
tvea the Nile and the Red Sea. Whether he 
coDpfeted it or not is doobtful; in the reign of 
DtetBs it irae, however, certainly open for vesseb 
ef hige harden, and was finished by the Ptolemies 
(PIb. vi 33). liodem sorreys have ascertained 
tAat this canal left the Nile in the neighbourhood of 
the modem town of Belbeis — probably the Bnbastis 
AgnA vi the Greeks — and nm £. and S! to Suez. 
(Hcnd. ir. 43 ; Diod. L 33.) At Neoo's oonunand 
also the Flwenicians undertook the circnmnavig»tion 
of the African rpninsnla. The saooeas of tlds en- 
terrdse is problematkal, but, as Major Bennell, in 
ki5 Essay on the Geography of Herodotus, has 
Acnn, bj no means impottible. In the reign of 
Xecho Ej^yptcame into direct collision with theBaby- 
irsisn empire, at that time rising upon the rnins of 
the Aasrnan. Egyptseems to have been in alliance 
viih the ktter, since about the time when Cyaxares 
RMnned the siege of IGniveh, Necho marched to- 
wadb the Euphntes, apparently to rdieve the be- 
letcasral dty. Judah was then in league with 
fiebykn; and its king Josiah threw himself in the 
way of Necho, and was defeated by him at Hegiddo. 
Hk Jewish monarch died of his wounds at Jeru- 
eshn, and the oanqnenir entered tiie holy city, pro- 
bsUy the Cadytis of Herodotus (iL 159, iiL 5). 
Secho deposed and sent captive to Egypt Jehoshaz, 
the SOB and snocessor of Josiah, made his younger 
brother FJiakim king in ins stead, and imposed an 
sBDoal tribute on Judaea. The Judaean monaicha 
wen finr jean later avenged. From the plains of 
Carehemish or Clroesium, on the eastern bank of the 
Enphrstes, Neoo fled to Egypt, leaving all his Asiatic 
csntpiestB to the victor Nebuchadnezzar. 

Nedio was succeeded by his son PSAioas, who 
raped 6 years, b. c. 601 — 595, and Psammis 
bv his son Afsies, the Uaphris of the monuments, 
sad the Pharaoh Hc^ihxa of the Scriptures, who 
ragoed 25 years, n. c 595 — 570. The earlier 
yein of i^nes were signaKiwd by his victories over 
the Tynans, Sidonians, Phoenicians, and Cypriots. 
Bet these acquisitions were transient, and Uiere Ib 
nana to suppose that Lower Egypt at least was 
■mded by Ndmchadnezzar (Strab. p. 687; Jere- 
miad iliiL 12, xlvL 13—26 ; JEzekiely zziz). 
.Apries experienced even greater calamities on his 
iwrtwu frontier, a quarter firom which Egypt had 
bea hitherto unassailed. The Greeks of Gyrene 
at«Rninated his anny at Irasa {Ain Erseni), be- 
twetn the bay of Booiba and Gyrene. His defeat, 
aad the emdties to which it led, rendered him 
«£«» to his subjects. A fortunate soldier, Amasis 
m Aaaosis, deposed, succeeded, and finally strangled 


AjfAOB reigned 44 years, B. a 570 — 526. He 
» ti» first E^fTptian monarch with whose personal 
chanctcr we have any acquaintance. His friend^ 
ihipvithPolyczates is well known. Hewas ashrewd, 
active, and intelligent sovereign, who possessed the 
k«e d^ the soldieis and the people, and nearly dis- 
vxnded the rules and ceremonies of the priests. 
His icigB was eminently prosperous, and his death 
weaned just in time to yrerent his witnessing the 
nbJQgatian of Egypt by the Persians under Gam- 
tvsea, which took place in the reign of lus son Psak- 
xmrrs (b.c. 525), who sat upon the throne only 
5 nweiths. 

2. PernanEra, 


The 27th dynasty contains 8 Persian kings, and 
extends over a period of 124 years, b. c. 525 — 401. 
Egypt became a satrapy, not, however, without 
much reluctation and various revolutions; for be-» 
tween the worshippers of animals and the vror- 
shippers of fire a religions antipathy snbsistod which 
aggravated the pressure of conquest and the burden 
of subjection. The Persians indeed were the only 
masters of Egypt who assailed by violence, as weU 
as regarded with contempt, its religious and political 
institutions. From this cause, no less than from 
the numerous Greek and Hebrew settlers in the 
Delta, the Macedonian conqueror, in b. c. 332, found 
scarcely any impediment to his occupation of Egypt. 
During the 27th dynasty Egypt became, for the 
first time, involved in European politics. A revolt, 
which commenced in the reign of Darius, b. c. 488, 
and which delayed for three years the second Per- 
sian invasion crif Greece, was repressed by his son 
and successor Xerxes, in b. o. 486. A second re- 
Tolt, in B. c. 462, was put down, in b. c. 456, by 
the satrap Megabyzus; but its leader Inaros, son of 
Psammitidius, was aided by the Athenians. 

The 28th dynasty contams only one name, that 
of Ahtbtaxus the Saite. In his reign of six years, 
through some unexplained weakness in Persia, 
Egypt regained its independenee, for monuments at 
KanuUs and ESethya prove that the Saite monarch 
was king of the whole land. Amyrtaeus was mag- 
nificently interred in a sarcophagus of green breccia, 
which, after passing fix)m an Egyptian tomb to a 
Greek basilica, from a Greek basilica to a Moslem 
mosque, finally rests in the British Museum. The 
29th dynasty contuned four kings, of whom hardly 
any thing is related, and the 30th dynasty three 
kings, Nectakebus I., Tachos, and Nectane- 
Bus II., who are better known firom their con< 
nection with Grecian history. In the reign of 
Nectanebus II., and in the year b. a 350, Egypt 
was reconquered by Bagoas and Mentor, the gene- 
rals of Darius Ochus, and the last Pharaoh of the 
30 dynasties retired an exile into Aethiopia. The 
succession of Egyptian monarchs, embracing a pe-^ 
riod of 3553 years, is unexampled in history. Upon 
the annals of their successors the Ptolemies we shall 
not however enter, since the lives of the Macedonian 
kings are given in the Dictionaiy of Biography 
(art. Ptolemaeug). It wiU suffice in this place 
to make a few general remarks upon the political 
aspect of Eg3rpt under its Greek and Roman masters. 

3. Jfacedoniaa or ffeUemc Era. 

Many causes rendered the accession of a Greek 
dynasty an easy and even a welcome transition to 
the E^ptian people. In the decline of the native 
monarchy, they had suffered much from anarchy 
and civil wars. For two centuries the yoke of Persia 
had pressed heavily upon their trade, agriculture and 
religion: their wealth had been drained, their chil- 
dren enslaved, their ceremonial and national prejudices 
systematically outraged by their rulers. For the 
advent of the Greeks a gradual preparation had been 
made since the reign of Psammetichus. Hellenic 
cdonies had penetrated to the Great Oasis and the 
coast of the Bed Sea. Greek travellers and philo- 
sophers had explored the Thebaid, and Greek immi- 
grants had established ntunerous colonies in the 
Delta. Lower Egypt too had admitted Spartans and 
Athenians alternately as the allies of the Saite and 
Memphite sovereigns: so that when in b.c. 332l 



Alexander reached PeloBiiim, tbit city opened its 
gates to him, and bis march to Mflmphis resembled 
the peaoefid progress of a native king. 

The regalations which Alexander mads for the 
goyemment of his new oonqnest were equally wise 
and popular: and as they were generally adopted by 
his snocessors the Lagidae, tb^ may be mentianed 
in this place. The Egyptians were gorenied by their 
own laws. The privileges of the priests and their 
exemption firom land-<t8z were second to them, and 
they were enoooraged, if not assisted, to repair the 
temples, and to restore the ancient ritnal Ahraady 
in the reign of Ptolemy Soter the inner-chamber of 
^ the TemjSe of Kamak was rebuilt, and the name of 
Philip Arrhidaeus, the son of Alexander, inscribed 
upon it. Alexander himself ofiiared sacrifice to Apis 
at Memphis, and assumed the titles of ■* Son of 
Amroon " and " Bebved of Ammon "^ and when the 
sacred Boll died of old age Ptolemy L bestowed fifty 
talents npon his funeral. Euergetes, the third mo^ 
narch of the Lagii boose, enlaxged the temple of 
Kamak, added to that of Ammon in the Qreat Ouds, 
and erected smaller shrines to Onris at Canobos, and 
to Leto, at Erne or Latopolis, The structores of 
the Ptolemies will be noticed under the names of the 
varioos places which they restored or adorned. 

It would have been impolitic to reinstate the andent 
miUtiaof Egypt, which indeed hadloiigbeensoperseded 
by a standing army or Greek meroeoaries. Under 
the most despotic of the Ptolemies, however, we meet 
with few instances of military oppression, and these 
rarely extended beyond the suburbs of Alexandria 
or the fnmtiers of the Delta. Alexander established 
two principal garrisons, one at Pelusium, as the key 
of Egypt, and another at Memphis, as the capital of 
the Lower Country. Subsequently Parembole in 
Nubia, Elephantine, and the Greek city of Ptolemab 
in the Thebaid were occupied by Maw^onian troops. 
The civil jurisdiction he divided between two nom- 
archies or judgeships, and he appointed as nomardis 
two native Egyptians, Poloaspis and Petisis. (Arrian, 
Anab, iiL 5. § 2.) 

Like their predecessors the Pharaohs, the Ptoleiiues 
aspired to extend their power over Palestine and 
Syria, and protracted wars were the results of their 
contests with the Seleucid longs. But evoi these 
campaigns tended to the augmentation of the Egyptian 
navy; and, in consequence of the foundation ^Alex- 
andria the country possessed one of the strongest and 
most capacious havens in the Mediterranean. Be- 
coming a maritime, the Egyptians became also an 
actively commercial nation, a^ exported com, pa- 
pyrus, linen, and the articles of their Libyan and 
Indian traffic to western Asia and Europe. Ptolemy 
Philadelphus gave a new impulse to the intenud 
trade of the Nile-valley, in the first place, by es- 
tablishing a systfflu of police from Cercasorum to 
Syene, and, in the next, by completing the canal 
which Nedio and Darius Hystaspis had b^gun, 
from the Pelusiac arm of the Nile to ArsinoS at 
the head of the Bed Sea. (Plin. vi. 3d; Herod, 
ii. 158) [Bob Asms; Absinob]. He also rebuilt 
the old port of Aennum or Cosseir [Philotera], 
and improved the caravan route from the interior by 
erecting iims and dstwns in the desert between 
Cqitos and Berenice. The monuments of Lower 
Nubia attest the wealth and enterprise of the Lagid 
monarchs. Egypt indeed did not regain under this 
family the sploodour which it had enjoyed under 
Thoutmosis and Barneses IIL, but it was perhaps 
more imifonnly prosperous, and less exposed to in- 


vision from Cyrene and Arabia than it had ever 
been since the 18th dynasty occupied the throne oif 

In one respect the amalgamation of the Egyptians 
with their oonquerars was incomplete. The Gre^s 
were always the dominant dsss. The children of 
mixed marriages were declared by the Macedonian 
laws to be Egyjrtian not Greek. They were incapable 
of the highest offices in the state or the army, and 
worshipped Osiris and Isis, rather than Zeiia or 
Hera. Thos, according to Hellenic prejudices, they 
were regarded as barbuian or at most as Perioed, 
and not as fbll citisens or freemen. To this distinc- 
tion may in part be ascribed the fiudlily with which 
both races sabsequentiy submitted to the aohority 
of the Boman emperors. 

The ancient divi^ons of the Upper and Lofwer 
kingdoms were under the Macedonian dynasty re- 
vived but inverted. Power, population, wealth and 
enterprise were drawn down to the Delta and to the 
space between its chief dties Memphis and Alexandria. 
The Thebaid gradually declined. Its temples wer« 
indeed restored: and its pompous hionurchy recovered 
much of their influenoe. But the rites of religioii 
could not compete with tiie activity of oommercek 
The Greek and Hebrew colonists of the Delta ahsorWd 
the vitality of the land: and Ic^ befbre tiie Bamans 
eooverted Egypt into a province of the empire, the 
Nubians and Arabs had encroached upon the upper 
country, and the andent Diospolite region partly re- 
turned to the waste, and partiy displayed a saper- 
aimuated grandeur, in striking emtrsst with thm 
busy and productive energy of the Lower Conntir. 
This phenomenon is illustrated by the mammies 
which are fband in the tombs of Memphis and thm 
catacombs of Thebes respectively. Of one hundred 
mummies taken from the latter, about twenty show 
an European origin, while of eveiy hundred derived 
from the necropolite reoeptadee of tiie former, seventy 
have lost thdr Coptic peculiarities (Sharps, Bittory 
ofBgypt^ p. 133, 2nd ed.). The Delta had, in fkct, 
become a cosmopolite region, reploushed from Syria 
and Greeoe, and brought into contact with general 
dvilisation. The Thebaid remained stationary, and 
reverted to its ancient Aethiopan type, neglecting 
or incapable of fordgn admixture^ 

A, Roman Erti, 

For more than a century previous to b. a 30 the 
fiunily and government of the Lagid house had been 
on the declme. It vras rather the jealousy of tlie 
Boman senate which dreaded to see one of its own 
members an Egyptian proconsul, than its own int^^td 
strength, whioh delayed the conversion of the Nile- 
valley into a Boman province; When however the 
Boman commonwealth had passed into a monardiyy 
and the final struggle between Antonius and Aqgustiui 
had been dedded by the surrender of Alexandria, 
Egypt ceased to be an independent kingdom. The 
regulations which Augustus made fer his new ac- 
quintion manifested at once his sease of its value, 
and his vigilance against intrusion. Egypt became 
properly a province ndther of the senate nor the em- 
peror. It was thencefinth governed bya prefect, called 
Ptaefechti Aegypti, aftemrds ProefiGtUB A^tgu^" 
to/is, immediately appointed by the Caesar and re- 
sponsible to him alone. The prefect was taken from 
the equestrian order: and no senator was permitted 
to set foot in Egypt without special imperial license. 
(Tac.ulfm.iL59,^w«.ii.74;DionCa88.U. 17; Ar- 
rian, Anab. iiL 5.) Even after Diocletian had re- 


•bofiahed vmMif aD the oClier iostitationB | 

oC Uh ODpire, thu interdict ranaiDed in fixxM. The 

dr|«DdeineofE;gfpC was therefore more abfidote and 

dtraitdkaa tiutof anj oUier pminoecf BoDW. Its 

(fi&dtfof oooeai, and the fiualitjirhich it pfeaeoted 

t0 MM «uteq/rmmg mod ambitioas goyenur to lender 

htae^ jndepend fnt , dictated these stringent pre- 

oauas, The jveiect, hoirew, possessed the same 

pom as tlie odter provincial gOTemon, althongh 

oi did oo4 1906119 the fnffffw and the other insig- 

moitht latter. (Tac Amm, adl 60; FolL Trig, 

Ty, 21) 

AqgvtoB made Tcry little change in the internal 
luinwait of Kf^Tpfc. It iraa divided into three 
past dirtricta called JEpittraUgioA (Jmurr^Qfrvfiai) 
— I'ppff CgTi* (Tfaebais^ of which the capital was 
Ptalanaia, Middle Egjpt CHeptanomia), and Lower 
E|^(Slrah. ZTu. p^ 787> Each of these three 
dbtncd was divided into nomea, the names into 
to|aidiaBa, and the txipttr^ies into ic£fuu and ri/wot^ 
ia ufaich the land vpsm carelbllj measiixed according 
til^Mpai. Each of the great districta was under 
SB f^'Bftijya (^s«a*rpdtnryof ), i^ was a Roman, 
sad [Mfte i asi'd botk cavil «u»d military aathoritj, 
nd to him all the offiriala in his Strict irare 
nesikle. £a(^ name was governed by a itnUegm 
{arforn^iy, in mnraftnt times called vo/iipxnh 
«ko esnied into execntioci the edicta of the pra- 
te, sad saperintcDded the coll ee tion of the taxes 
m^jsmi npon lus nosne. The strategns waa ap- 
futei bj the pK«feet, and waa selected from the 

Egyptians: the term of 

The snbdiTisions of the 

itioDed were in like manner nnder 

each of ita own offioez8| whose 

auKs aad titles freqiiently occur in inscriptioDa. 

Iba three Greek cities of Alexandria, Ptolemais, 
«d Aisnoe were not sobject to the anthorities of 
the Bome, hot were gove i u e d l^ their own municipal 
irrrtTtntiiiiwi (o-Ami/ia weAn-a^ar iv vf *EAXi|vuc^ 
r^OTV. Stnh. x¥iL p. 813). 

Two k^ons were foond sufficient to keep Egypt 
■lobediBioe. They were stationed at Elephantine 
■ad Ptsrembofe, in the aooth: at the Hermopolitan 
CMtla, on the borders of Heptanomis and the The- 
baid: at Memphis and Alexandria in the Delta: and 
si Paretoiuam in Libya. Cohorts of Gennan horse 
vetequaxtered in vaijeos portiooB of the Nile-yalley. 
The nstivB popidatioa were not allowed to possess 
ansia — a preeantioa partly dictated by the fierce 
and eaDOtable tenqier of the Egyptian people. (Amm. 
Marc xzii. 16. § 23.) 

The Bomana presently set themselves to improve 
the l ei aiues and restore the agriculture of their 
Under the secoid prefect G. Fe- 
ins (Soeton. Oetav, 18; Stiah. xriL p. 820) the 
of the Nile were cleared of sand, and many 
faroqght again into cultivation. 
EfTpt, under the emperors, shared with Sicily and 
nertheni Afirica the distinction of being accounted a 
gniBsiy of Borne. To the general survey of the 
Kile-Talky under AeHus GaBus, the third prefect, 
we owe the accurate description of it by the geo< 
geapher Strabo. He accoropamed the prefect to 
(jxwL p. 816), and explored both the vestiges of 
grsodeur in the Thebaid, and the new cities 
wtodif like Ptolemaia, had been built and were occu- 
pied by Oneeks akne. The Caesars were as tolerant 
MB the M*^^*'^""'*" hiogs, and made no change in 
the refigian of their Coptic subjects. The names of 
cm p eroBS are inscribed on many of the Kgyp- 




tian and Nubian tonples; e. g., that of Augustus 
at Philae, and that of Tiberius at Thebes, Aphrodl-. 
topolis, and Berenice. Augustus was invested with 
the titles of the native longs — Son of the Sun, of 
Ammon, king of Upper and liOwer Egypt, &c. The 
country was well governed under Tiberius, who 
strictly repressed the avarice of his prefects (Joseph. 
AnL xviii. 5 ; Dion Cass. IviL 32). From Tacitus 
(^fu*. u. 64) we leam that the emperor was highly 
displeased with his adopted son Gennanicus for 
travelling in Egypt without a previous licence from 
himself. Pliny (viii. 71) records that, on this tour, 
Gennanicus consulted the sacred bull Apis, and rfr- 
oeived an answer indicative of his future misfortunes. 
The liberty of coining money was taken from the 
Egyptians by Tiberius in the tenth year of his reign 
(a. d. 23); but the right of mintage was restored to 
tiiem by Claudius. Pliny (vi. 26) has given an 
interesting description of the Egyptian trade with 
the East in this reign. The history of Egypt from 
this period is so nearly identified with that of Alex- 
andria, that we may refer generally to that head fer 
the summary of its events. The country, indeed, had 
been so completely subjugated, that Vespasian could 
venture to withdraw from it neariy all the disposable 
military finoe, when in A. d. 67 — 68 it was required 
to put down the rebellion of Judaea. The principal 
commotions of Egypt were, indeed, caused by the 
common hostility of the Greek and Hebrew popu- 
lation. This, generally confined to the streets of 
Alexandria, sometimes niged in the Delta also, and 
in the reign of Hadrian demanded the imperial iater^ 
ferenoe to si^ppress. The Jews, indeed, were very 
numerous in Egypt, especially in the open country; 
and after the destruction of Jerusalem, their prin- 
cipal temple was at LeomtopoUs. Hadrian (^Spar^ 
Han. 14) visited Egypt in the 6th year of his 
reign, and ascended & Nile as fer as Thebes. The 
most conspicuous monument of this imperial jnogress 
was the city of Antioopolis, (m the east bank of the 
Nile, which he raised as a monument to his iavourite, 
the beautiful Antinons. (Dion Cass. Izix. 16.) 

In the reign of M. Auielius, a. p. 166, occurred 
the first serious rebellion of Egypt against its Boman 
masters. It is described as a revdt of the native 
soldiers. But they were probably Arabs who had 
been drafted into Uie legions, and ^hose predatory 
habits pompted them to desert and resume their 
wild life in the desert The revolt lasted nearly 
four years (a. d. 171— <-l75), and was put down by 
Avidius Cassius, who then proclaimed himself em- 
peror of Egypt, and his son Maecianns praetorian 
prefect. Avidius and his son, however, were put to 
death by their own troops, and the clemency of the 
emperor speedily regained the affections of his Egyp- 
tian subjects. (CapitoL M. Antofu 25.) 

On the death of Pertinax in a. d. 193, Pesceuniua 
Niger, who commanded a legion in Upper Egypt, 
and had won the fevour of the natives by repressing 
the license of the soldiery, proclaimed himself em- 
peror. He was defeated and slain at Cyzicus, a. i>. 
196, and his successful rival the emperor Severua 
visited the vacsnt province, and examined the monn- 
roents at Thebes uod Memphis. Severus, however, 
was unpopular with the Egyptians, as well from hia 
exactions of tribute as from his impolitic derision of 
the national religion. In the reign of Caracalla, 
Egyptians for the first time took Snai seat in the 
Boman senate, and the worship of Isis was publicly 
sanctioned at Borne. (DionCa88.lzxvii.23 ; Spartiaa. 
I Sever. 17.) 



The next important revolution of Egjpt was its 
temporaiy occapation bj Zenol»A, queen of Palmjra, 
in A. D. 269. The Egypto-Greeks were now at the 
end of six centuries again subject to an Asiatic 
monarch. But her power huted only a few months. 
This invasion, however, stimulated the native popu- 
lation, now considerably intermingled with Arabs, 
and they set up, after a few months' submission to 
Aurelian, a Syrian of Seleucia, named Ffarmus, as 
emperor, A. D. 272. (Vopisc. Firm. 5.) Firmuswas 
succeeded by a rdwl chieftain named Domitius Do- 
mitianus (Zosim. i. 49) ; but both of these pretenders 
were ultimately crushed by Auielian. Both Borne 
and Egypt suffered greatly during this period of 
anarchy : the one from the irr^ularity of the supply 
of com, the other from the ravages of predatory 
bands, and from the encroachments of the barbarians 
on either frontier. In a. d. 276, Probus, who hod 
been military prefect of Egypt, was, on the death of 
Tacitus, proclaimed emperor by his legions, and 
their choice was confirmed by the other provinces of 
the empire. Probus was soon recalled to his fermer 
province by the turbulence of the Blemmyes; and as 
even Ptolemais, the capital of the Thebaid, was in 
possession of the insurgents, we may estimate the 
power of the Arabs in die Nile-valley. So danger- 
ous, indeed, were these revolts, that Probus deemed 
his victory over the Blemmyes not unworthy of a 
triumph. (Vopisc. Prcb. 9, seq.) 

The reign of Diocletian, A. d. 285, was a period 
of calamity to Egypt. A century of wars had ren- 
dered its people able and formidable soldiers; and 
Achilleus, the leader of the insurgents, was pro- 
claimed by them emperor. Diocletian personally 
directed his campaigns, and reduced, after a tedious 
siege, the cities of Coptos and Busiris. In this reign 
also the Roman frontier was withdrawn from Aethio- 
pia, and restored to Elephantine, whose fortifications 
were strengthened and garrisons augmented. Ga- 
lerius and Maximin successively misgoverned Egypt: 
whose history henceforward becomes little more than 
a record of a religious persecution. 

After the time of Constantine, the administration 
and division of Egypt were completely changed. It 
was then divided into six provinces: (I) Aegyptus 
Propria; (2) Augustamnica; (3) Heptanomis (after- 
wards Arcadia); (4) Thebais; (5) Libya Inferior; 
(6) Libya Superior (consisting of Uie Gyrenaic Pen- 
tapoHs). The division into nomes lasted till the 
seventh century after Ghrist. All the authorities 
having any relation to the Boman province of 
Aegypt are collected by Marquardt, in Becker's 
Hcmdhuch der Riimischen Alterthumer^ voL iii. pt. i. 
p. 207, seq. 

Under the Romans the chief roads in Egypt were six 
in number. One extended from Gontra-Pselcis in 
Nubia along the eastern bank of the Nile to Babylon 
opposite Memphis, and thence proceeded by Helio- 
polis to the point where Trajan's canal entered the 
Red Sea. A second led from Memphis to Pelusium. 
A third joined the first at Serapion, and afforded a 
shorter route across the desert. A fourth went 
along the western bank of the Nile from Hiera Sy- 
cominos in Nubia to Alexandria. A fifth reached 
from Palestine to Alexandria, and ran along the 
c^tast of the Mediterranean from Raphia to Pelusium, 
joining the fourth at Andropolis. The sixth road 
led from Goptos on the Nile to Berenice on the Red 
Sea, and contained ten stations, each about twenty- 
five miles apart from one another. The Roman 
roads in Egypt are described in the Itinerarium 


j Antonmi^ which is usually ascribed to the emperoiK 
M. Aurelius Antoninus. 

According to the traditions of the Ghurch, Chris- 
tianity was introduced into Egypt by the evangelist 
St. Mark. Its receptiaa and progress must be read 
in ecclesiastical annals. We can only remark here, 
that the gloomy and meditative genius of the Egyp- 
tians was a fiivourable soO for the growth of heresy; 
that the Arians and Athanasians shed torrents of 
blood in their controversies; and that monachism 
tended nearly as nrach as civil or religious wars to 
the depopulation of the Nile-valley. The deserts of 
the Thebaid, the marshes of the Delta, and the islands 
formed by the lagoons and estuaries of the Nile, were 
thronged with convents and hemutages; and the 
legends of the saints are, in considerable proportion, 
the growth of Egyptian fancy and ascetidsm. In 
the reign of Theodosius L, A. d. 379, the edict winch 
denounced Paganism levelled at one blow the ancient 
Polytheism of ike l^e-valley, and consigned to ruin 
and neglect all of its temples which had not pre- 
viously been converted, partially or wholly, into 
Christian Churches. From this epoch we may regard 
the history of the Egyptians, as a peculiar people, 
closed: their only subsequent revolutions henc^ 
forward being their subjugation by Persia in a. d. 
618, and their conquest by Amrou, the general of the 
Khaliph Omar, in a. d. 640. The ydce of Arabia 
was then finally imposed upon the land of Mtsraznif 
and its modem history commences — a histoiy o( 
decrepitude and decline until the present century. 

The sources of information fer Egyptian history 
and geography are of four kinds. (I) Works of 
geograpb^, such as those of Ptolemy, Strabo, Era- 
tosthenes, Pliny and Mela. (2) Of history, such as 
those of the fragments of Manetho, Africanus, the 
Syncellus, Eusebius, Herodotus and Diodorus already 
cited. (3) The Arabian chorographers, — and (4) 
the researches of modem travellers and Egyptologers 
from Elrcher to Bunsen and Lepsius; among the 
former we specially designate the worlcs of the eidet 
Niebuhr, Pococke and Brace, Burckhardt and Bel- 
zoni; the splendid collections of Dtfnon andthe French 
savans, 1798; Gau's work on the monuments of 
Lower Nubia, and Sir Gardner Wilkinson's MannerM 
and Customs of (he Ancient Egyptians^ 6 vols. Sto. 
To these may be added, as summaries of the writings 
of travellers and scholars, Heeren's Researches into 
the PoliticSy Intercourse^ and Trade of the Cartka-^ 
ffinianSf AethiopianSj cmd Egyptians^ 2 vols. 8yo. 
Engl. tnms. 1838; the recent work, Kenrick's An^ 
cient Egypt, 2 vols. 8vo. 1850 ; and the two Yolumev 
in the Library of Entertaining Ejiowledge, entitled 
The British Afuseum, Egyptian Anti^ptUies, which, 
under an unpretending form, contain a Ixrad of 
sound and various information. It would be easy to 
extend this catalogue of authorities; but the general 
reader will find all he seeks in the authors we have 
enumerated. [W. B. D.] 

AEGYS (Afywj: Eth. Alyvdrris, Pans.; Atywe^y, 
Theopomp. ap. Steph. B. s. v.), a town of Laconia, 
on the frontiers cf Arcadia, originally belonged to 
the Arcadians, but was conquered at an early period 
by Charilaus, the reputed nephew of Lycurgus, and 
annexed to Laconia. Its territoir, called Aeg^is 
(Al7i>ris), appears to have been originally of soma 
extent, and to have included all the villages in the 
districts of Maleatis and Cromitis. Even at the 
time of the foundation of Megalopolis, the inhabitants 
of these Arcadian districts, comprising Scirtonium, 
Malea, Cromi) Belbina, and Leuctrum, continued 


to be calM Ae^^rtae. The podtlon of Aegys is 

naorrtaxa. Leake plaeea it at Kamtaru, near the 

«oiin» of the river Xtriloj the ancient Garnion. 

(PttJL in. 2. § 5, viiL 27. § 4, 34. § 5; Strab. p. 

416: PoL tL 54; Leake, Pdopormesiaca^ p. 234.) 

AELANA (rd AXxara, Strab. p. 768; AIAoj^, 

JastfLAuL TiiLG. §4; 'EAdra, PtoL T. 17. § 1; 

ASXawr, Steph. B. «.«.; AiAds, Procop. B. Pen. i. 

19: in 0. T. Eulth, in LXX. A2\ii0, ASxAv: Eth, 

AlAayinff : AttAay^ an Idomaean town in Arabia 

IMnea, sitaated at the head of the eastern golf of 

the Red Sea, which was called after this town Aela- 

M&cos Smns. It was situated 10 miles E. of Petra 

(Ett^eh. Oaom. 4^ v. 'HAotf), and 150 miles S£. of 

Gaza (Pfin. v. 11. s. 12). It was annexed to the 

kisgdoD of Jndah, together with the other cities of 

IdBooaea, by DaTid (2 Sam, Tiii. 14), and was one 

«f the haxbomrs on the Red Sea, from which the fleet 

rfSokumiit aaikd to Ophir (1 ATci^^fix. 26; 2 Chron. 

viL 17); bat it sobseqaentlj revolted from the 

Jews, and bwame independent. (2 Kinga^ ziv. 22.) 

It eaodnned to be a place of commercial unportance 

ander the Bomans, and was the head quarters of the 

teoCh fegion. (Hieron. Onom.; Notlmp.) It was the 

lendeooe of a Christian bishop, and is mentioned by 

Pnoojans in the sixth century as inhabited by Jews, 

win, after baring been for a long time independent, 

bad become subject to the Romans in the reign of 

Jortinian. (Procop. B. Pen. L 19.) The site of 

Aelana is now oompied by a fcvtress called Akaboj 

im vhleh a garrison is stationed, because it lies on 

the rente of the Egyptian pilgrims to Mecca. (Nie- 

bohr, Betekreibtmg von Arabten, p. 400; Bilppel, 

Sate m Aafrtoi, p. 248 ; Laborde, Journey through 

Arahia Petraea, voL L p^ 116.) 

AELANITICUS SINUS. [Arabicus Sinus.] 

AEXLA CAPITOLFKA. [lTminaatyiiii..]-y» 

AEHODAE or H^EHODAE, the Shetland 

bhDds (Mda, iiL 6), described by Plmy (iv. 16. 

I 30), as a groop of seren. The islands Ocitis 

('Ocrrif), and Dumna (Aov^a) mentioned by Pto- 

laoy (b. 3. § 31) were apparently part of this 

poiqi, ami answer respectively to St. Ronaldtha and 

Ee§. Camden and the elder antiquaries, however, 

Rier the Aemodae to the Baltic Sea. [W.B.D.] 

"SlMM. Oidli, Jnecript. 72 ; 'H/ua, Herodian. 
vSL 1 : £tlL Aemonensis : LagbacK)^ a strongly 
fciti&d town with a well-finequented market in 
haxMoia, atnated on the river Saave and on the 
foad finm Aqoileia to Celeia, answering to the 
nafan Lajbach, the capital of Illjria. Laybach, 
Kawerer, as the Rcnnan remains around its vt'aUs 
attest, does not equal in extent the ancient Aemona. 
Aceoiifing to tr^diticni, the Argonauts were the 
IboBden of Aemona (jUi&utL v. 29). It subsc- 
i|«atlf became a Roman colony with the title of 
Joiia Aogustn (Plin. iv. 21. § 28), and its name 
eecan on coins and inscriptions (PtoL ii. 15. § 7; 
QevIE, Imeer^fL na& 71, 72, et alib.). [W.B.D.] 
AEXAIUA (Airopta, App.), called by the Greeks 
PITHECU'SA (Ilitfiiirowrira), or PITHECU'SAE 
(Ili9i|K*Mrirai), and by the Latin poets INAltlME, 
Mw /jdUo, is an island of conaderable size, which 
Ea off the eoaet of Campania, nearly opposite to 
C^ MiseDum, and forms, in conjunction with that 
JtfmAlm^ the northern boundary cf the Bay of 
K^ki. It is about 15 miks in drcurofcrence, and 
m dbtant between five and six miles from the nearest 
of the mainland, and 16 from Capri, which 
the Boatbem boondary of the bay. The small 



island of Prochyta (Procida) lies between it and 
Cape ACsenum. The whole idand is of volcanic 
origin, and though it contains no regular crater, or 
other vent of igneous action, was subject in ancient, 
as it has continued in later, times, to violent earth- 
quakes and paroxysmal outbursts of volcanic agencj. 
It was first colonized by Greek settlers from Chalcis 
and Eretria, either simultaneously with, or even 
previous to, the foundation of Cumae on the neigh- 
bouring mainland; and the colony attained to great 
prosperity, but afterwards suffered severely from 
internal diissensions, and was ultimately compelled to 
abandon the island in consequence of violent earth* 
quakes and volcanic outbreaks. (Liv. viii. 22; 
Strab. V. p. 248.) These are evidentiy the same de- 
scribed by Timaeus, who related that Mt. Epomeus, 
a hill in the centre of the island, vomited forth 
flames and a vast mass of ashes, and that a part of 
the island, between this mountain and the coast, 
was driven forcibly into the sea. (Timaeus ap. 
Sh'ob, v. p. 248.) The same phenomena are re- 
lated with some variation by Pliny (ii. 88). At a 
later period, a fresh colony was estabUslied there by 
Uieron, the tyrant of Syracuse (probably after bis 
great naval victory over the Tyrrhenians in B.C. 474), 
but these were also compelled to quit the island for 
similar reasons. (Strab. Lc.f Mommsen, Unter^ 
Italischen DiakkUy p. 1 98.) After their departure 
it was occupied by the Neapolitans, and Scylax 
(§ 10. p. 3) speaks of it as containing, in his 
time, a Greek dty. It probably continued from 
henceforth a dependency of Neapolis, and the period 
at which it fell into tiie hands of the Romans is 
unknown; btit we find it in later times forming a 
port of the public property of the Roman state, until 
Augustus ceded it once more to the Neapolitans, in 
exchange for the island of Capreae. (Suet. Aug. 92.) 
We have scarcely any further information concerning 
its condition; but it seems to have effectually re- 
covered from its previous disasters, though still sub- 
ject to earthquakes and occasional phenomena of & 
volcanic character. It was indebted to the same 
causes for its warm springs, which were fret^uented for 
their medical properties. (Strab. v. pp. 248. 258 ; 
Plin. xxxi. 5; Stat. Silv. iii. 5. 104; Lndl. Aetna, 
430 ; Jul. Obseq. 1 14.) Strabo notices the fertility of 
the soil, and speaks of gold mines having been worked 
by the first setUers ; but it would seem never to have 
enjoyed any considerable degree of prosperity or im- 
portance imder the Romans, as its name is rarely 
mentioned. At the present day it is a fertile and 
flourishing island, with a population of 25,000 in- 
habitants, and contains two considerable towns, 
lechia and Foria, The position of the ancient 
town is uncertain, uo antiquities having been dis- 
covered, except a few inscriptions. The Monte di 
San Niooloj which rises in the centre of the island 
to an elevation of 2500 feet, and bears unquestion- 
able traces of volcanic action, is clearly the same 
with the Epomeus of Timaeus (/. c.) wliich is called 
by Pliny MoNS Epopus. (Concerning the present 
state of the island, and its volcanic phenomena, see 
Description Topogr. et Hietor. dea Ilea dischiay 
dePoma, fc., Naples, 1822; Scropc, On the VoU 
conic Diatrict of Naples j in the Trana. of the GeoL 
Soc. 2nd series, vol. ii. ; Daubeny on VolcanoeSf p. 
240, 2nd edit.) Tlie name of Pithecusae appears 
to have been sometimes applied by the Greeks to the 
twor islands of Aenaria and Prochyta collectively, 
but the plural form as well as the singular is often 
used to designate the larger island alone. Strabo, 




indeed, uses both indiffereatljr. (See also Appian, 
B, C. V. 69.) Livy, in one passage (viii. 22), speaks 
of " Aenaria et Pithecusas," and Mela (il. 7) also 
enumorates separately Pithecosa, Aenaria, and Pro- 
chjta. Bat this is clearly a mere confusion arising 
from the doable appdlation. Plinj tells us (iii. 6. 
12) that the Greek name was derived from the pot- 
tery (xiSoi) manafactured there, not as commonly 
supposed from its abounding in apes (ir((h)icoi). But 
the latter derivation was tbe popular one, aind was 
connected, by some writers, with the mythological 
tale of the Cercopes. ^ (Xenagoras op, Harpocr. #. «. 
Kcp«rfl4; Ovid. ilfe^. xiv. 90.) 

The name of Inaiuub is peculiar to the Latin 
poets, and seems to have arisen from a confusion 
with the "ApifiM of Homer and Hesiod, after the 
fable of Typhoons had been transferred from Asia to 
the volcanic regions of Italy and Sicily. (Strab. v. 
p. 248, xiil. p. 626; Pherecyd. ap, Schol odApoU. 
Rhod. it. 1210.) The earthquakes and volcanic 
outbursts of this island were already ascribed by 
Pindar {P$tii, i. 18) to the struggles of the im- 
prisoned giant, but the name of Inarime is first 
found in Virgil, from whom it is repeated by many 
later poets. Ovid erroneously distinguishes Inarime 
from Pithecusae. (Virg. Aen, ix. 716; Ovid. MtL 
xiv.90; SU.ItaLviii.542, xii. 147; Lucan.v.lOO; 
Stat. Silv, ii. 2. 76 ; and see Heyne, Exc. ii. ad 
Virg. ^en. ix.; Wemsdorf, Exc, iii. ad LuciL Aet- 
nam,') The idea, that both this and the neighbour- 
ing island of Prochyta had been at one time united 
to the miunland, and broken off from it by the 
violence of the same volcanic causes which were still 
in operation, is found both in Strabo and Pliny, and 
was a natural inference from the phenomena actually 
observed, but cannot be regarded as resting upon 
anv historical tradition. (Strab. ii. p. 60, v. p. 258 ; 
Plin. ii. 88.) [E. H. B.] 

AENEIA (A&cia: Eih. AIvm^s, Alytdrns), a 
town of tlhalcidice in Macedonia, said to have been 
founded by Aeneas, was situated, according to Livy, 
opposite Pydna, and 15 miles from Thessalonica. It 
appears to have stood on the promontory of the great 
Karabumu, which forms the NW. comer of the 
peninsula of Chalcidicc, and which, being about 10 
geographical miles in direct distance from Tliessalo- 
iiica, may be identified with tlie promontory Aeneium 
of Scymnus. Aeneia must thereforo have been 
further N. than Pydna. It was colonised by the 
Corinthians. (Scymnus Ch. 627.) It is mentioned 
by Herodotus, and continued to be a place of im-' 
portanoe down to the time of the Roman wars in 
Greece, although we are told that a great part of its 
population was removed to Thessalonica, when the 
latter city was founded by Cassauder. (Herod, vii. 
123; Strab. p. 330; Dionys. i. 49; Lycophr. 1236 
and Schol.; Virg. ^ en. iii. 16; Steph. B. a. v.; Liv. 
:sl. 4, xliv. 10, 32; Loakfif Northern Greece^ voL iii. 
p. 451.) 


AENIA'NES. [Thessalia.] 

AENUS (Alyos: Eth, Affios, Aiwiriji, Aenius: 
Snos), a town of Thrace, situated upon a promon- 
tory on the south-eastern side of the Palus Stentoris, 


through which one of the mouths of the Hebni» 
makes its way into the sea. According to Virgil 
(^en. iii. 18), it was founded by Aeneas when he 
landed there on his way from Troy, but there does 
not seem any more authority for this statement than 
the .similari^ of the names; bat its antiquity is 
attested by the fitct qf its being mentioned by H(»ner 
(//. iv. 519). According to Herodotus (viL 58) 
and Thucydides (vii. 57), Aenus was an Aoolic 
colony. Neither of them, however, mentions from 
what particular place it was colonised. Scymnus 
Chins (696) attributes its foundation to Mytilenc; 
Stepfaanus Byzant to Cumae, or, according to Mci- 
neke*s edition, to the two places conjointly. Accord- 
ing to Strabo (p. 319), a more ancient name of the 
place was Poltyobiia. Stephanos says it was also 
called Apsinthas. 

Little especial mention of Aenus occurs till a 
comparativdy late period of Grecian history. It is 
mentioned by Thucydides {L c.) that Aenus sent 
ferces to the Sicilian expedition as a subject ally 
of Athens. At a later period we find it successively 
in the possession of Ptolemy Philopator, b. c. 222 
(PoL T. 34), of Philip, king of Macedonia, b. g. 
200 (Liv. xzxi. 16), and of Antiochus the Great. 
After the defeat of the latter by the Romans, 
Aenus was dedared free. (Liv. xxxviii. 60.) It was 
still a free city in the time of Pliny (iv. 1 1). 

Athenaeus (p. 351) speaks of the climate of 
Aenos as being peculiarly ungeniaL He describes 
the year there as consisting of eight months of cold, 
and four of winter. [H. W.] 


AENUS (A7woj, PtoL ii. 11. § 5; Oenns, Itm. 
Anton.: /im), a river rising in the Rhaetian or 
Tridentinc Alps, dividing Rhaetia Secunda (Vinde- 
lieia) from Nwicum, and flowing into the Danube, 
of which it was one of the principal feeders, at 
Passan. (Tac. IlisL iii. 5.) [W. B. D.] 

AE'OLES (AtoA«?j) or AEGXH, one of the four 
races into wliich tlie Hellenes are usually divided, are 
represented as descendants of the mythical Aeolus, 
the son of Hellen. {Diet, of Biogr. », v. ^eo/«fs.) 
Hellcn is said to have left his kingdom in Thessalj 
to Aeolus, his eldest son. (Apoll<^. L 7. § 3.) A 
portion of Thessaly was in ancient times called 
Aeolis, in which Arne was the chief town. It was 
from this district that the Aeolian Boeotians were 
driven out by the Thessalians, and came to Boeotia. 
(Herod, vii. 176; Diod. iv. 67; Thuc. L 12.) It is 
supposed by some that this Aeolis was the district 
on the Pagasetic gulf; but there are good reasons for 
believing that it was in the centre of Thessaly, and 
nearly the same as the district Thessaliotis in later 
times. (Muller, Dorians, vol. ii. p. 475, seq.) We 
find the Aeolians in many other parts of Greece, be- 
sides Thessaly and Boeotia ; and in the earliest times 
they appear as the most powerful and the most nu- 
merous of the Hellenic races. The wealthy Minjae 
appear to liuvc been Aeolians; and we have mention 


af AnSstts in Aetolia and Locris, at Goriotb, in 

i: fis, io Prhis and in Messenia. Thus a great part 

cf mtlieni Groeoe, and the western side of Pelopan* 

Msas ^tie inHahited at an earlj period hj tlie 

Aei£an i moe. ^ In most of these Aeolian settlements 

wfiod a jBvdDection for maritime situations; and 

Fasddoo appears to bav>e been the deity diieflj wor- 

ibipped by them. The Aeolians also migzated to 

isia HEnor where thej settled in the district called 

ifter them Aeohs [Aeous], and also in the island 

of Lobos. The Aeolian migratian is general! j re- 

preseatai as the first of the series of movements 

prodnced hy the irruption of the Aeolians into 

BoeoUa, and of the Donans into Peloponnesos. The 

Afhaens, who had been driven from, their homes in 

the Pdoponnesas by the Dorians, ireie believed to 

kav« been joined in Boeotia by a part of the ancient 

infadbitaats of Boeotia and of their Aeolian conquerors. 

The ktter seem to have been predominant in influence, 

fr froDi them the migration was called the Aeolian, 

and i mueiimes the Boeotian. An account of the 

eailj settksnents and migrations of the Aeolians is 

prm at kngth by Thirlwall, to which we must refer 

oar leaders €or details and authorities. {Hist, of 

GrsBoe, voL L p. 88, seq. vol. u. p. 82, seq.; comp. 

Grotr, HiH, of Greece, voL L p. 145, seq., vol. ii. 

p. 26, seq.) The Aeolian dialect of the Greek lan- 

fiafe ooinprised several subordinate modifications; 

bat the variety establiahed by the colonists in Lesbos 

asad onthe opposite coasts of Asia, became eventually 

hs popular standard, having been carried to perfection 

fey the Ledaan school of lyric poetiy. (Mure, History 

oftkeLanguaffej fc of Greece, voL L p. 108, seq.) 

Thus WB find the Soman poets calling Sap|dio Aeolia 

pmeUa (Hor. Carm. iv. 9. 12), and the lyric poetry 

of AicamsaDd Sappho J eotmin carmen, Aeolia fides 

aad AeoUa lyra. (Hor. Carm. m, 30. 13, iL 13. 24; 

Or. Her. xv. 200.) 

AEOXIAE rNSULAE (AioA»« i^troi. Died. 
^JiAam rqcrot, Thuc. Strab.), a group of volcanic 
isjanda, Ijing in the Tynhenian Sea to the north of 
Sidly, be tw e e n that islukl and the coast of Lucania. 
Thfy dberived the name of Aeolian from some fimcied 
eoDnection vrith the fabulous island of Aeolus men- 
tioiied by Homer in the Odyssey (x. 1, &c.), but 
tbcT were also finequently termed NvtucajxhlR or 
HsFHAESTiAE, from their volcanic character, which 
was ascribed to the subterranean operatioDS of Vulcan, 
as veil as LirARAKA:^ (al Anraf>eduv y^o-oc, Strab. 
fi. p. 123), from Lipaba, the largrat and most im- 
portant among them, from which they still derive the 
ttame of the L^Ktri Islands. 

Ancient authors generally agree in reckoning 
them as seven in nmnber (Strab. vi. p. 275 ; Plin. 
ii. 8. 14; Scynm. Ch. 255; Diod. v. 7; Mela, ii. 7; 
DioDyi. Peri^. 465; SchoL ad ApoU, Khod, iii. 
41 ), wfaidi is correct, if the smaller i^ets be omitted. 
Bot there is oonaderable diversity with regard to 
their names, and the confusion has been greatly ang- 
vwnted by some modem geogmphers. They are enu- 
merated as feUowB by Strabo, IHodorus, and Pliny: 

1. LlPAiLi, still called lApari; the most con- 
riderable if the seven, and the onlj one which con- 
taiaed a town of any importance. [Lipara.] 

2. HiEBA, sitnated between Lipara and the coast 
af Srily. Its original name according to Strabo 
was Thermeasa (BipfiurvtC), or, as Plmy writes it, 
Tbensia, bat it was commonly known to the Gredcs 
as *Upa or 'Ic^ 'H^aitrrov, being considered sacred 
tvYuican on accoont of the volcanic phenomena which 
it ^hihr t ftfl For the same reason it was called by 



the Romans Vulcaki Insula, firom whence its mo« 
dem appellation of Vvlcano, It is the southern- 
most of the whole group, and is distant cmly 12 G. 
miles from Capo Calava, the nearest point on the 
coast of Sicily. 

3. Stro^^gyus (Xrp(ryy6\7i, now Stromholi)^ so 
called from its general roundness of form (Stiub. 
L c; Ludl. AeinGj 431): the northernmost of the 
islands, and like Hiera an active volcano^ 

4. DiDYME (AiS^/ii}), now called <Sa/trta, or 
Isoh deUe Saline, is next to Lipara the largest of 
the whole group. Its ancient name was derived (as 
Stmbo expressly tells us, vi. p. 276), from its 
form, which circumstance leaves no doubt of its 
being the same with the modem SaUna, that island 
being conspicuous for two high conical mountains 
which rise to a height of 3,500 feet (Smyth's Sicily, 
p. 272 ; Ferrara, Campi Flegrei della SiciUa,^. 243 ; 
Daubeny, On Volcanoes, p. 262). Groskurd {ad 
Strab. L c), Mannert;and Forbiger, have erroneously 
identified Didymc with Panaria, and thus thrown 
the whole subject into confusion. It is distant only 
three miles NW. from Lipara. 

5. Phoenicusa (^tvueova-ffa, Strab. ^owuc<iJins, 
Diod.), 80 called from the palms (^oii^Tires) in which 
it abounded, is evidently Felicttdi about 12 miles 

6. Ericusa {'Epucowraa or *E.piK^Ulfis\ probably 
named from its abundance of heath {ipfiicri), is the 
little island of AUcudi, the westernmost of the whole 
group. These two were both veiy small islands 
and were occupied only for pasturage. 

7. EuoNTMUS (El(ivvfxos), which we are ex- 
pressly told was the smallest of the seven and un- 
inhabited. The other six being clearly identified, 
there can be no doubt that this u) the island now 
called Paftaria, which is situated between Lipara 
and Strongyle, though it does not accord with 
Strabo's description that it lies the farthest out to 
sea (ir§\ayla fid\urra). But it agrees, better at least 
than any other, with his statement that it lay on the 
left hand as one suled from Lipara towards Sicily, 
from whence he supposes it to have derived its name. 

Several small islets adjacent to Panaria^ are now 
called the DaUole, the largest of which Basilwaso, 
is probably the Hicesia of Ptolemy ('I«r€(r(a, PtoL 
iii. 4. § 16; 'Ikwiov, Eustath. ad Horn, Odyss, 
X. 1), whose list, with the exception of this addition, 
corresponds with that of Strabo. That of Mela 
(ii. 7) is veiy confused and erroneous: he is cer- 
tainly in error in including Osteodes in the 
Aeolian group. 

The volcanic character of these islands was early 
noticed by the Greeks: and Diodorus justly remarks 
(v. 7) that they had aU been eridently at one time 
vents of eruptive action, as appeared from tlieir still 
extant craters, though in his time two only, Hiera nnd 
Strongyle, were active volcanoes. Strabo indeed (/. c, 
p. 275) appears to speak of volcanic eruptions in the 
island of Lipara itself, but his expressions, which 
are not very precise, may probably refer only to out- 
breaks of volcanic vapours and hot springs, such as 
are still found there. Earlier writers, as Thucy- 
dides and Scymnus Ohius, allude to the eruptions of 
Hiera only, and these were probably in ancient 
times the most frequent and violent, as they appear 
to have attracted much more attention than those of 
Strongyle, wliich is now by far the most active of 
the two. Hence arose the idea that this was the 
abode of Vulcan, and the peculiar sounds that 
accompanied its internal agitations were attributed 




.to the hammers and forges of tiie god and his work- 
jnen the Cyclopes. (Thuc. iii. 88 ; Scymn. Ch. 257 
—261; Schol. ad ApoU, Mod, iii. 41; Virg. Aen. 
viiL 418). According to Strabo there were three 
craters on this island, the Uugest of which was in a 
j}tate of the most violent eruption. Polybius (ap. 
Strab. vi. p. 276), who appears to have visited 
it himself, described the principal crater as five 
stadia in curcnmferencc, but diminishing gradually 
to a width of only fifty feet, and estimated its 
depth at a stadium. From this crater were vomited 
forth sometimes fiames,atother8 redhot stones, cinders 
and ashes, which were carried to a great di&tance. 
No ancient ^Titer mentions streams of lava (pvtucts^ 
Mmilar to those of Aetna. The intensity and cha- 
racter of these eruptions was said to vary very much 
according to the direction of the wind, and from 
these indications, as well as the gathering of mists 
nnd clouds around the summit, the inhabitants of 
the neighbouring island of Lipara professed to fore- 
tell the winds and weather, a circumstance which 
was believed. to have given rise to the fable of 
Aeolus ruling the winds. The modem Lipariots still 
maintain the same pretenhion. (Strab. I. c. ; Smytli's 
Sicily, p. 270.) At a later period Hiera seems to 
have abated much of its activity, and the younger 
Lucilius (a contemporary of Seneca) speaks of its 
fires as in a great measure cooled. (LuciU Aetn. 

We hear much less from ancient authors of the 
volcanic phenomena of Strongyle than those of 
Hiera: but Diodorus describes them as of similar 
character, while Strabo tdls us that the eruptions 
were less violent, but produced a more brilliant light 
Pliny says nearly the same thing: and Mela speaks 
of both Uicra and Strongyle as " burning with per- 
petual fire." Lucilius on the contrary (^AetnOf 434) 
describes the latter as merely smoking, and occa- 
sionally kindled into a blaze, but for a short time. 
Diodorus tells us that the eruptions both of Hiera 
and Strongyle were observed for the most part to 
alternate with those of Aetna, on which account it 
was supposed by many that there was a subter- 
ranean conununication between them. 

Besides these* ordinary volcanic phenomena, which 
appear to have been in ancient times (as they still 
are in the case of StromboU) in almost constant 
operation, we find mention of several more remark- 
able and unusual outbursts. The earliest of these 
is the one recorded by Aristotle (^MeUoroL ii. 8), 
where he tells us that " in the island of Hiera the 
earth swelled up with a loud noise, and rose into the 
form of a considerable hillock, which at length burst 
and sent forth not only vapour, but hot cinders and 
ashes in such quantities that they covered the whole 
city of Lipara, and some of them were carried even 
to the coast of Italy." The vent from which they 
issued (he adds) remained still visible : and this was 
])robably one of the craters seen by Polybius. At a 
later period Poddonius dcs<;{^bod an eruption tliat 
took place in tiie sea between Uicra and Euonymus, 
wliich after producing a violent agitation of tlio 
waters, and destroying all the fish, continued to pour 
forth mild, fire and smoke for several days, and 
ended with giving rise to a small island of a rock 
like millstone (lava), on which tlie praetor T. Fla- 
mininus landed and offered sacrifices. Posidon. ap. 
Strab. vi. p. 277.) Tins event is me.-tioned by 
Poiddonius as occurring within his own memory; 
and from the mention of Flamininus as praetor it is 
Ahr.oet certain tliat it is the same drcumbtance 


recorded by Pliny (ii. 87) as occurring in 01. 163. 
3, or B.C. 126. The same phcnomencm is less 
accurately described by Julius Obsequens (89) and 
Orodus (v. 10), both of whom confiim the above 
date: but the last author narrates (iv. 20) at a 
much earlier period (b.c. 186) the sudden crner* 
gence from the sea of an island, which he erroneously 
supposes to have been the Vulcani Insula itsdf : but 
wliich was probably no other than the rock now 
called VulcandlOj situated at the KE. extremity of 
VulcanOy and united to that island only by a narrow 
isthmus formed of volcanic sand and aishes. It still 
emits smoke and vapour and contains two small 

None of the Aeolian islands, except Lipara, appear 
to have been inhabited in andent times to any ex- 
tent. Thncydides expressly tells us (iii. 88) that in 
his day Lipara alone was inhabited, and the other 
islands, Strongyle, Didyme, and Hiera, were cul- 
tivated by the Liparaeans; and this statement is 
confirmed by Diodorus (v. 9). Strabo however 
speaks of Euonymus as uninhabited in a manner 
that seems to imply that the huger islands were not 
80: and the remains of ancient buildings which have 
been found not only on Salina and StromboU^ but 
even on the little rock of BasiluzzOy prove that thej 
w^re resorted to by the Bomans, probably for the 
sake of medical baths, for which tlio volcanic vapours 
afibrded every facility. }£era on the contrary ap- 
parently remained always uninhabited, as it does at 
the present day. But the exceUenoe of its port 
(Ludl. Aetn, 442) rendered it of importance as a 
naval station, and we find both Hiera and Strongyle 
occupied by the fieet of Augustus during the war with 
Sex. Pompeius in b. c. 36. (Appian. B. C. v. 105.) 
All the islands suffered great disadvantage, as they 
still do, from the want oif water, consequent on the 
light and porous nature of the volcanic soil. (Thuc, 
iii. 88; Smyth's Siciiy, p. 249.) But though little 
adapted for agriculture they possessed great t&- 
sources in their stores of alum, sulphur, and pumice, 
which were derived both from Hiera and Strongyle, 
and exported in large quantities. The sea also 
alx)unded in fish ; and produced coral of the finest 
quality. (PUn. xxxii. 2. § 11, xxxv. 15. §§ 50, 
52, xxxvi. 21. § 42; Ludl. Aetn. 432.) 

It is scarcely necessary to inquire which of the 
Aeolian islands has the most claim to be considered 
as the residence of Aeolus himself. Homer certainly 
speaks only of one island, and is followed in this 
respect by Vu-gil. But the " floating island " of the 
elder poet, " girt all around with a wall of brass,** is 
scarcely susceptible of any precise gec^raphical de- 
termination. The common tradition among the later 
Greeks seems to have chosen the island of Lipara 
itself as the dwdling of Aeolus, and the explanation 
of the fable above alluded to is evidently adapted to 
this assumption. But Strabo and Pliny both place 
the abode of the ruler of the winds in Strongyle, and 
the latter transfers to that island what others related 
of Hicm. Ptolemy on the contrary, by a strange 
confusion, mentions the island of Aeolus {Ai6\ov 
vijaosj iii. 4. § 17) as something altogether distinct 
from the Aeolian islands, which he had previonslj 
enumerated separately: while Eustathius {ad Ilonu 
Odi/ss. X. 1) reckons it as one of the seven, omitting 
Euonymus to make room for it, though in another 

* The same event appears to be more' obsctirelj 
alluded to by Livy (xxxix. 56). 


]fleea|^ (ai Dfcmyt. Per, 461) he follows Strabo's 
vaXhoAj, and idpntifies it with Stiongyle. 

For an account of the present state of the Lipari 
JdandM and their Tokanic phenomena the raider 
nBT««wilt Smyth's Sicily, chap. Tii. p. 274—278; 
Fenaza, Costjn FUffrd della SicUia, p. 199—252; 
Daubeor, On Vokanoes, ch. 14, pp. 245—263, 2nd 
edit. The historj of the islanda is almost wholly 
dfpcndeot on that of Lipasa, and will be found in 
that aztkle. [E. H. B.] 

AE'OLIS (AloXls, Aeolia), a district on the west 
eoast of Asia Minor, which is included by Strabo 
ia the lai^ger division of Mysia. The limits of 
Afolid are varioosly defined by the ancient geo- 
eraphexa. Strabo (p. 582) makes the riTer Her- 
mib and Phocaea the southern limits of Aeolis and 
the ntirthenx of loma. He observes (p. 586), 
that " as Homer makes one of Aeolis and Troja, 
acd the Aeoiians occupied the whole coontry from 
the Hetmns to the coast in the neighbourhood of 
Cyzims and founded cities, neither shall I im- 
pei&rtly maktf my description by putting together 
that which is nofw properly called Aeolis, which 
extend:} from the Uermus to Lcctum, and the 
raontry which extends from Lectum to the Ae- 
sepos.'' Aeolis, therefore, properly so called, ex- 
tenkd as far north as the promontory of Lectum, 
at the nortbem entrance of the bay of Adramyttinm. 
The bay of Adiamyttinm is formed by the S. 
euftst of the mountainous tract in which Ilium 
^ood, by the island of Lesbos, and by the coast of 
AmHs S. of Adramyttium, which runs from that 
town in a SW. direction. The coast is irrrgular. 
South of the bay of Adramyttium is a recess, at the 
Kvtbem point of which are the Hecatonnesi, a 
nnmeroas group of small islands, and the southern 
boundazy of which is the projecting point of the 
»»awilMiM< vhidi lies nearest opposite to the southern 
ectmnity of Lesbos. The p^iinsula on which the 
town of Fhocaea stood, separates the gulf of Cume 
OB the K. firam the bay of Smyrna on the S. The 
^Tttlf rfCnme receives the rirers Evenus and CaTcus. 
The tenritoij of the old Aeolian cities extended 
TOrth w anl from the Hermus to the CaTcus, com- 
prising the coast and a tract reaching 10 or 12 
xailca inland. Between the bay of Adramyttiiun 
and the Calcus were the following towns : — Cisthene 
{Ksm^k^t CkSrSn-koiyf on a promontory, a deserted 
pbre in Strabo*8 time. There was a port, and a 
co|^ier mine in the interior, above Cisthene. Fur- 
ther aonth were Coryphantis (Kopv^arris), Hera- 
clda('H/NUiA(ia),and Attea ("ArTfa, AjaanuU-koi), 
C<«yphantis and Heracleia once belonged to the 
Mytikttaeans. Herodotus (i. 149) describes the 
txact of oornitiy which these Aeolius possessed, as 
nperior in fertility to the country occupied by the 
cities of the Ionian confederation, but inferior in 
cfimate. He enumerates the following U cities: 
Come, called Phrioonis; Lerissae, Neon Teichos, 
Trnmas, Cilia, Notinm, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Ae- 
gaeae, Myrina, and Grynexa. Smyrna, which was 
flriginally one of them, and made the nxunber 12, 
Ml into the bands of the lonians. Herodotus says, 
that these 11 were all the Aeolian cities on the 
mainland, except those in the Ida; " for these are 
•epanted" (i. 151); and in another place (v. 122) 
Eerodotos calls those people Aeoiians who in- 
lubfted the Hias, or district of Ilium. [G. L.] 

AEPELl (Afrcia: Eth, AiVc<£n}f). L One of 
the fvren Heascnian towns, offered by Agamemnon 
to Achilles, is sapposed by Strabo td be the same 



as Thnria, and by Pausanias the same as Coronc. 
(Horn. //. ix. 152; Strab. p. 360; Pans. iv. 34. § 5.) 

2. A town in Cyprus, situated on a mountain, 
the ruler of which is said to have removed to the 
plain, upon the advice of Solon, and to have named 
the new town Soli in honour of the Athenian. There 
is still a phice, called Epe, upon the mountain above 
the ruins of Soli. (Plut. SoL 26 ; Steph. B. «. v, ; 
Engel, KyproSj vol. i. p. 75.) 

AEPY (ATire: Eth. Khrimii)^ a town in Elis, so 
called from its lofty situation, is mentioned by Homer, 
and is probably the same as the Triphylian town 
Epeium ("Hvctov, "Eiriov, Aivfov), which stood be- 
tween Macistus and Heraea. Leake places it on the 
high peaked mountain which lies between the Ullages 
of Vrind and Smema, about 6 miles in direct distance 
from Olympia. Boblaye supposes it to occupy tho 
site of HeUeniata^ the name of some ruins on a hill 
between Platiana and Barakou. (Hom. II. ii. 592 ; 
Xen. HeU. iii. 2. § 30; Pol. iv. 77. § 9, iv. 80. § 13 ; 
Strab. p. 349; Steph. B. s, v.; Stat. Theb, iv. 180; 
Leake, Moreoj vol. iL p. 206 ; Boblaye, JieckercheSf 
&c., p. 136.) 

(A7irot and Aticovoi, Strab. ; A^kovo^, Dion. Hal. ; 
AucovucKoiy Ptol.; AticMXof, Diod.), one of tho most 
ancient and warlike nations of Italy, who play a 
conspicuous part in the early history of Bome. 
They inhabited the mouutainous district around the 
upper valley of the Anio, and extending from thence 
to the Lake Fucinus, between the Latins and the 
Marsi, and adjoining the Hemici on the east, and the 
Sabines on ^e west. Their territory was subse- 
quently included in Latlum, in the more extended 
sense given to that name under the Roman empire 
(Strab. V. p. 228, 231). There appears no doubt 
that the Aequiculi or Aequicou are the samo 
peo|de with the Aequi, though in the usage of later 
times the former name was restricted to the inhabit- 
ants of the more central and lofty vallies of tlio 
Apennines, while those who approadied the borders 
of the Latin plain, and whose constant wars with 
the Romans have made them so familiarly known to 
us, uniformly appear under the name of Aequi. It 
is probable that their original abode was in the high- 
land districts, to which we find them again limited 
at a later period of their history. The Acquicoli 
arc forcibly described by Viigil as a nation of rude 
mountaineers, addicted to the chase and to predatory 
habits, by which they sought to supply the defi- 
ciencies of their rugged and barren soil (Virg. Aen. 
vii. 747; Sil. ItaL viii. 371; Ovid, Fast. iii. 93). 
As the only town he assigns to them is Nersae, the 
site of which is unknown, there is some uncertainty 
as to the geographical position of the people of whom 
he is speaking, but he appears to place them next 
to the Marsians. Strabo speaks of them in one 
passage as adjoining the Sabines near Cures, in 
another as bordering on the Latin Way (v. pp. 231, 
237): both of whidi statements are correct, if the 
name be taken in its Widest signification. The form 
Abquiculani first appears in Pliny (iii. 12. § 17), 
who Iiowever uses Aequiculi also as equivalent to 
it: he appears to restrict the term to the inhabitants 
of the vallies bordering on the Marsi, and the only 
to^fus he assigns to them are Carseoli and Clitemia 
At a later period the name appears to have been 
almost confined to the population of the upper valley 
of the SaltOf between Rente and the Lake Fucinus, 
a district which still retains the name of Cicolano^ 
evidently a comiption from Acquiculanura. 

B 3 



No iudiciiti<m is found in any andeat anUw of 
their origin or descent : but their constant associa- 
tion with the Volscians would lead as to refer them 
to a common stock with that nation, and this cir- 
cnmstance, as well as their position in the mgged 
npland districts of the Apennines, renders it probable 
that they belonged to the great Oscan or Anscnian 
race, which, so fkr as oor researches can extend, maj 
be regarded as the primeval popaladon of a large 
part of central Italj. Thej appear to have received 
at a later period a considonible amount of Sabine 
influence, and probably some admixture with that 
race, especially where the two nations bordered on 
one another: but there is no ground for assuming 
any community of origin (Niebuhr, voL L p. 72; 
Abeken, IfUtel ItaUen, pp. 46, 47, 84). 

The Aequians first appear in Roman history as 
occupying the mgged mountain district at the back 
of Tibur and Praeueste (both of which always con- 
tinued to be Latin towns), and extending from 
thence to the confines of the Hemicans, and the 
valley of the Trenis or Sacco, But they gradually 
encroached upon their LAtin neighbours, and ex- 
tended their power to the mountain front immediately 
above the plains of Latinm. Thus Bola, which was 
originally a Latin town, was occupied by them for a 
considerable period (Liv. iv. 49): and though they 
were never able to reduce the strong fortress oi 
Praeueste, they continually crossed the valley which 
separated them fixxn the Alban hills and occupied 
the heights of Mt. Algidus. The great development 
of their power was coincident with that of the Vol- 
scians, with whom they were so constantly asso- 
ciated, that it is probable that the names and 
operations of tlie two nations have frequently been 
confounded. Thus Niebuhr has pointed out that 
the conquests assigned by the l^endaiy hbtory to 
Coriolanus, doubtless represent not only those of the 
Volscians, but of the Aequians also: and the "cas- 
tellum ad lacum Fucinum,** which Livy describes 
(iv. 57) as taken from the Volscians in b. c. 405, 
must in all probability have been an Aequian fortress 
(Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 72, vol. ii. pp. 244, 259). It 
is impossible here to recapitulate the endless petty 
wars between the Aequians and Romans : the fol- 
lowing brief summary will supply a general outline 
of their |»incipal features. 

The first mention of the Aequi in Roman history 
is during the reign of Tarquinins Prisons*, who 
waged war with them with great success, and re- 
duced them to at least a nominal submission (Strab. 
V. p. 231 ; Cicde HepM. 20). The second Tarquin 
is also mentioned as having concluded a peace with 
them, which may perhaps refor to the same trans- 
action (Liv. i. 55; Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 359). But 
it was not till after the fall of the Roman monarchy 
that they appear in their more formidable aspect. In 
B. c. 494 Uiey are first mentioned as invading the 
territory of the Latins, which led that peo^e to 
apply for assistance to Rome : and from this time 
foith the wars between the Al^uians and Volscians 
on the one side, and the Romans assisted by the 
Latins and Hemicans on the other, were events of 
almost regular and annual recurrence (" statum jam 

* A tradition, strangely at variance with ^e 
other accounts of their habits and character, repre- 
sents th«n as the people from whom the Romans 
derived the Jus Fetiale (Liv. i. 32; Dion. Hal. IL 
72). Others with more plausibility referred this to 
the Aequi Falisd (Serv. a<^ ^en. vii. 695). I 


ac prope aolcnne m singulos annas bellum,* Liv. iii. 
1 5). Notwithstanding the exaggerati<Mis and poetical 
embellishments witli wfaieh the histoiy of th^ wars 
has been disguised, we may discern pretty clearly 
three different periods or phjwes into which Uiey may 
be divided. 1. From b. c. 494 to about the time 
of the Decemvirate b. c. 450 was the epoch of the 
greatest power and successes of the Aequians. In 
b. c. 463 they are first moitioned as encamping an. 
Mount Algidus, which from thenceforth became the 
constant scene of the conflicts between them and the 
Rinnans: and it seems certain that during tliis 
period the Latin towns of Bola, Vitellia, Corbio, La- 
bicum, and Pedum fell into their hands. The alleged 
victory of Cincinnatus in b. c. 458, oa which so 
much stress has been laid by some later writers 
(Floras i. 11), appears to have in reality done little 
to check their progress. 2. From b. c. 450 to the 
' invasi(«i of the Gauls their arms were comparatively 
unsuccessful: and though we find them still con- 
tending on equal terms with the Romans and with 
many vicissitudes of fortune, it is dear that on tlie 
whote tliey had lost ground. The great victory 
gained over them by the dictator A. Postumius Tu- 
bertus in b. c. 428 may probably be regarded as the 
turning-point of their fortunes (Liv. iv. 26 — 29 ; 
Diod. xu. 64; Ovid. Fast, vi. 721 ; Niebuhr, vol ii. 
p. 454) : and the year b. c. 415 is the last in which 
we find them occupying their custcHnary positian on 
Mount Algidus (Liv. iv. 45). It is not improbable, 
as suggested by Niebuhr, that the growing power ol 
the Samnites, who were pressing on the Volscians 
upon the opposite side, may have drawn off the 
forces of the Aequians also to the support of thcit 
allies, and thus rendered them less able to cope with 
the power of Rome. But it is certain that before 
the end of this period most of the towns which they 
had ocmquered from the Latins had been again 
wrested from their hands. 3. After the invasion ot 
the Gauls the Aequians appear agaui in the field, 
but witli greatly diminished resources: probably 
they suffered severely from the successive swxurms of 
barbarian invaders which swept over this part of 
Italy: and after two unsuccessful campaigns in b. c 
386 and 385 they appear to have abandoned the 
contest as hopeless : nor does their name again ap- 
pear in Roman history for the space of above 80 
years. But in b. o. 304 the fate of their neigh- 
bours the Hemicans aroused them to a last straggle, 
which terminated in their total defeat and subjection. 
Their towns fell one after another into the hands of 
the victorious Romans, and the Aequian natiini (says 
Liyy) was almost utterly extenninated (Liv. ix. 45). 
This expression is however certainly exaggerated, 
for we find them again having recourse to arms twice 
within the next few years, though on both occasiona 
without success (Liv. x. 1, 9). It was probably 
after the last of these attempts that they were ad- 
mitted to the rights of Roman citizens : and became 
included in the two new tribes, the Aniensis and Te- 
rentina, which were created at this period (Cic. de 
Off. i. 11; Liv. x. 9; "Niebuhr, vol. iii. p. 267). 

From this time the name of the Aequi altogether 
disappealTB from history, and would seem to liave 
fallen into disuse, being probably merged in that 
of the Latins: but those of Aequiculi and Aeqnicu- 
lani still occur for the inhabitants of the upland 
and more secluded vallles which were not iucluded 
within the limits of Latium, but belonged to the 
fourth region of Augustus: and afterwards to the 
province called Valeria. In Imperial times we evea 


find d» Aeqmciilam in the ruHlej of the Salto con- 

tdtotiv * Rgolar mmiidpal body, so tiiat " Res 

pBUtt Aeqaicobnoamni " and a ^ Mnnicipiani Ae- 

^[oeckaanm* are found in inscriptiQiis of that 

jeiad (QreD. m. 3931; Ami, ddL IntL vol. vi. 

]a.lll.n0LX ProbaUjr this was a mere aggregation 

of natte red viUageB and hamlets such as are still 

feaad in the district of the CiooUmo. In the Liber 

CokBismin (pw 255) we find mention of the ** £cicy- 

heas i^eer * endenUj a cormption of Aeqmculanns, 

a» it tbm bj the iccoirence of the same fonn in 

dttiten aid dociunents of the middle ages (Holsten. 

sat wd Chteer. pc 156). 

It b not a little remarkable that the names (£ 
wtamij any cities bdonging to the Aeqnians have 
bflCB transmitted to na. Livj tells us that in the 
dedave campaign of B.a 304, foriaf-one Aeqoian 
toarns wem tekcn bj tiie Bonan consuls (ix. 45) : 
bn be meirtions none of them byname, and from the 
mat sod npiditj with which they were lednced, it 
» ]nhable that they were places of little importance. 
Jhay of the amaUer towns and villages now scat- 
tered ia the hm conntrr between the valHes of the 
&K» and the Anio probably occupy ancient sites: 
tvo cf these, Civitdla and OUteanto, present remains 
of sadent walls and substmctions of rude polygonal 
nssoBiy. whidi may probably be referred to a very 
<«iT period (Abeken,Af»»e//tali€is pp. 140,147; 
BJktL deU. Inst. 1841, p. 49). The nnmeroos 
TBd|^ «f ancient cities found in the TaDey of the 
Siito, may also bdoog in many instances to the 
Aeqi^ans, rather than the Aborigines, to whom they 
bave been generally referred. The only towns ex- 
pRsstj assigned to the Aeqnicnli by Pliny and Pto- 
Imy are C arsbou in the upper valley of the Turano, 
ad CuTERNiA in that of the SaUo. To these may 
be added Alba Fucemsis, which we are expressly 
tiM by Livy was founded in the territory of the 
Aefoians, though on account of its superior im- 
poftsDce, Pliny ranks the Albenses as a sepsrate 
Iia^(PImy ill. 12. 17; Ptol.iii. l.§ 56; Liv. x. 1). 
Yaria, wl^h is asBigned to the Aequians by several 
Buden writers, appears to have been properly a 
Sdioe town., Nersae, mentioned by Virgil (Aen, 
TIL 744) as the chief place of the Aequiculi, is not 
noticed l^ any other writer, and its site is wholly 
VKcrtain. Besides these, Pfiny {L e.) mentions the 
C«inni, Tadiates, Caedici, and Alfatemi as towns 
<r oononunities of the Aequiculi, which had ceased 
tsfldst in hb time: all four names are otherwise 
iboDv unknown. [E. H. B.] 

eUaieaf), a Boman fort in Upper Pannonia, situ« 
ited upon the Danube, and according to the Notitia 
hnprra, the quarters of a squadron of Dalmatian 
csTahy. (Tab. Pent.; Itin. Antonin.) [|W.B.D.] 
^AEROPUS, a mountain in Qreek Illyna, on the 
liver Aoos, and opposite to Mount Asnaus. Aeropus 
pnbaUy eotresponds to TWMtftrt, and Asnaus to 
Kemirtsiha. (Liv. xxxii. 5 ; Leake, Northern 
Crtfce, vol. L p. 389.) 

AESETUS (6 AtvTprof), a river of Northern 
Vyna, mentioned by Homer (/t ii. 825, &c.) as 
flying past Zekia, at the foot of Ida; and in another 
pMMfe (/Z. xii. 21) as one of the streams that flow 
fom Ma. Acoofding to Strabo^s interpretation of 
Bcmer, the Aesepus was the eastern boundary of 
Unia. The Aesepns is the largest river of Mysia. 
Acrordhig to Stnbo, it rises in Mount Cotylns, one 
of the summits of Ida (p. 602), and the distance 
between its source and its outlet is near 500 stadia. 



It is joined on tlie left bank by the Caresus, another 
stream which flows from Cotylus ; and then taking 
a N£. and N. course, it enters the Propontis, be- 
tween the mouth of the Granicus and the city of 
Cyzicus. The modem name appears not to be 
clearly ascertained. Leake calls it Boklu. [G. L.] 
AESEKNIA (A2(rcpyfa: £th, Aeseminus; bat 
Plinyand laterwriters have £semintts),a cityof Sam- 
nium, included within the tenitoiy of the Pentrian 
tribe, situated in the valley of the Vultumus, on a 
small stream flowing into that river, and distant 14 
miles from Veoafrum. The Itinerary (in which the 
name is corruptly written Sernt) places it on the road 
from Aufidena to Bovianum, at the distance of 28 
M.P. from the former, and 18 from the latter ; but the 
fonner number is ccnmpt, as are the distances in the 
Tabula. (Itin. Ant. p. 102; Tab. Pent; Plin. iii. 
12. 17; PtoL iii. 1. § 67; Sa. ItaL viii. 568.) The 
modem dty of ItertUa retuns the ancient site as 
well as name. The first mention of it in history 
occurs in b. c. 295, at which time it had already 
foUm into the hands of the Bomans, together with 
the whole valley of the Vultumus. (Liv x. 31.) 
After the complete subjugation of the Samnitcs, a 
ookmy, with Latin rights (oolonia Latina) was settled 
there by the Bomans in b. c 264; and this is again 
mentioned in b. g. 209 as one of the eighteen which 
remained foithful to Borne at the most trying period 
of the Second Punic War. (Liv. Epit. xvi. xxvii. 
10; Yell. Pat. L 14.) During the Social War it 
adhered to the Boman cause, and was gallantly de* 
fended against the Samnite general Vettius Gato, by 
Marcellns, nor was it till after a long protracted siege 
tiiat it was compelled by fiunine to surrender, b. c. 
90. Henceforth it continued in the hands of the 
confederates ; and at a later period of the contest 
afforded a shelter to the Samnite leader, Papius Mu- 
tilus, after his defe^it by Sulla. It even became for 
a thne, after the successive fall of Gorfinium and 
Bovianum, the head quarters of the Italian allies. 
(Liv. Epit. Ixxii, Ixxiii.; Appian. £. C. i. 41, 51; 
Diod. xxxvii. Exc Phot. p. 539 ; Sisenna ap. NoniuMy 
p. 70.) At this time it was evidently a place of 
unportance and a strong fortress, but it was so se- 
verely punished for its defection by Sulla after the 
final defeat of the Samnites, that Strabo speaks of it 
as in his time utterly deserted. (Strab. v. p. 238, 
250.) We learn, however, that a colony was sent 
there by Gaesar, and again by Augustus ; but appa- 
rently with little success, on which account it was re- 
colonized under Nero. It never, however, enjoyed the 
rank of a colony, but appears from inscriptions to 
have been a municipal town of some importance in 
the time of Trajan and the Antoninoe. To this 
period belong the remains of an aqueduct and a fine 
Boman bridge, still visible; while the lower parts of 
the modem walls present considerable portions of 
polygonal construction, which may be assigned either 
to the ancient Samnite city, or to the first Boman 
colony. The modem city is still the see of a bishop, 
and contains about TOQ/0 inhabitants. (Lib. Golon. 
pp. 233, 260 ; Zumpt, de CohnUs^ pp. 307, 360, 


E 4 



392 ; Inscrr. »p. Bomanelli, vol. ii. pp. 470, 471 ; 
Craven's Abmzziy voL ii. p. 83; Uoares Classical 
Tour, Tol. L p. 227.) 

The coins of Aesernia, irhich are found only in 
copper, and have the legend aibernino, belong to 
the period of the first Roman colony; the style of 
their ezecnticm attests the infiaence of the neigh- 
bouring Campania. (Millingen, NumiavfuUique de 
f/to/Mt, p. 218.) [E.ILB.] 

AE'SICAf was a Boman frontier castle in the 
line of Hadrian's rampart, and probably corresponds 
to the site of Greatcheater, It is, however, placed 
by some antaqnories at the Danish village oif Ne- 
tkerby, on the river Esk. It is mentioned by 
George of Ravenna, and in the Notitia Imperii^ and 
was the quarters of Cohors I. Astorum.^ [W. B. D.] 

AESIS (A7(rtr, Strab. ; AlffiyoSy App), a river on 
the east coast of Italy, which rises in the Apennines 
near Matilica, and flows into the Adriatic, between 
Ancona and Sena Gallica; it is still called the Esino. 
It constituted in early times the boundary between 
the territory of the Senonian Gauls and Picenum ; 
and was, tlierefore, regarded &s the northern limit of 
Italy on the side of the Adriatic. But after the de- 
struction of the Senones, when the confines of Italy 
were extended to the Rubicon, the Aesis became the 
boundary between the two provinces of Umbria and 
Picenum. (Strab. v. pp. 217, 227, 241 ; Plin. iii. 
14. 19; MeU, ii. 4; Ptol. iii. 1. § 22, where the 
name is corruptly written "Affios; Liv. v. 35.) Ac- 
cording to Silius Italicns (viii. 446) it derived its 
appelhttiou from a Pelasgian chief of that name, who 
had ruled over this part of Italy. There can be no 
doubt that the Aesinns of Appian {B. C. i. 87), on 
the bonks of which a great battle was fought bet\('een 
Metellus and Carinas, the lieutenant d Carbo, in 
B. c. 82, is the same with the Acsis of other writers. 

In the Itinerary we find a station (ad Aesim) at 
the mouth of the river, which was distant 12 M. P. 
from Sena Gallica, and 8 from Ancona. (Itin. Ant 
p. 316.) [E.H.B.] 

AESIS or AE'SIUM (Afo* j, Ptol. ; At<rioVy Strab. ; 
JEth. Aesinas, -atis), a town of Umbria situated on 
the N. bank of the river of the same name, about 10 
miles from its mouth. It is still called lesi, and is 
an episcopal town of some consideration. Pliny men- 
tions it only as an ordinary municipal town: but we 
learn from several inscriptions that it was a Roman 
colony, though the period when it attained this rank 
is unknown. (Inscrr. ap. Gruter. p. 446. 1, 2; 
Orelli, no. 3899, 3900; Zumpt, de Colon, p. 359.) 
According to Pliny {H. N, xi. 42, 97) it was noted 
for tlie excellence of its cheeses. 

The form Acsium, which is found only in Strabo, 
is probably erroneous, Atffiov being, according to 
Kramer, a corrupt reading for *A(rlfftoy. (Strab. v. p. 
227; PtoLiu. l.§ 53; Plm. iii. 14. 19.) [E.H.B.] 

AESl'TAE (Aurh-cu or Awrtrai, Ptol. v. 19. § 2; 
comp. Bochart. Phaleg. ii. 8), were probably the 
inhabitants of the region upon the borders of Chal- 
daea, which the Hebrews designated as the land of 
Uz ( Jo6,i. 1, XV. 17 ; Jerem. xxv. 20), and which the 
70 translators render by the word Ainrlris (comp. 
Winer, Bibl. Realw&rterb. vol. ii. p. 755). Strabo 
(p. 767) calls the Regio Aesitarum Madna (Maicii^). 
They were a nomade race, but from their possessing 
houses and villages, had apparently settled pastures 
on the Chaldaean border. [W. B. D.] 

AESON or AESO'NIS (ATcrwi', Aurawis: Eth, 
Altrdvios), A town of Magnesia in Thessaly, the 
name of which is derived from Aeson, the father of 


Jason. (Apoll. Bhod. L 411, and Schol.; Steph. 
B. s. V.) 

AE'STUI (this is the correct reading), a people 
of Germany, consisting of several tribes (Acstuo- 
rum gentcs), whose manners are minutely described 
by Tacitus {Germ. 45). They dwelt in the NE. of 
Germany, on the S£. or £. of the Baltic, bordering 
on the Venedi of Sarmatia. In their general ap- 
pearance and manners they resembled the SneW: 
tlieir langnage was nearer to that of Britain. They 
worshipped the mother of the gods, in whose hoogur 
they wore images of boars, which served them as 
amulets in war. They had little iron, and used 
clubs instead of it. They worked more patiently at 
tilling the land than the rest of the Germans. They 
gathered amber on their coasts, selling it for the 
Roman market, with astoiushment at its price. 
They called it Glesswn^ perhaps Glas, i. c. glass. 
They are also mentioned by Cassiodoms ( Var. v. 
£p. 2.) They were the occupants of the present 
coast of Pnusia and Courland, as is evident by 
what Tacitus says about their gathering amber. 
Their name is probably ooUective, and signifies the 
East men. It appears to have reached Tacitus in 
the form £(ute, and is still preserved in the modem 
Esthen, the German name of the Esthonians. The 
statement of Tacitus, that the langnage of. the Aestoi 
was nearer to that of Britain, is explained by Dr. 
Latham by the supposition that the language of the 
Aestui was then called Prussian, and that the simi- 
larity of this word to British caused it to be mis- 
taken for the latter. On the various questions 
respecting the Aestui, see Ukert, vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 
420 — 422, and Latham, The Germania of Tacittts, 
p. 166, seq. [P. S.] 

AE'SULA (Eth. Aesulanus), a dty of Latium, 
mentioned by Pliny among those which in his time 
had entirely ceased to exist (iii. 5. § 9). It appeam 
from his statement to have been one of the colonies 
or dependencies of Alba, but its name does not occur 
in tlie early history of Rome. In tlie Second Punic 
War, however, the Arx Aesulania is mentioned by 
Livy as one of the strongholds which it was deemed 
necessary to occupy with a garrison oi\ tlie approach 
of Hannibal. (Liv. xxvi. 9.) . The wdl-known allu- 
sion of Horace {Carm. iiL 29. 6) to the *' declive 
arvum Aesulae," shows that its name at least was 
still fiuniliarly known in his day, whether the dty 
still existed or not, and points to its situation in full 
view of Rome, probably on the hills near Tibur. 
Gell has with much probability placed it on the 
slope of the mountain called Monte AjffUano, about 
2 miles SE. of Tivoli, which is a conspicuous ob- 
ject in the view from Rome, and the summit of 
which commands an extensive prospect, so as to 
render it well adapted for a look-out statiorL The 
Arx mentioned by Livy was probably on the summit 
of the mountain, and the town lower down, where 
GeU observed vestiges of andcnt roads, and *' many 
foundations of the ancient walls in irreguliu* blocks." 
Nibby supposes it to have occupied a hill, called in 
the middle ages CoUe Faustiniano, which is a lower 
offshoot of the same mountain, further towards tlie 
S.; but tliis position docs not seem to correspond so 
well with the expressions cither of Livy or Horace. 
(Gell, Topography of Rome, p. 9; Kihhy, UirUomi 
di Roma,\6L i. p. 32.) Vcllcius Paterculus (i. 14) 
speaks of a colony being sent in the year 246 d. c. 
to Aesulum ; but it seems impossible that a place 
so close to Rome itself should have been colonized at 
so late a period, and that no sul^equent mentioa 



thodil he fomd of it; it is therefore probablo that 
we AmiA read AsCULUii . [E. H. B.] 

AESVME. [Oestme.] 

A£TBA£A (AIIMua: JStL AiBauvs), a town of 
HocBBi of nnkDonm site, the inhabitants of which 
ifT^dtad fma ^«rta inth the Thtiriatae in b. c. 
464. (ThQC L 101 ; Steph. B. s. v.) 

AETUrCES, a barbarooa Epirot clan, who lived 
Vr nibbefT, are placed by Strabo on the Thessalian 
side at Pindns. They are mentioned bj Homer, 
vho ichtes that the Centaurs, expelled by Peirithons 
fnoi Ml PfcUon, took refnge among the Aethices. 
(Haa). II 0. 744; Strab. pp. 327, 434; Steph. B. 
t. r. AitfiJcTo.) 

A£THI(XPIA <n AiewrUi, Herod, iii. 114; Dion 
Cas. fir. 5; Stiab. pp. 2, 31, 38, &c.; Plin. H, N. 
T. 8. § 8, tL 3a I 35; Seneca, Q. N. iv. 2, &&; 
StfpL B.: Etk, aIMoM^, Altfimrc^, Aethiops, fern. 
Aidmlt: Adj. AJftovur^s, Aethiopicos: the KusH 
of the Hebreivs, Ezech. xxxix. 10; Job. xxviii. 19; 
Anus is. 7), oorreapoiids, in its more extended ac- 
cepUtioii, to the modem r^ons of Nvbia^ Senmaar^ 
K^rdofm and nortlieni Al»f$tmia. In describing 
ActUopia howerer, w« mnst distinguish between the 
tas^t^saaat of the name as an etimic or generic 
dmpatioQ on the one hand, and, on the other, as 
RStiieted to the pcorince or kingdom of MeroS, or 
tbe crilised Aethiopia (yi Aidunrla iWr^p Atymrrov, 
txMASyvmrof, Herod. iL 146; Ptol. iv. 7.) 

Aethio|ia, as a gmeric or ethnic designation, 
onrnprisfs the inhabitants of A£ica who dwelt be- 
tween the equator, the Bed Sea, and the Atlantic, 
far Stnbo speaks oif Hesperian Aethiopians S. of the 
PWasii and Maori, and Herodotus (iv. 197) de- 
scribes them as occupying the whole of Sonth Libya. 
Tbe name Aethiqpians is probably Semitic, and if 
tod^cDoos, certainly so, since the Aethiopic language 
is pure Semitic. Mr. Salt sajs that to this day the 
Abyaanians call themselTes lUopjtnoan, The Greek 
pngiaphers however derived the name £nHn cSldw — 
Hy aad applied it to all the sun-burnt dark-com- 
{ilenaiied races aibovo Egypt Herodotus (iii. 94, 
vil 70) indeed speaks of Aethiopians of Ada, whom 
Ivfnbably BO designated from their bong of a darker 
kae than their immediate nmghbours. like the 
Aethiopians of the Kfle, they were tributaiy to Persia 
io the rogn c£ Darios. They were a straight-haired 
nee, while their Libyan namesakes were, according 
to the historiaai, wooUy-hairedL But the expression 
{tiKhftrm rpixt^"''-) must not be construed too 
filesQj, as neither the ancient Aethiopians, as de- 
fKtBred on the manuments,*nor their modem repre- 
aeatstiTcSythe Bishiries and Shangallas, have,strictly 
*peikiDg, the negto-hair. The Asiatic Aethiopians 
VCR an equeatrian peoj^, wearing crests and head 
MDoor made of the hide and manes of horses. From 
Beraktos ((. c) we infer that they were a Mongolic 
xaoe, isolated in the steppes of Kurdistan. 

Tbe boundaries of the African Aethiopians are ne- 
<nttri]y ind^nito. If they were, as seems probable, 
the aaoestore of the SkcmgaUoB^ Biah&ries^ and Nu- 
iiaw. their frontiers may be loosely stated as to the 
& tbe Abyssinian Highlands, to the W. the Libyan 
^eieit, to the X. Egypt and Marmarica, and to the 
L the Indian Ocean and the Bed Sea. The boun- 
daries of Aethiopia Proper, or AlerocS, will admit of 
Btte particular definition. 

Their Eastern frontier however being a coast line 
Bay be described. It extended from lat. 9 to lat. 
^ N. Beginning at the headland of Prosum (Cope 
id Gordo), where Africa Barbaria commences, we 



come successively upon the promontory of Khaptum ^ 
('PaiTTiJv 5po$), Noti Comu (N<^row ic^par), Point 
Zingis (Ztyyis)f Aromata {hpuixirnv ijepoy. Cape 
Guardafui), the easternmost point of Africa; the 
headknd of Elephas (*EAc^: Djebel Feeh or Cape 
FeHx); Mnemium (^Mvritutov: Cape CaiTnez), the 
extreme spur of Mt. Isium (J'lfftov tpos)^ and, finally, 
the headland of Barium, a little to the south of the 
Sinus Immundns, or Foul Bay, nearly in the parallel 
of Syene. The coast line was much indented, and 
contained some good harbours, Avaliticus Sinus, 
Aduliticus ^us, &c, which in the Macedonian era, 
if not earlier, were the emporia of an active commerce 
both with Arabia and Libya. (Ptol.; Strabo; Plin.) 

From the headland of Bazium to Mount Zingis, a 
barrier of primitive rocks intermingled with basalt and 
limestone extends and rises to a height of 8000 
feet in some parts. In the north of this range were 
the gold mines, from whidi the Aethiopians derived 
an abundance of that metal. Aethiopia was thus se- 
parated from its coast and harbours, which were ac- 
cessible from the interior only by certain gorges, the 
caravan roads. The western slope of this range was 
also steep, and the streams were rapid and often 
dried up in summer. A tract, called the eastern 
desert, accordingly intervened between the Arabian 
hills and the Nile and its tributaiy the Astaboras. 
The river system of Aethiopia difiered indeed consi- 
derably frtnn that of Egypt. The Nile from its 
junction with the Astaboras or Tacasze presented, 
during a course of nearly 700 miles, alternate rapids 
and cataracts, so that it was scarcely available for 
inland narigation. Its fertilising overflow was also 
much restricted by high escarped banks of limestone, 
and its alluvial deposit rarely extended two miles on 
either side of the stream, and more frequently covered 
only a narrow strip. Near the river dhourra or millet 
was rudely cultivated, and canals now choked up with 
«uid, show that the Aethiopians practised the art of 
irrigation. Further from the Nile were pastures and 
thick jungle-forests, where, in the rainy seasons, the 
gadfly prevailed, and drove the herdsmen and their 
cattle into the Ajabian hills. The jungle and swamps 
abounded with wild beasts, and elephants were both 
caught for sale and used as food by the natives. As 
rain falls scantily in the north, Aethiopia must have 
contained a considerable portion of waste land beside 
its eastern and western deserts. In the south the 
Abyssinian highlands are the cause of greater hu- 
midity, and consequoitly of more general fertility. 
The whole of this region has at present been very 
imptffecUy explored. The natives who have been 
for centuries carried ofi* by their northern neigh- 
bours to the slave-markets are hostile to strangers. 
Bru<» and Burckhardt skirted only the northern 
and southern borders of Aethiopia above Merok' : jungle 
fever and wild beasts exclude the traveller from the 
valleys of the Astapus and Astaboras: and the sanda 
have buried most of the cultivable soil of ancient 
Aethiopia. Yet it is probable that two thousand 
years have made few changes in the general aspect 
of its inhabitants. 

The population of this vague region was a mixture 
of Arabian and Libyan races in combination with the 
genuine Aethiopians. The ktter were distinguished 
by well formed and supple limbs, and by a facial 
outline resembling the Caucasian in all but ite in- 
clination to prominent lips and a somewhat sloping 
forehead. The elongated Nubian eye, depictured on 
the monuments, is still seen in the Shangallas. As 
neither Greeks nor Bomans penetrated beyond Napata, 



^the tmcxeat cajntal of Meroe, oar aoeonnts of the 
various Aethiopian tribes are extremely scanty and 
perplexing. Their principal divisions were the Colobi, 
the Blemmyes, the Icthyophagi, the Macrobii, and 
the Troglodytae. Bat besides these were Tarioas 
tribes, probably however of the same stock, which 
were d^ignated according to their pecofiar diet and 
employments. The Rhizophagi or Boot-eatex-s, who 
fed upon dhoorra kneaded with the bark of trees ; the 
Creophagi, who lived on boiled flesh, and were a 
pa toral tribe; the Chelenophagi, whose food was 
shell-fish caught ia the saline estoaries; the Acrido- 
phagi or locust- eaters; the Strathophagi and £le- 
phantophagi, who hanted the ostridi and elephant, 
and some others who, like the inhabitants of the 
island Gagaada, took their name from a particular 
locality. The following, however, had a fixed ha- 
bitation, although we find them occasionally men- 
tioned at some distance from the probable site of the 
main tribe. 

(1.) The Blemhyes, apd Meoabari, who dwelt 
between the Arabian hills and the TacasssS were ac- 
cording to Quatrem^ de Qoincy {Memoirts tur 
TEgypfjey ii. p. 127), the ancestors of the modem 
JSucharieSf whom earlier writers denominate Be/os or 
Bedjag. They practised a rude kind of agriculture ; but 
the greater part were herdsmen, hunters, and caravan 
guides. [Blemscyes.] (2) IcrHYOPHAOi or fish- 
eaters, dwelt on the sea coast between the Sinus 
Adulicus and the R^io Troglodytica, and of all these 
savage races were probably the least civilised. Ac- 
cording to Diodoros, the Icthyophagi were a d^raded 
branch of the Troglodytae. Their dwellings were 
clefts and holes in the rocks, and they did not even 
possess any fishing implements, hut fed on the fish 
which the ebb left behind. Yet Herodotus informs 
us (iiL 20) that Cambyses employed Icthyophagi 
from Elephantine in Upper Egypt, as spies previous 
to his expedition into the interior — an additional 
proof of the uncertain site and wide dispersion 
of the Aethiopian tribes. (3) The Macrobh or 
long-lived Aethiopians. — Of thi) nation, if it were 
not the people of Meroe, it is impossible to discover 
the site. From tiie account of Herodotus (iii. 17) it 
appears that they were advanced in civilisation, since 
they possessed a king, laws, a prison, and a market; 
understood the working of metals, had gold in abon- 
dance, and had made some progress in the arts. Yet 
of agricalturc they knew nothing, for they were unac- 
quainted with bread. Herodotus places them on the 
shore of tlie Indian Ocean " at the furthest comer of 
the earth." But the Persians did not approach their 
abode, and the Greeks spoke of the Macrobii only 
from report. Bruce (ii. p. 654) places them to the 
north of Fcmtkla, in the lower part of the gold 
countries, Cuba and Nubay on both sides of the Nile, 
and regards them as ShmgaUas. (4) The Tro- 
glodytae or cave-dwellers were seated between the 
Blommyes and Megabari, and according to Agathar- 
cides (ap. Diod. i. 30. § 3, iii. 32, 33) they were 
herdsmen with thdr separate chiefs or princes of tribes. 
Their habitations vrere not merely clefts in the rocks, 
but carefully wrought vaults, laid out in cloisters and 
squares, like the catacombs at Naples, whither in 
the rainy season they retired with their herds. Then- 
food was milk and clotted blood. In the dry months 
they occupied the pastures which slope westward to 
the Astaboras and Nile. 

The boundaries of Aethiopia Proper (ji AlBioirla 
d»€p Atyim-ov) are more easy to determine. To the 
south indeed they are uncertain, but probably com- 


menced a litUe above the modem village c^KharUmm^ 
where the Bahr el Azrek, Blue or Dark Biver, unitea 
with the Bahr el Ahiad, or White Nife. (Ut. 16<> 
37' N., long. 33° E.) The desert of Bahiauda on 
the lefl ba^ of the NUe formed its western limit: 
its eastern frontier was the river Astaboras and th* 
northern upland of Abyssinia — the nfntftvoX r^s 
*ApalSlas of Diodorus (i. 33). To the N. AethiopiA 
was bounded by a province called Dodecaschoenua or 
Aethiopia Aegypti — a debateable land subject some> 
times to the Thebaid and sometimes to the kings of 
Mero& The high civilisation of Aethiopia, as at- 
tested by historians and confirmed by its monaments, 
was confined to the insular area of Meroe and to 
Aethiopia Aegypti, and is more particularly de- 
scribed under the head of Meboe. 

The connecti(ni between Egypt and Aetliiopoa was 
at all periods veiy intimate. The inhabitants of 
the Kile valley and of Aethiopia were indeed branches 
of the same Hamite stream, and difiered only in 
degree of civilisation. Whether religion and the art» 
descended <»- ascended the Nile has long been a 
subject of discussion. From Herodotus (iL 29) it 
would appear that the worship of Ammon and Osiris 
(Zeus and Dionysus) was imparted by Meroe t» 
Egypt. The annual procession (^ the Holy Ship, 
with the shrine of the Barn-headed god, from Thebes 
to the Libyan side of the Nile, as depicted on the 
temple of Ka^nak and on sevcial Nubian monumentSy 
probably commemorates the migration of Ammon- 
worship firom Meroe to Upper Egypt. Diodorus alse 
says (iii. 3) that the people above Meroe worship 
Isis, Pan, Heracles, and Zeus : and his assertion wonM 
be confirmed by monuments in Upper Nubia bearing 
the head of Isis, &c, could we be certain of the date 
of their erection. The Aethiopian monarchy was 
even more strictly sacerdotal than that of Egypt, at 
least the power of the priesthood was longer undis- 
puted. *^ In Aethiopia," says Diodorus (iii. 6), " the 
priests send a sentence of death to the king, when 
they think he has lived long enough. The order to 
die is a mandate of the gods." In the age of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus (b.c.284 — ^246) however an important 
revolution took place. £rgamenes,a monarch who had 
some tincture of Greek arts and phik)sq)hy, put all 
the priests to death (Diod. iiL 6. § 3), and plundered 
thdr golden temple at Napata {Barkal ?). If He- 
rodotus (ii. 100) were not misinformed by ^e priests 
of Memphis, 18 Aethiopian kings were among the 
predecessors of Sesortasen. The monuments howexTr 
do not record this earlier dynasty. Sesortasen is said 
by the same historian fo have conquered Aethiopia 
(Herod, ii. 106); but his occupation must have been 
merely transient, since he also affirais that the country 
above Egypt had never been conquered (iii 21). Bnt 
in the latter part of the Stli century b. c. an Aethi- 
opian dynasty, the 25th of Egj^t, reigned in Lower 
Egypt, and contained three kings — Sabaco, Sebichns, 
and Taracus or Tirhakah. At this epoch the annals 
of Aethiopia become connected with universal history. 
Sabaco and his successors reigned at Napata, probably 
seated at that bend of the Nile where the rocky 
island of Mogreb divides ita stream. The invasion 
of Egypt by the Aethiopian king was little more 
than a change of dynasty, as the royal families of 
the two kingdoms had previously been united by in- 
termarriages. Bocchoris, the last Egyptian monarch 
of the 24th dynasty, was put to a cruel death by 
Sabaco, yet Diodorus (i. 60) commends the latter as 
exemplMily pious and mercifiil. Herodotus (ii. 137) 
represents Sabaco as substituting for criminals coin- 


fuhnrj Ubov in the mibaes for tlie pnmahment of 
^aik, l^odoms tlao celebrates t]ie mildnesa and 
jtiiitKe d anotber Aethio|nau king, whom he calls 
Aeikmoy and nunoors of anch Tirtues may have 
procond fw die Aedui^nn race the epithet of ^* the 
}iimek9*r (Ham. /^L 423.) 

Sebtchms, the So or Sera of the Scriptures, iras 
ihe ^an and soeoesMr of Sabaco. He was an all j 
cf Boafaea, king of Israel; bat he was unable, or too 
iBidf IB his movements, to pc€vent the capture of 
Sunaiia by Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, in b. a 
722. One rwolt of the captiTity of Israel was an 
iaSax of Hebrew exiles into Ei^ypt and Aethiopia, 
aai evcotaally the djasemination of the Mosaic re- 
]^:iaii IB the coantiy north of Elefrfiantino. Before 
thi^ cataitTOphe, the PlBalimst and the Prophets 
{P$aim, IxxxnL 4; Isaiah^ xx. 5 ; Nakumy ilL 9 ; 
EaiL XXX. 4) had celebrated the military power of 
the AtihiapiaiB, and the historical writings of the 
Jews nntd their invasiMis of Palestine. Isuah 
(xix. 18) predicts the retnm of Israel from the limd 
UCmsh; aiid the story of Qaeen Caadace's treasurer, 
in the Acts of the Apostles (ch. Tiii.), shows that 
the H«hrew Scriptores were current in the more 
civilised parts of that region. Sebichns was suc- 
ceeded by Ttrhakah — the Tarcns or Taracus of 
Mmrtba The oommentators on the Book of Kings 
(Hi. 19) usually deacrifae this mcnarch as an Ax«- 
buo chieftain; bat his name is recorded on the 
propyiaa of a temple at MedinU-Ahoo, and at GtbeU 
el-Birbdy or Barkal, in Nubia. He was, therefore, 
^ Aetbiopian linear Strabo (L p. 61, xr. p. 687) 
aays, that Tirfaakah rivalled Sesortasen, or Ra- 
Beaes IIL, in his conquests, which extended to the 
PUhus of Hercaks, meaning, probably, the Phoe- 
nrian settlements on the nwthera coast of Africa. 
From Hdirew reoordB (2 Kingt, xviii, xix.; Isaiah^ 
xxxri, xxxriL), we know that Tirhakah was on his 
march to relieve Judaea finom the invasion of Sen- 
nacherib (b. c 5S8); but his advance was rendered 
tOBeeeBBuy by the pcstilenoe which swept off the 
As^iiaa army near Pelusium (Herod, u. 141 ; 
HaajpJL HitrogL i 50). Tirhakah, however, was 
Bprcreipi only in the Thebatd: one, if not two, 
sative ^yptian kings, reigned contemporaneously 
whh him at Ifemphis and Sais. According to the 
BMo^oB at GeieUi'Birhd, Tirhakah reigned at 
kast twoity years in Upper Egypt Herodotus, in- 
deed, regards the 25th or Aethiopian dynasty in 
Efvpt as eompvised in the reign and person of Sa- 
baco aisne, to whom he assigns a period of fifty 
fean. Bat tbeie were certainly three manarchs of 
this fine, and a fixuth, Ammerii, is mentioned in 
l» fist of Euaebius. The historian (ii 139) as- 
Bribn the r e tiniii f a i t of the last Aethiopian monarch 
j» a dicam, which may perhaps be interpreted as a 
■aadbte from the hierarchy at Napata to forego his 
eoBsoeala belonr I%iiae. 

la the reign of Psammetichns (b. o. 630), the 
■dire war-caste of Egypt migrated into Aethiopia. 
Heradotas (uL 30) says that the deserters (Auto- 
Boa) settled in a district as remote from theAethio- 
p« mctropoUs (Napata) as that city was from 
Orphsntine: Bui this statement would carry them 
biliiv lat. 16^, the extreme limit of Aethiopian 
milisatkiL Diodonis (L 67) describee the Anto- 
Bofi as settled in the most fertile r^ion of Aethio- 
{is. Kocth-west of Merog, however, a tribe had 
f^aMhhed themselves, whom the geographers call 
Easojiitttae, the Asmach of Herodotus (iL 30; 
Stiah. xviL p. 786; Plin. vi 30), and there is 



reason to consider these, who from their name may 
have once oompased the left wing of the Egyptian 
army, the exiled war-caste. In that frontier po- 
sition they would have been available to their 
adopted country as a permanent garrison against 
invasion from the noilh. 

The Persian dynasty ^"as scarcely established in 
Egypt, when Cambyses undertook an expedition 
into Aethiofaa. He prepared for it by sending 
certain Icthyophagi from Elephantine as envoys, or 
rather as spies, to the king of the Macrobians. 
(Herod, iii. 17 — 25.) But the invasion was so 
ill-planned, or encountered such phyacal obstacles 
in the desiBrt, that the Persian army returned to 
Memphis^ enfeebled and disheartened. Of this in- 
road the magazines of Cambyses (rofueux Kom^^ 
(Tovj Ptol. iv. 7. § 15), probably the town of Cambysis 
(Plin. S. N. vj. 29), on the left bank of the Nile, 
near its great curve to the west, was the only per- 
manent record. The Persian occupation of the NU&- 
vaUey opened the country above Philae to Greek 
travellers. The philosopher Democritus, a little 
younger than Herodotus, wrote an account of the 
hieroglyphics of MeroS (Diog. Laert ix. 49), and 
from this era we may probably date the establish- 
ment of Gredc emporia upon the shore of the Bed 
Sea. Under the Ptolemies, the arts, as well as the 
enterprise of the Greeks, entered Aethiopia, and led to 
the destruction of the sacerdotal government, and to 
the foundation or extension of the HeUenic colonies 
Dire-Berenices, Arsinoe, Adnle, Ptolemais-TherCn, 
on the coast, where, until the era of the Saracen 
invasion in the 7th century a. d., an active trade 
was carried on between Libya, Arabia, and Western 
India or Ceylon (Ophir? Taprobane). 

In the reign of Augustus, the Aethiopians, under 
their Queen Candaoe, advanced as £Eir as the Boman 
garrisons at Parembole and Elephantine. They 
wero repulsed by C. Petronins, the legatus of the 
prefect cf Egypt, Aelius Gallns, who placed a Boman 
garrison in Premnis {Ibrim\ and pursued the re- 
treating army to the neighbourhood of Napata. 
(Dion Cass. liv. 5.) In a second campaign Pe- 
tronins compelled Candace to send overtxu^ of 
peace and submission to Augustus (b. c. 22 — 23). 
But the Boman tenure of Aethiopia above Egypt 
was always precarious; and in Diocletian's reign 
(a. d. 284 — 805), the country south of Philae was 
ceded generally by that emperor to the Nubae. 
Under the Bomans, indeed, if not earlier, the popu- 
lation of Aethiopia had become almost Arabian, and 
continued so after the establishment of Christian 
churches and sees, until the followers of Mahomet 
overran the entire region from the sources of the 
Astaboras to Alexandria, and oanfirmed the pre* 
dominance of their race. 

Such were the general divisions, tribes, and history 
of Aethiopia in the wider import of the term. In 
the interior, and again beginning from the south 
near the sources of the Astaboras we find the fol- 
lowing districts. Near the headland Elephas were 
the Mosyli (M<{ovAoi), the Molibae (MoAifot), and 
Soboridae (2oeoplicu) (PtoL iv. 7. § 28). Next, the 
Begio Axiomitarum [Axume], immediately to the 
north of which was a province called Tenesis (Tfjyc- 
ffis) occupied by the Sembritae of Strabo (p. 770), 
or Semberritae of Pliny (IT. N, vi. 30. § 35). North 
of Tenesis was the Lake Coloe, and between the 
Adulitae and Mount Taurus on the coast were tiie 
Colobi, who according to Agatharcides (qp. IHod. iii. 
32) practised the rite of circumcision, and dwelt in 



a woodj and monntainoiis district (HXtros KoXoiuv^ 
Strab. L c; 6pos KoAo^mi/, Ptol. iv. 8). Above these 
were the Memnones (Mf/iromr), a name celebrated 
by the post-Homeric poeta of the Trojan war, and 
who are supposed by some to have been a colony 
from Western India (Philologi&d Museum, vol. ii. 
p. 146); and above these, north of the Blemmyes 
and Megabari, are the Adiabarae, who skirted to the 
east the province of Dodecaschoenos or Aethiopia 
above Egypt. Bat of all these tribes we know the 
names only, and even these very imperfectly. Modem 
travellers can only coiyecturally connect them with 
iheBedjas, Bisch&ries, SkcmgaUcu^ and other Nnbian 
or Arabian races; and neither Greeks nor Bomans 
feorveyod the neighbourhood of their colcmies beyond 
the high roads which led to their principal havens 
on the Red Sea. 

The western \)ortion of Aethiopia, owing to its 
generally arid character, was much more scantily 
peopled, and the tribes that shifted over rather than 
occupied its scanty pastures were mostly of Libyan 
origin, a mixed Negro and Barabra race.* Parallel 
with the Astapus and the Kile after their confluence, 
stretched a limestone range of hiUs, denominated by 
Ptolemy the Aethiopian mountains {rh AlBunriKh 
apTj, iv. 8). They separated Aethiopia from the 
Garamantes. West of the elbow land which lay 
between Meroe and Napata was a district called 
Tergedum. North of Tergedum the Nubae came 
down to the Nile-bank between the towns of Primls 
Parva and Phturi ; and northward of these were the 
above'mentioned£uonymitae,who extended to Pselds 
in Iftt 23°. 

In the region Dodecaschoenus or Aethiopia above 
Egypt were the following towns: Hiera Sycahinus 
('Icf>& SuKd/Axvos: Ptol.; Plin. vi. 29. s. 32; Itin. 
Anton, p. 162: JiwcdfJUvoVf Philostrat. ApoU. Tifan, 
iv. 2), the southernmost town of the district ( Wady 
Maharrakah, Burckhardt's Travebj-p, 100) ; Corte 
(Kofnla irpuTTj^ Agartharcides, p. 22 ; It. Anton, 
p. 162), Kortij four miles north of Hiera Sycaminos; 
and on the right bank of the Nile Tachompso 
(Taxofi^d: Herod, ii. 29; Mela, L 9. § 2: Mcra- 
ico/i^c6, PtoL iv. 5 ; Tacompsos, Plin. vi. 29. s. 35) 
was situated upon an island (probably Deraz) upon 
the eastern side of the river, and was occupied by 
AetJiiojuans and Egyptians. Upon the opposite bank 
was PsBLCis (YcXirir, Strab. p. 820; Aristid. Aegin, 
i. p. 512). It was built in the era of the Ptolemies, 
and its erection was so injurious to Tachompso, that 
the latter came to be denominated Contra Pselcis, and 
lost its proper appellation. Pselcis was eight miles 
from Hiera Sycaminos, and the head-quarters of a 
cohort of German horse {NoL Imp.) in the Roman 
period. On the left bank of the Nile was Tutzis 
{DachirdscJteh), where some remarkable monuments 
still exist: and Taphis (Tair*j, Olympiad, op. PAo- 
tium, 80, p. 194; TaOis, Ptol. iv. 5), opposite to 
which was Oontra-Taphis (Teffah), where ruins have 
been discovered, and in the neighbourhood of which 
are large stone-quarries. Finally, Paremboi^e, 
the frontier-garrison of Egypt, where even so late as 
the 4th century A. d. a Roman legion was stationed. 

Pliny, in his account of the war with Candace 
^B. c. 22), has preserved a brief record of the route 
of Petronius in his second invasion of Meroe, which 
contains the names of some places of importance. 
The Roman genenil passed by the valley of the Nile 
through Dongola and Nubia, and occupied or halted 
at the following stations : Pselcis, Primis Magna, or 
Promnis (Jbrim) on the right bank of the river, 


Phturis (^Farras), and Aboccis or Aboncis {Aho6* 
simbely Jpsambul on the left, Cambysis (rafum 
KofiSieov) and Atteva or Attoba, near the third 
cataract. If Josephus can be relied upon indeed, 
the Persians must have penetrated the Nile^valler 
much higher up than the Romans, and than either 
Herodotus or Diodoms (i. 34) will permit us to 
suppose. For the Jewish historian {Antiq. ii. 10) 
represents Cambyses as conquering the capital i 
Aethiopia, and changing its name from Saba to 

The architectural remains of Nubia belong to 
Meroe and are briefly described under that head. Ta 
Meroe also, as the centre and perhaps the creature 
of the inland trade of Aethiopia, we refer for an ac^ 
count of the natural and artificial productions of the 
land above Egypt. 

The principal modem travellers who have explored 
or described the country above Egypt are Bmoe, 
Burckhardt, Belzoni, Minutoli, Gau and RoGeilim. 
I/ord Valentia and Mr. Salt's Travels, Waddington and 
Hanbuiy's Journals, Rtippel's and Cailleauds Travels, 
&c., *^ Heeren's Historicid Researches," vol. i. pp.285 
•—473, and the geographical work of^ter have been 
consulted for the preceding article. ^r[W. B. D.] 

AETNA (AJfryi} : EtLAirvaToi, Aetnensis), a dtr 
of Sicily, situated at the foot of the mountain of the 
same name, on its southern declivity. It was ori- 
ginally a Sicelian city, and was called Ikessa or 
Inessum {"lyrjiTffa, Thuc. Strab.; "lyriaaov, StepL 
Byz. v. Alrnj ; Diodorus has the corrupt form *Ef- 
yriffid) : but after the death of Hieron I. and the 
expulsion of the colonists whom he had established at 
Catana, the latter withdrew to Inessa, a place of 
great natural strength, which they occupied, and 
transferred to it the name of Aetna, previously given 
by Hioran to his new colony at Catana. [Cataxa.] 
In consequence of this they continued to regard 
Hieron as their oekist or founder. (Diod. xi. 76; 
Strab. vi. p. 268.) The new name, however, appears 
not to have been universally adopted, and we find 
Thucydidcs at a later period stiU employing the old 
appellation of Inessa. It seems to have fiallec into 
the power of the Syracusans, and was occupied tj 
them with a strong garrison; and in B.C. 426 wo 
find the Athenians under Laches in vain attempting 
to wrest it from their hands. (Thuciii. 103.) During 
the great Athenian expediticm, Inessa, as well astl^ 
neighbouring city of Hybla, continued steadfast in the 
alliance of Syracuse, on wliich account then* lands 
were ravaged by the Athenians. (Id. vi. 96.) At 
a subsequent period the strength of its position as a 
fortress, rendered it a place of importance in the civil 
dissensions of Sicily, and it became the refuge of the 
Syracusan knights who had opposed the elevation of 
IMonysius. But in b. c. 403, Uiat despot made him- 
self master of Aetna, where he soon after established 
a bodyof Oampanian mercenaries, who had previously 
been settled at Catana. These continued faithful to 
Dionysius, notwithstanding the general defection of 
his allies, during the Carthaginian invasion in b. c. 
396, and retained possession of the city till b.c. 339, 
when it was taken by Timoleon, and its Campanian 
occupants put to the sword. (Diod. xiii. 1 13, xiv. 7, 
8, 9, 14, 58, 61, xvi. 67, 82.) We find no mention 
of it from this time till the days of Cicero, who re- 
peatedly speaks of it as a municipal town of consi- 
derable importance; its territory being one of the 
most fertile in com of all Sicily. Its citizens suflTcred 
severely from the exactions of Verres and his agents. 
(Cic. Verr. iii. '^3, 44, 45, iv. 51.), The Aetnenses 


■n ■!» mesliooed bj Pliqy among the " popnli 6ti- 
pendiarii* of Sidlj; and the name of Uie citj is 
f nod boch in Ptcjemj and the Itiueraries, bat itB 
fgakifqwftt hifrtoiy and the period of its destruction 

Great donbt exists as to the site of Aetna. Strabo 
tefis OS (Ti. ph. 273) that it was near CetUuripi, and 
va!i the place finm whence travellers usnallj as- 
cmded the mountain. But in another passage (ib. 
p. 268) he expresslj sajs that it was oulj 80 
£tadk from Catana. The Itin. Ant. (p. 93) jdaces 
^ St 12 >I. P. from Catana, and the same distance 
frm Centoript; its position between these two cities 
m &rdwr oonfirroed bj Thucjdides (vi. 96). Bat 
Batimh&tantfing these xmusnallj precise data, its 
ruct sitnatian cannot be fixed with certainty. Si- 
rOiao sntiqaaTies gmerallj place it at Sta Maria di 
JJeoiia, which agrees well with the strong position 
«f the c^, bat is certainly too distant from Catana. 
(te the other hand S. Nicolo ddV Artna^ a convent 
jast abore Niooloti, whidi is regarded by Cluverias 
as tbe Hte, is too h^h Tip the mountain to have ever 
been on the high road from Catana to Centuripi. 
Jlimert, however, speaks of ruins at a place called 
Castro^ about 2| miles N. £. frxim Paternd, on a hiU 
irojeetiiig fivm the foot of the mountain, which he 
j^^aids as the site of Aetna, and which would cer- 
tunlr a^jte well with the requisite conditions. He 
does not cite his aathority, and the spot is not de- 
Mximl by any recent travdler. (Cluver. SiciL p. 123 ; 
Aaiic. Lex, Topogr, Sic voL iiL p. 50; Mannert, 
/fiiL ToL iL p. 293.) 

There exist coins of Aetna in can»derable numbers, 
bet principally of copper; they bear the name of the 
feo(>k at fon, AITNAIfiN. Those of silver, which 
are very rare, are similar to some of Catana, bat bear 
solj die abbreviated l^end AITN. [£. H. B.] 





AETNA (Atmqi), a celebrated volcanic mountain 
of Sicily, situated in the KE. part of the island, 
adjoisii^ the sea-coast between Taoromenium and 
Cataoa. It is now called by the peasantry of Sicily 
MtmgSbtUoyK name compounded of the Italian MonUj 
I sad the AraMc Jibelj a mountain; but is still well- 
ktcmn \fj the name of Etna. It is by far the loftiest 
iaovntain in Sicily, rising to a height of 10,874 feet 
shove the level of the sea, while its base is not less 
thu 90 miles in circumference. Like most volcanic 
Bt^nttains it forms a distinct and isolated mass, 
hanag no real connection with the mountain groups 
to the N. of it, from which it is separated by the 
va&TT of the Acesines, wAlcanlaraf while its limits 
« the W. and S. are defined by the river Symaethos 
(the Simeto or Giarretta), and on the £. by the sea. 
The Tvlcanic phenomena which it presents (xi a far 
finater scale than is seen elsewhere in Europe, early 
•ttrwted the attention of the ancients, and there is 
scaredy any object of physical geography of which 
we find more numerous and ample notices. 

It is certain from geological considerations, that 
^ fii5t eruptions of Aetna must have long preceded 
thehistoriudera; and if any reliance could be placed 

on the fact rccordod by Dlodoms (v. 6), that the 
Sicauians were compelled to abandon their original 
settlements in the £. part of the island in conse- 
quence of the frequency and violence of these out- 
btusts, we should have sufficient evidence that it was 
in a state of active operation at the earliest period at 
which Sicily was inhabited. It is difiicult, however, 
to believe that any such tradition was reaDy pre> 
served ; and it is far more probable, as related by Thu- 
cydides (vi. 2), that the Sicanians were driven to the 
W. portion of the island by the invasion of the Si- 
celians, or Siculi : on the other hand, the silence of 
Homer concerning Aetna has been frequently urged 
as a proof that the mountain was not then in a state 
of volcanic activity, and though it would be absurd 
to infer from thence (as has been done by some au- 
thors) that there had been no previous eruptions, it 
may fairly be assumed that these phenomena were 
not veiy fi^uent or violent in the days of the poet, 
otherwise some vague rumour of them must have 
reached him among the other marvels of " the far 
west." But the fuime at least of Aetna, and pro- 
bably its volcanic character, was known to Hesiod 
(Eratosth. ap. Strab. i. p. 23), and from the time of 
tiie Greek settlements in Sicily, it attracted general 
attention. Pindar describes the phenomena of the 
mountain in a manner equally accurate and poetical 
— the streams of fire that were vomited fiirth from 
its inmost recesses, and the rivers (of lava) that gave 
forth only smoke in the daytime, bat in the dar^ess 
assumed the appearance of sheets of crimson fire 
rolling down into the deep sea. (P^A. i. 40.) Aes- 
chylus also alludes distinctiy to the " rivers of fire, 
devouring with their fierce jaws the smooth fields of 
the fertile Sicily." (Prom. F. 368.) Great eruptions, 
accompanied with streams of lava, were not, however, 
fireqnent. We learn from Thucycfides (iii. 116) that 
the one which he records in the sixth year of the 
Peloponnesian war (b. c. 425) was only the third 
which had taken place since the establishment of the 
Greeks in the island. The date of the earliest is not 
mentioned; the second (which is evidently the one 
moreparticularlyreferred to by Pindarand Aeschylus) 
took place, according to Thucydides, 50 years before 
the above date, or b. c. 475 ; but it is placed by the 
Parian Chronicle in the same year with the battle 
of Plataea, b. c. 479. (Mann. Par. 68, ed. C. Miiller.) 
The next after thkt of B.C. 425 is the one recorded by 
Diodorus in b. c. 396, as having occurred shortly be- 
fore that date, which had laid waste so considerable 
a part of the tract between Tauroroenium and Catana, 
as to render it impossible for the Carthaginian general 
Mago to advance with his army along the coast. 
(Diod. xiv. 59; the same eruption is noticed by 
Orosios, ii. 18.) From this time we have no account 
of any great outbreak till b. c. 140, when the moun- 
tidn seems to have suddenly assumed a condition of 
extraordinary activity, and we find no less than four 
violent eruptions recorded within 20 years, viz. in b.c. 
140, 135, 126, 121 ; the last of which inflicted the 
most serious damage, not only on the territory but 
the city of Catana. (Oros. v. 6, 10, 13; Jul. Obseq. 
82, 85, 89.) Other eruptions are also mentioned as 
accompanying the outbreak of the civil war between 
Pompey and Caesar, b. c. 49, and immediately pre- 
ceding the death of the latter, b. c. 44 (Virg. G. i, 
471 ; Liv. ap. Serv. ad Virg. I c. ; Pctron. c^e B. C- 
135; Lucan. i. 545), and these successive outbursts 
appear to have so completely devastated the whole 
tract on the eastern side of the mountain, as to have 
rendered it uninhabitable and almost impassable from 

^ f^' C'^\ 

t f 






want of water. (Appian, B. C. v. 114.) Agair, irt 
B. G. 38, the volcano appears to have been in at least 
a partial state of emption (Id. t. 1 17), and 6 years 
afterwards, just before the outbreak of the civil war 
between Octavian and Antony, Dion Cassias re- 
cords a more serious ontboist, accompanied with a 
stream of lava which did great damage to the ad- 
joining oonntiy. (Dion Cass. 1. 8.) Bat firam this 
time forth the volcanic agency appears to have been 
comparatively qniescent ; the smoke and noises which 
terrified the emperor Caligula (Suet. CaL 51) were 
probably nothing very eztniordiniuy, and with this 
exception we hear only of two eruptions during the 
period of the Roman empire, one in the reign of Ves- 
pasian, A. i>. 70, and the other in that of Dedus, 
A. D. 251, neither of whidi is noticed by contem- 
porary writers, and may therefore be presumed to 
have been of no veiy formidable character. Oroeius, 
writing in the beginning of the fifth century, spealcs 
of Aetna as having then become harmless, and only 
smoking enough to give credit to the stones of its 
past violence. (Idat. Chron. ad ami. 70 ; Vita 
St Agathae, ap. Cluoer, Sicil. p. 106 ; Oros. ii. 

From these accounts it is evident that the vol- 
canic action of Aetna was in ancient, as it still con- 
tinues in modem times, of a very irregular and inter- 
mittent ^character, and that no dependence can be 
placed upon those passages, whether of poets or prose 
writers, which apparently describe it as in constant 
and active operation. But with every allowance for 
exaggeration, it seems probable that the ordinary 
volcanic phenomena which it exhibited were more 
striking and conspicuous in the age of Strabo and 
Pliny than at the present day. The expressions, 
however, of the latter writer, that its noise was heard 
in the more distant parts of Sicily, and that its 
ashes were carried not only to Tauromenium and 
Catana, but to a dbtance of 150 miles, of course re- 
fer only to times of violent eruption. Livy also re- 
cords that in the year b. c. 44, the hot sand and 
ashes were carried as fur as Khegium. (Plin. H. N. 
ii. 103. 106, iii. 8. 14; Liv. ap. Serv. ad Georg. i. 
471.) It is unnecessary to do more than allude to 
the well-known description of the eruptions of Aetna 
in Virgil, which has been imitated both by Silius 
Italicus and Claudian. (Virg. Aen. iii. 570 — 577 ; 
Sil. Ital. xiv. 58 — 69 ; ChiuiUan dt Rapt. Proaerp. 
i. 161.) 

The general appearance of the mountain is well 
described by Strabo, who tells us that the upper 
parts were bare and covered with ashes, but with 
snow in the winter, while the lower slopes were 
clothed with forests, and with planted grounds, the 
volcanic ashes, which were at first so destructive, 
ultimately producing a soil of great fertility, espe- 
cially adapted for the growth of vines. The summit 
of the mountain, as described to him by those who 
had lately ascended it, was a level plain of about 20 
stadia in circumference, surrounded by a brow or 
ridge like a wall. In the midst of this plain, which 
consisted of deep and hot sand, rose a small hillock 
of similar aspect, over which hnng a cloud of smoke 
rising to a height of about 200 feet. He, however, 
justly adds, tlmt these appearances were subject to 
constant variations, and that there was sometimes 

* For the more recent hbtory of the mountain 
and its eruptions, see Ferrara, Descrizume deWEtna, 
Palermo, 1818; and Daubeny on Volccmoetf 2d 
edit. pp. 283—290. 


only one crater, sofmetimes more. (Strab. vi. pp. 2(19^ 
273, 274.) It is evident from this account that 
the ascent of the mountain was in his time a oom- 
mon enterprize. Ludlius also speaks of it as not 
unusual for people to ascend to the very edge of the 
crater, and cffer incense to the tntelaiy gods of the 
mountain (Lucil. ^e(na, 336; see also Seneca, Ep. 
79), and we are told that the emperor Hadrian, when 
he visited Sicily, made the ascent for the porpoee of 
seeing the sun rise from thence. (Spart. Badr. 13.) 
It is therefore a strange mistake in Claudian (d« 
Rapt. Proterp. i. 158) to represent the summit as 
inaccessible. At a distance of less than 1400 feet 
from tile highest point are some remains of a iHick 
building, clearly of Roman work, commonly known 
by the name of the Torre del Fihto/Oj from a vul- 
gar tradition connecting it with Empedodes: this 
has been supposed, with far more plaosibility, to de- 
rive its origin from the visit of Hadrian. (Smyth's 
Sicily^ p. 149; Ferrara, Descrie. ddV Etna, p. 28.) 

Many ancient writers describe the upper part ai 
Aetna as clothed with perpetual snow. Pindar calls 
it '* the nurse of thtf keen snow all the year long * 
{Pyih. i. 36), and the apparent contradiction of its 
perpetual fires and everlasting snows is a favonrite 
subject of declamation with the rhetorical poets and 
prose writesB of a later period. (Sil. Ital. xiv. 58 — 
69 ; Claudian. de Rapt. Pro: i. 164 ; Solin. 5. § 9.) 
Strabo and Pliny more reasonably state that it was 
covered with snow tn ike winter; and there is no 
reason to believe that its condition in eariy ages 
difiered irom its present state in this respect. The 
highest parts of the mountain are stall covered vrith 
snow for seven or eight months in the year, and oc- 
casionally patches of it will he in hollows and rif^ 
throughout the whole summer. The forests which 
clothe the middle regions of the mountain are alluded 
to by many writers (Strab. vi. p. 273; Claud. I. c. 
159) ; and Diodorus tells xis that Dionystos of Syra- 
cuse derived from thence great part of the materials 
for the construction of his fleet in b. c. 399. (Diod. 
xiv. 42.) 

It was natural that speculations should earlj be 
directed to the causes of the remarkable phenomena 
exhibited by Aetna. A mythological fable, adopted 
by almost all the poets from Pindar downwards, as- 
cribed them to the struggle of the giant Typhoons (or 
Enceladus according to others), who had been buried 
under the lofty pile by Zens after the defeat of th4» 
giants. (Pind. Pytk. i. 35 ; Aesch. Prom. 365 ; Virg. 
Aen. iii. 578; Ovid. Jfef. v. 346; Chiud. le. 152; 
Lucil. AetnOf 41 — 71.) Others assigned it as the 
workshop of Vulcan, though this was placed by the 
more ordinary tradition in tiie Aeolian islands. Later 
and more philosophical writera ascribed the eruptions 
to the violence of the winds, pent up in subterranean 
caverns, abounding with sulphur and other inflam- 
mable sulwitances; while others conceived them to 
originate from the action of the waters of the sea 
upon the same materials. Both these theories are 
discussed and developed by Lucretius, but at much 
greater length by the author of a separate poem en- 
titled " Aetna," which was for a long time ascribed 
to Cornelius Severus, but has been attributed by its 
more recent editors, Wemsdorf and Jacob, to the 
younger Ludlius, the frigid and contemporary of 
Seneca.f It contains some powerful passages, but 
is disfigured by obscurity, and adds little to our 

f For a foller discussion of this qucstian, see the 
Biogr, Diet. art. LucUmB Junior, 


kHwled|:e of the historj or phenomena of the moan- 
taia. (LocreC. tL 640 — 703; LuciL Aetma, 92, et 
m\.; Joadn, ir. 1 ; Seneca, EpisL 79; CUudian, L c. 
1(9—175.) The oonnectioa of these volcanic phe- 
MDoa vitfa the earthquakes by which the island 
was frnpentlj agitated, was too obvious to esoipe 
Dodce, and was indeed implied in the popular tra- 
ction. Some writers also asserted that there was a 
fobtenanean oonmnmicatioa between Aetna and the 
Aeofian islands, and that the ernptians of the former 
vtre ohserred to ahemate with those of Hiera and 
Strongyle, (Diod. v. 7.) 

The same of Aetna was evidently derived from its 
krj character, and has the same root as ai9w, to 
koiL Bat in later times a mjthdogical origin was 
^Dond for it, and the nnmntain was supposed to have 
nccsted its name from a nymph, Aetna, the daughter 
<i Uniras and Gaea, or, according to others, of 
Briaieos. (SchoL ad Theocr. Id, L 65.) The moun- 
tun itself is spoken of by Pindar (Pj^. i. 57) as 
eonsecrated to Zens; bat at a later period Solinus 
dBs it sacred to Ynlcan ; and we learn that there 
disted on it a temple of that deity. This was not, 
bowrer, as sappoeed by scone writers, near the sum- 
mit of the mountain, but in the middle or forest 
region, as we are told that it was surrounded by a 
ftrf^ of sacred trees. (Solin. 5. § 9 ; Aelian, ff. A, 
xL 3.) [E. H. B.] 

AETOXIA (AiTMXia: Eth. AlruMs, Aetolua), a 
district of Greece, the boundaries of which \'aricd 
at diffoent periods. In the time of Strabo it was 
bounded on the W. by Acamania, from which it was 
ceparated by the river Achelous, on the N. by the 
sioontuiUMis coontry inhabited by the Athamanes, 
Dolapes, and Dryopes, on the NE. by Doris and 
KaHs, on the SE. by Locris, and on the S. by the 
cntnace to the Corinthian gulf. It contained about 
1165 square miles. It was divided into two dis- 
tricts, oJIed Old Aetolia (ri ipxaia Airw\f«), and 
Artcdia Epictetos (^ hriimiTOfjy or the Acquired. 
The former extended along the coast from the 
Achekos to the Evenus, and inland as far as Ther- 
Bram, oppoate the Acamanian town of Stratus : the 
ktter inchidcd the northera and more mountainous 
part of the province, and also the country on the 
coast betw ee n the Evenus and Locris. When this 
£vifaaa was introduced is unknown; but it cannot 
hare been foonded upon conquest, for the inland 
AftoGans were never subdued. The country between 
the AchdoBs and the Evenus appears in tradition 
aft the cniginal abode of the Aetolians; and the 
term Epictetus probably only indicates the subse- 
qiunt extension of their name to the remainder of 
the eoontry. Strabo makes the promontory An- 
nrrinmn the boundary between Aetolia and Locris, 
but MBK of the towns between this promontory and 
the Evenus belonged originally to the Ozolian Lo- 
criana. (Strab. pp. 336, 450, 459.) 

The country on the coast between the Achelous 
and the Evenns is a fertile plain, called Parache- 
Vjlti8 (ni^MixcAoMrts), after the former river. This 
pbaa is bounded en the north by a range of hills 
caQed Aiacynthos, north of which and of the lakes 
fijria and Trichonis there again opens out another 
cxteaave plain oppceite the town of Stratus. Tliese 
are the only two plains in Aetolia of any extent. 
The remainder of the country is traversed in every 
directaaD by rugged mountains, covered with forests, 
and foil of dangerous ravines. These mountains 
are a loath- westerly continuation of Mt. Pindus, and 
hare neper been croiised by any road, either in ancient 



or modem times. The following mountains aro 
mentioned by special names by the ancient writers: 
— I.Tymphrestus (Tv/Lit^oTor), on the northern 
frontier, was a southeriy continuation of Mt. Pindus, 
and more properly belongs to Dryopis. [Dhyopis.] 
2. BoMi (Bwftoi), on the north-eastern frontier, was 
the most westerly part of Mt. Oeta, inhabited by the 
Bomienses. In it were the sources of the Evenus. 
(Strab. X. p. 451; Thuc iii» 96; Steph. B. s. v, 
Boofioi.) 3. CoRAX (K6pai)j also on the north- 
eastern frontier, was a south-westerly continuation 
of Oeta, and is described by Strabo as the greatest 
mountain in Aetolia. There was a pass through it 
leading to Thermopyhie, which the consul Adlius 
Ghibrio crossed with great difficulty and the loss of 
many beasts of burthen m his passage, when he 
marched from Thermopylae to Naupactus in b. c. 
191. Leake remarks that the route of Ghibrio was 
probably by the vale of the Vittritza into that of 
the Kokkino, over the ridges which connect Velukhi 
with Vardhwij but very near the latter mountain, 
which is thus identified with Corax. Corax is de- 
scribed on that occasion by Livy as a very liigh 
mountain, lying between Callipolis and Nanpactus. 
(Strab. X. p. 450; Liv. xxxvi. 30; Steph. B. s.v.; 
Leake, Northern Greece^ vol. iL p. 624.) 4. Ta- 
PHIASSUS (Ta<pta(T(r6s: Kaki-^kaid), a southerly 
continuation of Corax, extended down to the Co- 
rinthian gulf, where it terminated in a lofty moun- 
tain near the town of Mocynia. In this mountain 
Nessus and the other Centaurs were said to Imve 
been buried, and from their corpses arose the stinking 
waters which flowed into the sea, and from which 
the western Locrians are said to have derived the 
name of Ozolae, or the Stinking. Modem travellers 
have found at the base c£ Mt. Taphiassus a number 
of springs of fetid water. Taphiassus derives its 
modem name of Kaki-skala, or " Bad-Udder," from 
the dangerous road, which runs along the face of a 
predpitous cliflf overhanging the sea, half way up 
the mountain- (Strab, pp. 427, 451, 460; Antig. 
Caryst. 129; Plin. iv. 2; Leake, vol. i. p. Ill; 
Mure, Tour in Greece, voL I p. 135; Cell, Itiner. 
p. 292.) 5. Chalcis or Chalceia (X(i\Kir I) 
XoAicIa: Vardssova), an offshoot of Taphiassus, 
running down to the Corinthian gulf, between the 
mouth of the Evenus and Taphiassus. At its foot 
was a town of the same name. Taphiassus and 
Chalcis are the ancient names of the two great 
mountains mnning close down to the sca-cooiit, a 
little west of the promontory Antirrhium, and sepa- 
rated from each other by some low ground. Each 
of these mountains rises from the sea in one dark 
gloomy mass. (Strab. pp. 451, 460; Horn. IL ii. 
640; Leake, Ic; Mure, vol. i. p. 171.) 6. Ara- 
CTNTHUS (^ApdKwOos: Zygo8)y a range of moun- 
tains running in a south-easterly direction from the 
Achelous to the Evenus, and separating the lower 
plain of Aetolia near the sea from the upper plain 
above the lakes Hyria and Trichonis. (Strab. x. 
p. 450.) [Aracykthus.] 7. Pakaktolium 
( Viena)j a mountain NE. rf Thermum, in which 
city the Aetolians held the meetings of their league. 
(Plin. iv. 2; Pol. v. 8; Leake, vol. i. p. 131.) 

8. Myenus (rh ipos Mvrjvoi', Plut. de Fluviisy 
p. 44), between the rivers Evenus and Hylaetbus. 

9. Macyuium, mentioned only by Pliny (/. c), 
must, from its name, have been near the town of 
Macynia on the coast, and consequently a pert of 
Mt. Taphiassus. 10. Curium (Kovfuoy), a moun- 
tain between Pleuron and lake Trichonis, lh)m which 



the Caretes were said to have derived their name. 
It is a branch of Aracjnthus. (Strab. x. p. 451.) 

The two chief rivers of Aetolla were the Achelous 
and the Evenus^ which flowed in the lower part of 
their course nearly parallel to one another. [Ache- 
ix>ns: EvEirus.] There were no other rivers in the 
country worthy d£ mention, with the exception of the 
Gampylus and Cyathus, both of which were tribu- 
taries of the Achelous. [Ach£L0U3.] 

There were several lakes in the two great plains 
of Aetolia. The upper plain, N. of Mt Aracynthus, 
contained two large lakes, which conununicatodwith 
each other. The eastern and the larger of the two 
was called Trichonis (Tptxofvls^ PoL v. 7, xL 4 : LaJse 
ofApokuro)j the western was named Hyria (^Lake 
4f Zygoi) ; and from the latter issued the river 
Cyathus, which flowed into the Achelous near the 
town of Conope, afterwards Arsinoe (Ath. x. p. 424). 
This lake, named Hyrie by Ovid (3fe& vii. 371, seq.) 
is called Hydra CTSpa) in the common text of Strabo, 
from whom we learn that it was afterwards called 
Lysimachia (Avo-i/iax^a) from a town of that name 
upon its southern shore. (Strab. p. 460.) Its proper 
name appears to have been Hyria, which might easily 
bo changed into Hydra. (Mliller, Dorians^ vol. ii. 
p. 481.) This lake is also named Oonope by Anto- 
ninus Liberalis {Met. 12). The mountain Aracynthus 
runs down towards the ^oies of both lakes, and near 
the lake Hyrie there is a ra\ine, which Ovid {I. c.) 
calls the " Cycneia Tempe," because Cycnus was 
said to have been here changed into a swan by Apollo. 
The principal sources which form both the lakes are 
at the foot of the steep mountain overhanging the 
eastern, or lake Trichonis; a current flows from £. 
to W. through the two lakes; and the river of 
Cyathus is nothing more than a continuation of the 
same stream (Leake, vol. i. p. 154). In the lower 
plain of Aetolia there were several smaller lakes or 
lagoons. Of these Strabo (pp. 459, 460) mentions 
three. 1. Cynia(KvWa), wluch was 60 stadia long 
and 20 broad, and communicated with the sea. 2. 
Uria (Ovp^a), which vras much smaller than the 
preceding and half a stadium from the sea. 3. A 
large lake near Calydon, belonging to the Romans of 
Patrae : this lake, according to Strabo, abounded in 
fish (ciioifos), and the gastronomic poet Archestratus 
said that it was celebrated for the labrax (AcCS^), 
a ravenous kind of fish. (Ath. vii. p. 311, a.) 
There is some difficulty in identifying these lakes, as 
the coast has undergone numerous changes; but 
Leake supposes that the lagoon of Anatoliko was 
Cynia, that oi MeaolonghiXins^ and that oiBokhori 
tlie lake of Calydon. The last of these lakes is 
perhaps the same as the lake Onthb {'OvOls% which 
Nicander (ap. Schol. ad Nicand. Thai'. 214) speaks 
of in connection vvith Kaupactns. (Leake, vd. iii. 
p. 573, &c.) 

In tlie two great plains of Aetolia excellent com 
was grown, and the slopes of the mountains produced 
good wine and oil. These plains also afforded abun- 
dance of pasture for horses ; and the Aetolian horses 
were reckoned only second to those of Thessaly. In 
the mountains there were many wild beasts, among 
which we find mention of boars and even of lions, 
for Herodotus gives the Thracian Ncstus and tlie 
Achelous as the limits within which lions were found 
in Europe. (Herod, v. 126.) 

The original inhabitants of Aetolia asz said to 
have been Ouretes, who according to some aocoimts 
had come from Euboea. (Strab. x. p. 465.) They 
inhabited the plains between the Achelous and the 


Evenns, and the country received in oooseqaenoe the 
name of Curetis. Beddes them we also find mciiti(« 
of the Leleges and the Hyantes, the latter of whom 
had been driven out of Boeotia. (Strab. pp. 322, 
464.) These three peoples probably belonged to tho 
great Pelade race, and were at all events not Hel- 
lenes. The first great Hellenic settlement in the 
countiy is said to have been that of the Epeans, led 
by Aetolus, the son of Endymion, who crossed oTer 
from Elis in Peloponnesus, subdued the Curetes, and 
gave his name to the country and the people, ox 
generations before the Trojan war. Aetolns fonnded 
the town of Calydon, which he called after his son, 
and which became the capital of his dominions. The 
Curetes continued to reside at their ancient capital 
Pleuron at the foot of Mt. Ciuium, and for a long 
time carried on war with the inhabitants of Calydon. 
Subsequently the Curetes were driven out of Pleuron, 
and are said to have crossed over into Acamania. 
At the time of the Trojan war Pleuron as well as 
Calydon were governed by the Aetolian chief Thoas. 
(Pans. V. 1. § 8; Horn. //. ix. 529, seq.; Strab. 
p. 463.) Since Pleuron appears in the later period 
c^ the heroic age as an Aetolian city, it is reinesented 
as such from the beginning in some legends. Hence • 
Pleuron, like Calydon, is said to have derived its 
name from a son of Aetolus (ApoUod. L 7. § 7); and 
at the very time that some l^ends represent it as 
the capital of the Curetes, and engaged in war with 
Oeneus, king of Calydon, others relate tliat it was 
governed by his own brother Thestius. Aetolia was 
celebrated in the heroic age <^ Greece on account of 
the hunt of the Calydonian boar, and the exploits of 
Tydeus, Meleager and the other heroes tS Calydon 
and Pleuron. The Aetolians also took part in the 
Trojan war under the command of Thoas; they came 
in 40 ships from Pleuron, Calydon, Olenus, Pylesne 
and Chalcis (Horn. Jl. ii. 638). Sixty years after 
the Trojan war some Aeolians, who had been driven 
out of Thessaly along with the Boeotians, migrated 
into Aetolia, and settled in the country around Pkuron 
and Calydon, which was hence called Aeolis after 
thenL (Strab. p. 464; Thuc iii. 102.) Ephonis 
(ap. Strab. p. 465) however places this migration ot 
the Aeolians much earlier, for he relates " that the 
Aeolians once invaded the district of Pleuron, which 
was inhabited by the Curetes and called Curetis, 
and expelled this people." Twenty years afterwards 
occurred the great Dorian invasion of Pdoponnesos 
under the command of the descendants of Heracles. 
The Aetolian chief Oxylus took part in this invasion, 
and conducted the Dorians across tlic Corinthian 
gulf. In return for his services he received Elis 
upon the conquest of Peloponnesus. 

From this time till tiie commencement of the 
Peloponnesian war wo know nothing of the histoiy 
of the Aetolians. Notwithstandmg their fiime in 
the heroic age, they appear at the time of the 
Peloponnesian war as one of the most uncivilized of 
the Grecian tribes; and Thucydides (L 5) mentions 
them, together with their neighbours the Ozolian 
Locrians and Acamanians, as retaining all the 
habits of a rude and barbarous age. At this period 
there were three main divisions of the Aetolians, 
the Apodoti, Ophioncnses, and Eurytanes. The 
last, who were the most numerous of the three, 
spoke a language which waa unintelligible, and were 
in the habit of eating raw meat. (Thuc. iii. 102.) 
Thucydides, however, does not call them Bap^apoi ; 
and notwithstanding their low culture and uncivilized 
habits, the Aetolians ranked as Hellenes, partly, 


it itffm^ oa aceouit of tlietr kgendaiy raiown, 
mi putlj OB. aooonnt of their acknowledged ooo- 
OMtMi vitli the EkftDs in Pelopomieeiis. £ach of 
tlww tlu«e diTisioos ms sabdiTided into several 
viflage tnbea. Their villages were nnfortifiod, and 
Dostoftheinhabitanta lived by pliioder. Their tribes 
appetf to haxe been independent of each other, and 
s wu only in drcnmstances of common danger 
tbat thej acted in concert. The inhabitants of the 
iuUnd momitaiTMi were brave, active, and invin- 
cMcl TImj were nnrivalled in the use of the 
jpvfia, for which thej are celebrated by Euripides. 
(AtMaua. 139, 140; camp. Thnc iiL 97.) 

The Apodoti, Ophionenses, and Eniytanes, in- 
Ubited only the central districts of Aetolia, and 
Al not occupy any part of the phun between the 
Etvims and the Acbekoa, which waa the abode of 
the BMxe civilized part of the nation, who bore no 
tther aame than that of Aetolians. The Apodoti 
(*A«AvrM, Thnc. liL 94; *Air<{5(rro(, Pol. xvii 5) 
inh<hitnd tlie moontains above 'Nanpactus, on the 
honicfs of Locria. They are said by Polybins not 
lo have been HeDenes. (Gomp. liv. zxziL 34.) 
North of then dwelt the Ophionenses or Ophienses 
CO^mims, Thnc L e.; 'O^iclr, Strsb. pp.451,465), 
aad to thm bdonged the smaller tribes of the Bomi- 
OMM (B«^f, Thnc iii. 96; Strab. p. 451 ; StepL 
^iL&r.BiiyioOaDd Callieo8e6(KaAAiirt,Thac 2.e.), 
both of which inhabited the ridge of Oeta running 
Am towaida the Malic gnlf : the fiinner are placed 
by SCrabo (L e.) at the aonroes of the Evenus, and 
ttw position of tiie latter is fixed by that of their 
c^iital town Callimn. [Cajjjvm,] The Eury- 
taaes (£iynrrSrcf, Thnc. iii. 94, et alii) dwelt 
BHth of the Ophionenses, as far, apparently, as Mt. 
Tyaipfafestos, at the foot of which was the town 
Ctothalia, which Strabo describes as a place belong- 
ing to tUs peopleL They are said to have possessed 
aa oEBcle of Odyaeens. (Strab. pp. 448, 45 1, 465 ; 
SchoLarfZ^oopJb-. 799.) 

The Agraci, who inhabited the north-west comer 
if Aelalia, bordering upon Ambncia, were not a 
fifirionof tlie Aetolian nation. but aseparato people, 
gw e iu e d at the ti|pe of the Pdoponnesian war by a 
kiag of thdr own, and only united to Aetolia at a 
hser period. The Aperanti, who lived in the same 
firtrirt, appear to have been a subdivision of the 
[AoBAKi; Afebaivtl] Pliny(iv. 3) men- 
vwions other peoples as belonging to Aetolia, 
sack as the Athamanea, Tymphaei, Dolopes, &c.; 
Vat this statement is only true of the later period 
of the Aetolian T<eagiie, when the Aetolians had ex- 
tended their dominion over most of the neighbouring 
trifaeB of Epima and Thessaly. 

At the eommencement of the Pdoponnesian war 
the Aetofians had formed no alliance either with 
Sparta or Athens, and consequently are not men- 
ifeaKd by Thucydides (iL 9) in his enumeration of 
the alhed fincea of the two nations. It was the 
BBprovoked invasion of their country by the Atbe- 
in the sixth year of the war (b. c. 455), 
led them to esponse the Lacedaemonian side. 
la this year the Mesisenians, who had been settled 
St Hsnpactos by the Athenians, and who had suf- 
faed greatly fimn the inroads of the Aetolians, 
the Athenian general, Demosthenes, to 
into the interior of Aetolia, with the hope of 
the three great tribes of the Apodoti, 
OjAiananaes, and Eorytanes, since if they were 
sahdaed the Atheniana would become masters of 
the vhofe coontry between the Ambracian gulf and 



Parnassus. Having collected a considerBble force, 
Demosthenes set out from Naupactns; but the ex- 
pedition proved a complete failure. After advancing 
a few miles into the interior, he was attacked at 
Aegitium by the whole fim» of the Aetolians, who 
had occupied the adjacent hills. The rugged nature 
of the ground prevented the Athenian hoplites from 
coming to close quarters with their active foe ; De- 
mosthenes had with him only a small number of 
light-armed troops; and in the end the Athenians 
were completoly defeated, and fled in disorder to the 
coast. Shortly afterwards the Aetolians joined the 
Peloponnesians under Euiylochus in making an 
attack upon Naupactus, which Demosthenes saved 
with difficulty, by the help of the Acamanians. 
(Thuc iii. 94, &c.) The Aetolians took no further 
part in the Peloponnesian war; for those of the na- 
ti<ni who fought under the Athenians in ^dly were 
only mercenaries. (Thuc. viL 57.) From this time 
tin that of the Macedonian supremacy, we find 
scarody any mention of the Aetolians. They ap- 
pear to have been frequently engaged in hostilities 
with their neighbours and andent enemies, the 
Acamanians. [Acarnania.] 

After the death of Alexander the Great (b. c. 
323) the Aetolians joined the confederate Greeks in 
what is usually called the Lamian war. This war 
was brought to a dose by the defeat of the confe- 
derates at Grannon (b.g. 322); whereupon Anti- 
pater and Craterus, having first made peace with 
Athens, invaded Aetolia with a huge army. The 
Aetolians, however, instead of yielding to the in- 
vaders, abandoned their villages in the plains and 
retired to their impr^;nable mountains, where they 
renuuned in safety, till the Macedonian generals 
were obliged to evacuate thdr territory in order to 
march against Perdiccas. (Diod. xviiL 24, 25.) 
In the wars which followed between the different 
usurpers of the Macedonian throne, the alliance of 
the Aetolians was eagerly courted by the contending 
armies; and their brave and warlike population 
enabled them to exercise great influence upon the 
politics of Greece. The prominent part they took 
in the expuldon of the -Gauls from Greece (b. c. 
279) still further increased their reputation. In 
the army which the Greeks assembled at Thermo- 
pylae to oppose the Gauls, the contingent of the 
Aetolians was by far the krgest, and they here dis- 
tinguished themselves by their bravery in repulsing 
the attacks of the enemy; but they earned thdr 
chief glory by destroying the greater part of a body 
of 40,000 Gauls, who had invaded their country, and 
had taken the town of Gallium, and committed the 
most horrible atrodties on the inhabitante. The 
Aetolians also assisted in the defence of Delphi when 
it was attacked by the Gauls, and in the pursuit of 
the enemy in their retreat (Pans. x. 20 — 23.) 
To conunemorate the vengeance they had inflicted 
upon the Gauls for the destruction of Callimn, the 
Aetolians dedicated at Delphi a trophy and a statue 
of an armed heroine, representing Aetolia. They 
also dedicated in the same temple the statues of the 
generals tmder whom they had fought in this war. 
(Paus. X. 18. § 7, X. 15. § 2.) 

From this time the Aetolmns appear as one of 
the three great powers in Greece, the other two 
bdng the >Iacedomans and Achaeans. Like the 
Achocans, the Aetolians were united in a confederacy 
or league. At what time this league was first 
formed is uncertain. It is inferred that the Aeto- 
lians must have been united into some form of con^ 



§ed.ency at least as earljr as the time of Philip, the 
fiither of Alexander the Great, from an inscriptian 
on the statue of Aetolos at Thermnm, quoted by 
Ephorus (Strab. p. 463: Alruf^w r6t^ hv^KOP 
A<T»Ao2 ar^trtfms lunjfjL iipenis iffop^)^ and from 
the cession of Naupoctus, which was made to them 
bj Philip. (Strab. p. 427: iarl tk vw AlrwX£v, 
^iKiinew vpoa-Kphnunos, quoted by Thirlwall, Eist, 
of Greece, vol. viiL p. 207.) But it was not till after 
the death of Alexander Uie Great that the league 
appears to hare come into full acdTity ; and it was 
probably the invasion of their country by Antipater 
and Craterus, and the consequent necessity of con- 
certing measures for their common defence, tliat 
brought the Aetolians into a closer political associa- 
tion. The constitution of the league was democra- 
tical, like that of the Aetolian towns and tribes. 
The great council of tlie nation, called the Pan- 
netolicon (Liv. xxxi. 9), in which it is probable 
that every freeman above the age of thirty had the 
right of voting, met every autumn at Thermum, for 
the election of magistrates, general legislatioD, and 
the decision of all questioais respecting peace and 
war with foreign nations. There was also another 
deliberative body, called Apocleti ('Aw^rXirrot), 
which appears to have been a kind of permanent 
committee. (Pol. xz. 1 ; Liv. xxxvi. 28.) The 
chief magistrate bore the title of Strategus (Srpetn; • 
^(Jr). He was elected annually, presided in the as- 
semblies, and had the command of the troops in 
war. The officers next in rank were the Hipparchus 
(*Iinrapxos), or commander of the cavalry, and the 
chief Secretary (rpa^/iorcvs), both of whom were 
elected annually. (For fiir^r details respecting 
the constitution of Uie league, see Diet, of Antiq. 
art. Aetolicum FoedutJ) 

After the expulsion of the Gauk from Greece, the 
Aetolians began to extend their dominions over the 
neighbouring nations. They still retained the rude 
and barbarous habits which had characterised them 
in the time of Thucydides, and were still accus- 
tomed to live to a great extent by robbery and piracy. 
Their love of rapine was their great incentive to 
war, and in their marauding expeditions they spared 
neither friends nor foes, neither things sacred nor 
profane. Such is the character given to them by 
Polybius (e. g. ii. 45, 46, iv. 67, ix. 38), and his 
account is confirmed in the leading outlines by the 
testimony of other writers; though justice requires 
us to add that the enmity of the Aetolians to the 
Achaeans has probably led the historian to exagge- 
rate rather than underrate the vices of the Aetolian 
people. At the time of their greatest power, they 
were masters of the whole of western Acamania, of 
the south of Epirus and Thessaly, and of Locris, 
Phocis, and Doeotia. They likewise asstuned the 
entire control of the Delphic oracle and of the 
Amphictyonic assembly. (Plut. Demetr. 40; Pol. 
iv. 25; Thirlwall, vol. viii. p. 210.) Theh* league 
also embraced several towns in the heart of Pelo- 
ponnesus, the island of Cephallenia, and even cities 
ill Thrace and Asia Minor, such as Lysimachia on 
the Hellespont, and Cios on the Propontis. The 
relation of these distant places to the league is a 
matter of uncertainty. They could not have taken 
any part in the management of the business of the 
confederacy ; and the towns in Asia Minor and Thrace 
probably joined it in order to protect themselves 
against the attacks of the Aetolian privateers. 

The Aetolians were at the height of their power 
in B. c. 220, when then: unprovoked invasion of 


Messenia engaged them in a wv with the Achaeais, 
usually called the Social War. The Achaeans wera 
supported by the youthful mooarch of Macedonia, 
Philip v., who inflicted a severe bbw upon the 
Aetolians in b. c. 218 by an unexpected march into 
the interior of theur country, where he surprised the 
capital city of Thermum, in which all the wealth and 
treasures of the Aetolian leaden were deposited. The 
whole of these fell into the hands of the king, and were 
either carried offer destroyed ; and before quitting the 
place, Philip set fire to tile sacred buildingB, to reta- 
liate for the destruction oS Dium and Dodona by the 
Aetolians. (Pol. v.2>-9, 13, 14; for the details of 
Philip' s march, see Thermum.) The Social war was 
brought to a close by a treaty of peace concluded in 
B. c. 217. Six years afterwards (b. c. 211) the 
Aetolians again declared war against Philip, in con- 
sequence of having fonned an (tensive and defeubive 
alliance with the Romans, who were then engaged 
in hostilities with Philip. The attention of the 
Romans was too much occupied by the war against 
Hannibal in Italy to enable them to afford much 
assistance to the Aetolians, upon whom, therefore, 
the burden of the war chiefly fell. In the ooune ci 
this war Philip again took Thcnnum (PoL xi. 4), 
and the Aetolians became so disheartened that th^ 
concluded peace with him in b. c. 205. This peace 
was followed almost immediately by one between 
Philip and the Romans. 

On the renewal of the war between Philip and 
the Romans in b. c. 200, the Aetolians at firat re- 
solved to remain neutral; but the success of the 
consul Galba induced them to change their determi- 
nation, and before the end of the first campaign they 
declared war against Philip. They fought at the 
battle of Cynoscephalae in b. c. 197, when their 
cavalry contributed materially to the success of the 
day. (Liv. xxxiii. 7.) The settlement of the 
affairs of Greece by Flamininus after this victoxy 
caused great disappointment to the Aetolians; snd 
as soon as Flamininus returned to Italy, they invited 
Antiochus to invade Greece, and shortly afterwards 
declared war against the Romans, (b. c. 192.) 
The defeat of Antiochus at Thermopylae (b. c. 191) 
drove the monarch back to Asia, and left the Aeto- 
lians exposed to the full vengeance of the Romans. 
They obtained a short respite by a truce which they 
solicited from the Romans; but having subsequently 
resumed hostilities on rumours of some suooess €ii 
Antiochus in Asia, the Roman consul M. Fnlvios 
Nobilior crossed over into Greece, and commenced 
operations by laying siege to Ambrada (b. c 189), 
which was then one of the strongest towns belonging 
to the league. Meantime news had arrived of the 
total defeat of Antiochus at the battle of Magnesia, 
and the Aetolians resolv^ to purchase peace at any 
price. It was granted to them by the Romans, but 
on terms which destroyed for ever their independ- 
ence, and rendered them only the vassals of Rome. 
(Pol. xxii. 15; Liv. xxxviiL 11.) After the con- 
quest of Perseus (b. c. 167), the Roman party in 
Aetolia, assisted by a body of Roman soldiers, 
massacred 550 of the leading patriots. All the sur- 
vivors, who were suspected of opposition to tlie 
Roman policy, were carried off as prisoners to Ital j. 
It was at this time that the league was jforznally 
dissolved. (Liv. xlv. 28, 31 ; Justin, xxxiii. Prol. 
and 2.) Aetolia subsequently formed part of the 
province of Achaia; though it is doubtful whether 
it formed part of this province as it was at fir^t 
constituted. [Achaia.] The inhalatants of several 


removed by Augustus to people iiie 
atj tf ^Qeopolia, which he fbnnded to oommemorate 
fab fieUKy at Actiiun, b. c. 31 ; and in his time the 
cDOBtiT is described by Stnbo as utterly worn oat 
aad fihamstied. (Stnb. p. 460.) Under the Ro- 
nam the AftoBans appear to have remained in the 
sane rode oonditioQ in which they had always been. 
Tke interior of AetoUa was probably rarely risited by 
the RiwMffw, for th^ had no road in the inland part 
of tl» country; and their only road was one leading 
from the coast of Acamania across the Achelons, 
hf Pleann and Calydon to Chalcis and Molycreia 
oe the Aetolian coast. (Comp. Biandst&ten, Die 
€e$ekiekten cfet Aetolis^en LandeSf VoUbu und 
Bmde$, Berlin, 1844.) 

The towBB in Aetolia were: I. In Old Aetolia. 
1. la the lower plain, between the sea and Moont 
Aneynthos, Caltdon, Puiubok, Olenus, Py- 
LDn, Cm/LLCiB (these 5 are the Aetolian towns 
n^^mtmA \fj Homer), Hauctbna, Elaeus, Pa»- 
anuM or Phaxa, Pboscbium, Itboria, Cohopb 
(lAawards ArsinoS), Ltsdcaghia. In the npper 
fUa K. of Moont Aneynthos, Acrajc, Metafa, 


Thkbmuii. In Aetoiia Epictetos, on the sesp^oast, 
JUcmiA, MoLTCBKiUK or MoitTGBSiA : a little in 
the interior, on the borders of Locrisi PonDAXiA, 
CaocTLEiuii, Tbchiux, ABomuM: further in 
the interior, Caluux, Oechalia [see p.65,a.], Afe- 
BABTiA, AoBDnuM , Ephyn, the last of which was 
a town of the AgraeL [Agbabi.] The site of 
the fbiloiang towns is quite uiknown: — Ellopiam 
CEAA^nor, Pol. ap. Steph. B. s. r.); Thorax (Bc^- 
f^j a. r.); Pherae (^c^ Steph. B. <. v.). 




AEXCyXE. [Attica.] 

AFFELAE {Etk, Affilanns), a town of Latinm, in 

the nure eitwndfid sense of the term, bat which most 

prohafaiy have in earlier times belonged to the Her- 

It is stiU called AfiUy and Lb situated in the 

district S. cf the valley of the Anio, 

aboat 7 miles from Subiaco, We learn from the 

tieatise ascribed to Frontinas (de Cokm. p. 230), 

that its territory was colonized in the time of the 

Giaoefai, bat it never enjoyed the rank of a colony, 

and Pliny mfntions it only among the *^ oppida " of 

Lttimn. (ff. N, ni. 5. § 9.) Inscriptions, fragments 

«f oolinnna, and ofther ancient relics are still risible in 

the modem village of Affile. (Nibby, Diniomi di 

Moma, ToLLp, 41.) [E. H. B.] 

latter form of the name appears to be the mon; 
comet) was the name given in andeot times to a 
■noBtain near Tibur, fnmUng the plain of the 
Caa^agna and now called Monte S. Angelo^ thoogh 
Bsriud on GeII*s map as Monte Affliamo. The 
^^'*~'tit' aqueduct was carried at its foot, where the 
rnaaiBs of it still visible are remarkable for the 
UdaeM and grandeur f£ their construction. An 
iBKriptign irfiich records the oom]^tion of some of 
tbcK VQcfcs has yitau i ed to us the ancient name of 

the mountain. (Nibby, lAnUmii di Roma^ vol. L 
p. 25; Fabretti, Inter, p. 637.) [E. H. B.] 

AFRICA i'AippuHi: Adj, Afer, Africus, Africa, 
nus), the name by which the quarter of the world still 
caDed Africa was known to the Bomans, who re- 
ceived it frtim the Carthaginians, and applied it first 
to that part of Africa with which they became first 
acquainted, namely, the part about Carthage, and 
afterwards to the whole contment. In the latter 
sense the Greeks used the same Libya ('A^ptK^ only 
occurring as the Greek form of the Latin Africa); 
and the same name b continually used by Boman 
writers. In this work the continent is treated of 
under Libya; and the present article is confined to 
that portion of N. Africa which the Romans called 
specifically Africa, or Africa Propria (or Vera), or 
Africa Provincia ('A^ptic^ ^ I8la»s), and which may 
be roughly described as the old Carthagmian terri • 
toiy, constituted a Roman province after the Third 
Panic War (b. c. 146\ 

The N. coast of AJricOf after trending W. and E. 
with a slight rise to the N., from the Straits of 
Gibraltear to near the centre of the Mediterranean, 
suddenly falls off to the S. at C. Bon (Mercurii Pr.) 
in 37® 4' 20" N. hit, and 10° 63' 35" E. long., and 
preserves this general direction for about 3° of ]ati« 
tnde, to the bottom of the Gtilf of Khab$, the an- 
cient Lesser Syrtis; the three chief salient points of 
this £. part of the coast, namely, the promontories 
of Clypea (at the N., a little S. of C. Bon) and Caput 
Vada (Kapoudiah, about the middle), and the 
island (^ Meninz {Jerbah, at the S.), lying on the 
same meridian. The country within this angle, 
formed of the last low ridges by which the Atlas 
sinks down to the sea, bounded on the S. and SW. 
by the Great Desert, and on the W. extending 
about as for as 9® E. long., formed, roughly speak- 
ing, the Africa of the Romans; but the precise limits 
of the country included under the name at different 
periods can only be understood by a brief historical 

That part of the continent of Africa, which 
forms the S. shore of the Mediterranean, W. of the 
Delta of the Nile, consists of a strip of habitable 
land, hemmed in between the sea on Uie N. and the 
Great Desert (SShfira) on the S., varying greatly in 
breadth m its £. and W. halves. The W. part of 
this sea-board has the great chain of Atlas inter- 
posed as a barrier against the torrid sands of the 
Sfihftra; and the N. slope of this range, descending 
in a series of natural terraces to the sea, watered by 
many streams, and lying on the S. mai^gin of the N. 
temperate zone, farms one of the finest regions on 
the surface of the earth. But, at the great bend in 
the coast above described (namely, about C Bon), 
the chain of the Atlas ceases; and, from the shores 
of the Lesser Syrtis, the desert comes close to the 
sea, leaving only narrow slips of habitable land, till, 
at tbe bottom of another great bend to the S., form- 
ing the Greater Syrtis (^Gnlf of Sidra)^ the sand and 
water meet (about 19° £. long.), forming a natural 
division between the 2 parts oif N. Africa. E. of 
this pomt lay Cybemaica, the history of which is 
totally distinct from that of the W. portion, with 
which we are now concerned. > 

For what follows, certain land-marks must be 
borne in mind. Following the coast E. of the Fretum 
Gaditanum iStraita of Gibraltar) to near 2° W. 
long., we reach the largest river of N. Africa, the 
MaLva, Molacha, or Molocbath ( Wady Mulwia or 
Mohalou), which now forms the boundary of Mof 




roceo and Algter^ and was an equally impdrtant 
frontier in ancient times. The next point of refer- 
ence is a faeadlond at aboat 4^ E. long., the nte of 
the ancient citj of Saldae. E. of this, agun, some- 
what bejond 6^ E. long., is another frontier river, 
the Ampsaoa (Wady el Kebir): frirther on, near 
8^ £. long., another river, the Rubricatus {Wady 
Seibotu)j at the month of which stood Hippo Re- 
gius (B&nah); and, abont 1° fiirther E., the river 
TuscA. ( Wady-ez-Zain). The last great river of 
this coast, W. of the great turning point (C Bon)j 
Is the Baoradas {Majerdah)f fiUling into the sea 
ji*st below C. FarifM^ the W. headland (as C, Bon 
is the eastern) of the great Gvif of Tunis, near the 
centre of which a rockj promontory marks the site of 
Carthage. Lastly, let us note the bottom of the 
great gulf called the Lesser Syrtis, at the S. ex- 
tremity of the E. coast already noticed, with the 
neighbouring great salt-lake of AUSibhaK, the an- 
cient Palus Tritonis, between 33^ and 34^ N. lat.; 
N. and KW. of which the countiy is for tiie roost 
part desert, as far as the SE. slopes of the Atlas 
chain. The country immediately around the lake 
itself forms the E.-most of a series of oases, which 
stretch frt)m £. to W. along the S. foot of the Atlas 
chain, and along the N. margin of the SSh&ra, and 
thus mark out a natural S. frtmtier for this portion 
of N. Africa. 

In the earliest times recorded, the whole N. coast 
of the continent W. of Egypt was peopled by various 
tribes of the great Libyan race, who must be care- 
fully distinguished from the Ethiopian or negro races 
of the interior. S. of the Libyan tribes, and on the 
N. limits of the Sah&ra, dwelt the Gaetuli and 
Garamantes, and S. of these, beyond the desert, 
the proper Ethiopians or negroes. The Libyans 
were of the Caucasian family of mankind, and for 
tho most part of nomade habits. At periods so early 
as to be still mythical to the Greeht. colonists from 
the W. coasts of Asia settled on the shores of Africa, 
and especially on the part now treated of. Sallnst 
has preserved a curious tradition respecting the ear* 
liest Asiatic colonists, to which a bare reference is 
enough (Jugwth. 18). The chief colonies were 
those of the Phoenicians, such as Hippo Zarttus, 
Utica, Tunes, Hadrumetum, Leptis, and above 
all, though one of the latest, Carthago. In these 
settlements, the Phoenicians established themselves 
as traders rather than conquerors; and they do not 
seem to have troubled themselves about bringing the 
native peoples into subjection, except so far as was 
needfiil for their own security. Carthage, which 
was built on the most commanding position on the 
whole coast, gradually surpassed all the other Phoe- 
nician colonies, and brought them, as allies, if not as 
subjects, to acknowledge her supremacy. She also 
founded colonies of her own along the whole coast, 
from the Straits to the bottom of the Great Syrtis. 
The question of the extent and character of the Car- 
tliaginmn dominion belongs to another article [Car- 
thago] ; but it is necessary here to advert briefly 
to its condition when the Romans first became ac- 
quainted witli the country. At that time the proper 
territory of Carthage was confined within very narrow 
limits around the atj itself. The sea-coast W. and 
S. of C. Bon, as far as the river Rubricatus and 
Hippo Regius on the W. and a point N. of Hadru- 
metum (about 36° N. lat.) on the S., and the parts 
inland along the river Bagradas, and between it and 
the sea, appear to have formed the original territory 
of Cailhage, corresponding nearly to the region aftcr- 


wards kndwn as Zeugitaka, bat reaching fortlxer 
along the W. coast, and not so fu* inland on the SW. 
This, or even less, was the extent of countiy at fiist 
included Yxj the Romans under the name cdf Africa^ 
and to this very day it bears the same name, FrUdak 
or Afriheah. It is remarkable that, neither in th« 
wars of Agathocles nor of the Romans with Carthago 
in Africa, does any mention occur of military opera- 
tions out of tliis hmited district. But still, before 
the wars with Rome, the territory of Carthage had 
received some accession. On the E. coast, S. of 
36° N. lat., flourishing maritime cities had been 
established, some — as Leptis and Hadmmetuni — 
even befc»:« Carthage, and some by the Cartha- 
ginians. These cities were backed by a fertile bot 
narrow plain, bounded on the W. by a range of 
mountains, which formed the original Btzacium, a 
district, according to Plmy, 250 Roman miles in 
circuit, and extending S.-wards as far as Thenae, 
opposite the island of Cerdna (in abont 34° 30' N. 
lat), where the Lesser Syrtis was considered to be- 
giiu This district had been added to the posseasioDs 
of the Carthaginians, and Polybins (iiL 23) speaks 
of their anxiety to conceal it from the knowledge of 
the Romans, as well as their commercial settlements 
further along the coast, called Emporia. This word, 
Emporia, though afterwards nsed as the name of a 
district, denoted at first, according to its proper 
meaning, settlements established for the sake of com- 
merce ; and it appears to have included all the Phoe- 
nician and Carthaginian colonies along the whole 
coast from the N. extremity of the Lener Syrtis to 
the bottom of the Greater Syrtis. Any possessioa 
of the E. part of this region, in a strictly territorial 
sense, would have been worUiless firam the nature of 
the country, but the towns were maintained as cen- 
tres of commerce with the inland tribes, and as an 
additional security, besides the desert, against any 
danger from the Greek states of Cyrenaica. 

Such was the general position of the Cartha- 
ginian dominion in Africa at the time of the Panic 
Wars; extending over their own immediate territory 
to about 80 miles S. of the capital, and along the K. 
coast of Ttmis and isolated points on the W. part of 
the coast of JYipoli. The whole inner district in 
the central and SW. parts of the later province of 
Afiica was in the possession of the Libyan tribes, 
whose services as mercenaries Carthage could obtain 
in war, but whom she never even attempted to sub- 
due. These tribes are spoken of by Greek and 
Latin writers under a general name which describes 
their mode of life as wandering herdmen, Nofi^r, 
or, m the Latin form, Numidae. Th^ possessed 
the country along the N. coast as iiir W. as the 
Straits; but those of them that were settled to the 
W. of the river Mulucha were called by another 
name, Mav/wi, perhaps from a greater darkness of 
complexion, and, after them, the Ramans called tho 
country W. of the Mulucha Mauretania; while 
that £. of the Mulucha, to the W. frontier of Car- 
thage, and also SW. and S. of the Carthaginian 
possessions as far as tlie region of the Syrtes, was 
included under the general designation of Numidia. 

In this rpgion, at the time of the Second Punic 
War, two tribes were far more powerful than all the 
rest, namely, in the W.and larger portion, between the 
rivers Mulueha and Ampsaga, the Massaestui, 
occupying the greater part oi the modem Algiftr; 
and E. of them, from the river Ampsaga and round 
the whole inland frontier of Carthage, the Masstui, 
the rtsidenoc of whose chiefUdn, called by the Romana 


h^y VIS st tlw stronir xuitiinl fort of CntTA {Cos- 
tai^Mk): r^nlar cities were, in their earlier his- 
ttuT, afanost, if not altogether, nnknown to the 
KimafiaBS. The rdations of these tribes to Car- 
thifEv are most important, as affectang the boundaries 
if S<nuin Africft. 

The fiist chief of the Massylii mentioned in his- 
torr. Gala, ts sopixMed to have already deprived the 
Caithaginiana of the important town of Hippo {Bo- 
•nhy. inasmuch as it is mentioDed with the epithet of 
Reyka in Lrrr'a narratiTe of the Second Punic War 
(Liv. xxix. 3); bat, for an obvious reason, we cannot 
kj much stress on this point of evidence. Much 
mare important is it to brar in mind that, in these 
pots, the epithet RegiuB applied to a city does prove 
that it bclaqged,at«osie time, to theNnmidian princes. 
la the Secood Pnnic War we find Gala in league 
vitib the Carthaginians ; but their canse was aban- 
dard in b.c-206 by his son liasinissa, whose 
varied fortunes this is not the place to follow out 
in defcaiL Defeated again and again by the united 
ft^tcs of the Carthaginians and of Syphax, chief 
of the Hassaesylii, he retired into the deserts of 
Inner Hnmidia, that is, the S£. part, about the 
LesKT Syrtis, and there maintained himself till the 
hading of Scipio in Africa, b. c. 204, when he 
the Romans and greatly contributed to their 
At the oondnsion of the war, his services 
were amjdly rewardoL He was restored to his 
hcnditaiy domininos, to which was added the 
pester part of the country of the Massaesylii; 
iirphax having been taken prisoner in b. c. 203, 
aond fent to Borne, where he soon died. The con- 
dact of the Romans on this occasion displayed quite 
as sBKh pdicy as gratitude, and l^Ia5inissa*s con- 
dart iooQ showed that he knew he had been set 
MA a them in the aide of Carthage. Under cover 
of the tenna of the treaty and with the connivance 
«f Bnme, he made a series of aggressions on the 
Caithagintan territoiy, both on the NW. and on the 
S£^ mzing the lidi Emporia on the latter side, 
asd, on the fiirmer, the country W. of the river 
TiBca, and the district caBed the Great Plain, SE. 
«f the Bagradas around 36° N. lat., where the name 
if Zama Regia is a witness of Numidian rule. 
Thas, when lus constant penecntion at length pro- 
vobd the Carthaginians to the act of resistance 
which formed the occasion of the Third Punic War, 
UsBmaaas kingdom extended from the river Malva 
to the frootier of Cyrenaica, while the Carthaginians 
were honmed np in the narrow KE. comer of 
Zeogitana which they had at first possessed, and 
Id the snail district of Byzacium ; these, their only 
mBaining possesaons, extending along the coast 
from the Tusca to the N. extremity (^ the Lesser 
^rtis, opposite Cercina. 

Kow, Aers ve have the original limUs of 
<fe Roman provmce oj' Africa, The treaty of 
poer, at the close of the Second Punic War, 
hid a ssigned to Ma&inissa all the territoiy which 
l» ancestors had ever possessed ; he had suc- 
oenled in carrying out this provision to its iiill 
olcot, if not beyond it ; and at the close of 
the Third Panic War, the Romans left his sons their 
iBbnitaore undiminished, Maranissa himself having 
died In the 2nd year of the war, b. c. 148. (Ap~ 
paa. iW. 106.) TIios, the Roman province of 
•Afiica, which was constituted in b. c 146, in- 
riaded only the possessions which Carthage had 
<tf 2ul Sallnst {Jvg. 19) accurately describes the 
state of the case mder the socceasoca of Masinissa; 



— "Igitur bello Jugorthino pleraque ex Pimicis 
oppida et finis Carthagiiiiensium, quos nomasumB 
htUmeranty populus Romanus per magistratus ad- 
ministrabat : Gaetulorum magna pars et Numidae 
usque ad flumen Mulucham sub Jugiulha erant." 
And, as to the S£. irontier of the Roman province, 
we learn from Pliny (v. 4. s. 3) that it remained as 
under Masinissa, and that Scipio Africanus marked 
out the boundary line between the Roman province 
and the princes (r^«s) of Numidia, by a fossa 
which reached the sea at Thenae, thus leaving 
the Emporia and the region of the Syrtes to the 
latter. Thus the prorince of Africa embraced the 
districts of Zeugitana and Byzacinm, or the N. and 
E. parts of the Regency of Tunis, from the river 
Tusca to Thenae at the N. end of the Lesser Syrtis. 
It was constituted by Scipio, with the aid of ten 
legcUif or commissioners, appointed by the senate 
from its own body, as was usual when a conquered 
country was reduced to a province, and on the fol- 
lowing terms. (Appian. Pun, 135 ; Cic. de Leg, 
Agr,u. 19.) Such ruins of Carthage as remained 
were to bo utterly destroyed, and men were forbidden, 
under a curse, to dwell upon its site; the cities 
which had taken part with Carthage were devoted 
to destruction, and their land was partly made ager 
publicus (comp. Cic. I. c. 22), and partly assigned 
to those cities which had sided with Rome, namely, 
Utica, Thapsus, Leptis Minor, Acholla, Usalis, 
Teudalis, and probably Hadrumetum {Lex ThoriOj 
lin. 79; Marquardt, JBecher's Handbuch d. Rom. 
AUerth. vol. iil jpt. 1. p. 226). Utica received aU 
the land firom Hippo Zurytus to C<arthage, and was 
made the seat of government. The inhabitants, 
except of tlie fiivoured cities, were burthened with 
heavy taxes, assessed on persons as well as on the 
land. The province was placed under praetorian 
government, and was divided into conventuSj we 
are not told how many, but from the mention of 
those of 2^ugis (Oroe. i. 2) and Hadrumetum (Hirt. 
Bell, Afr. 97), we may perhaps infer that the 
former included the whole N. district, Zeugis or 
2^ugitana, and the latter the S. district, Byzacinm. 

The war with Jugurtha caused no alteration of 
territories; but the Romans gained possession of 
some cities in the S£. part of Numidia, the chief of 
which was Leptis Magna, between the Syrtes. (Sail. 
Jug, 77.) 

Africa played an important port in the Civil War 
of Pompey and Caesar. Early in the war, it was 
seized for the senate by Attius Varus, who, aided 
by Juba, king of Numidia, defeated and slew Cae- 
sar's lieutenant Curio: of the remains of Caesar's 
army, some escaped to Sicily, and some surrendered 
to Juba; and the province remained in the hands of 
the Pompeian party, b. c. 49, (Caes. B. C. ii. 23 — 
44.) After Pompey's death, and while Caesar 
played the lover at Alexandria, and " came, saw, 
conquered " in Pontus (b. c. 47), the Pompeians 
gathered their forces for a final stand in Africa, under 
Q. Metellus Scipio, Afranius, and Petreius. These 
leaders were joined by Cato, who, having collected 
an army at Cyrene, p^ormed a most difficult march 
round the shores of the Syrtes, and undertook the 
defence of Utica, the chief city of the province : how 
he performed the task, his surname and the story of 
his death havo long borne witness. The Pompeians 
were supported by Juba, king of Numidia, but he 
was kept in check by the army of Bocdius and 
Bogud, kings of Mauretania, under P. Sittius, an 
adventurer, who had taken advantage of the discoids 




between the Idngs of Manietania and Namidia to 
make a party of hia own, composed of adventurers 
like himself, and who now espoused the cause of 
Caesar. (Ap|nan. B. C, It. 54; Dion Cass. xlir. 
3.) Jost before the close of b. c. 47, Caesar landed 
in AMca; and, after a brief but critical campaign, 
orerthrew the united forces of the other party in the 
battle of Thapsus, in April, 46. The kingdom of 
Numidia was now taken possession of by Caesar, who 
erected it into a province, and committed its govcm- 
mont to Sallustius, the historian, as proconsul, " in 
name," says Dion Cassius, ^ to govern, but in deed 
to plunder." (Hirt^ J3. Afr. 97; Dion Cass, xliii. 
9; Appian. B. C. ii. 100.) Henceforth Numidia 
became known by the name of New Africa, and the 
former Roman ]nt}vince as Old Africa. (Appian. 
B. C. iv. 63 ; Plin. v. 4. s. 3.) But further, within 
the province of New Africa itself, Caesar is said to 
have made a partition, to reward the services of Sit- 
tius and of the kings of Mauretania; giving to the 
latter the W. part of Numidia, as fiu" £. (probably) 
as Saldae (possibly to the Ampsaga), and to the 
former the territory about Cirta. (Appian. B. C. 
iv. 54.) Very probably this partition amounted to 
nothing more than leaving his allies, for the present, 
in possession of what they had already seized, espe- 
cially as, in his anxiety to return to Rome, Caesar 
settled the affiiirs of Africa in great haste. (Dion, 
xiiii. 14, T(i TC &AAa iv rp *A<ppiKp 8i& fipax^oty 
&s ivriv fuUurra, Koraariiaas.') Among the exiles 
from Africa of the defeated party, who had taken 
refuge with the sons of Pompey in Spain, was a 
certmn Arabion, whom Appian (iv. 54) calls a son 
of a certain Masinissa, the ally of Juba. This man, 
after Caesar's murder, returned to Numidia, expelled 
Bocchus, and slew Sttius by stratagem. This story 
of Appian's is confused and doubtfiU, even with the 
help of a few obscure words in a letter of Cicero 
which have some appearance of confirming it. (^i^ 
AU. XV. 17, Arabioni de Sitio nihil irascorj comp. 
Dion Cass, xlviii. 22.) 

In the arrangements of the second triumvirate, 
B. c. 43, the whole of Africa was assigned to 
Octavion. (Dion Cass. xlvi. 55; Appian. B. C 
iv. 53.) T. Sextius, a former legate of Julius 
Caesar, was governor of the New Province; while 
Q. Comifidus and D. Laelius held Old Africa for 
the so-called republican party, and to them many 
betook tliemselves who had escaped firom the cruelties 
of the triumvirs at Rome. A war ensued, the events 
of which are related differently by the historians; 
but it ended in the defeat and death of Comifidus 
and Laelius, b. c. 42. (Appian. B. C. ill. 85, iv. 
36, 52 — 56; Dion Cass, xlviii. 21.) . After another 
and successful struggle with C. Fango, which there 
is not space to relate (see Dion Cass, xlviii. 22 
— 24; Appian. B. C. v. 12, 26, 75), Sextius found 
himself (A)Ugod to give up both the African pro- 
vinces to Lepidus, to whom they had been assigned 
in the new arrangements made by the triumvirs 
after the battle of Philippi, and confirmed after the 
war of Perusia, b. c. 41. By the surrender and re- 
tirement of Lepidus, both the African provinces 
came into the power of Octavian, b. c. 36. In the 
general settlement of the empire after the overthrow 
of Antony, b. c. 30, Augustus restored to the young 
Juba, son of Juba I., his paternal kingdom of Nu- 
midia (Dion Cass. 11. 15); but shortly afterwards, 
B. c. 25, he resumed the possession of Numidia, 
giving Juba in exchange the two Mauretanias, the 
£. buondaiy of his kingdom being fixed at Saldae. 


(Stnb. pp. 828, 831.) [Maubetaku.] Tbni 
the two j^rovinces of Afirica were finally united to 
the R(Mnan empire, consisting of Old Africa, or the 
andent Carthaginian territory, namely, Zengitana 
and Byzadum, and New Africa, or, as it was abo 
called, Numidia Provincia; the boundaries being, on 
the W., at Saldae, where Afirica joined Mauretania 
Caesariensis, and on the £., the monument of the 
Philaeni, at the bottom of the Great Syitis, wheie 
Africa touched Cyrenalca. The boundaries between 
Old and New Africa remained as before, namely, en 
the N. coast, the New Province was divided from 
the Old by the river Tnsca, and on the E. coast bj 
the dyke of Scipio, which terminated at Thoiae, at 
the N. entrance of the Syrtis Minor. (Plin. v. i. 
s. 3.) This province of Africa was assigned to the 
senate, and made a proconsular province, b. c. 27 
(Stnib. p. 840; Dion Cass. Ini. 12). 

A further change was made by Caligula, in two 
particulars. First, as to the western boundaiy: 
when, having put to death Ptolemy, the son of 
Juba II., he made his kingdom of Mauretania a 
Roman province, he also extended its boundary east- 
wards from Saldae to the river Ampsaga, which be- 
came thenoefwth the W. boundary oi Numidia, or 
New Africa. (Tac. HitL i. 11.) But he also 
clianged the government of the province. Under 
Augustus and Tiberius, the (me legion (III*), which 
was deemed sufiident to protect the province against 
the barbarians on the S. frontier, had been under the 
orders of the proconsul; but Caligula, moved by fear 
of the power and popularity of the proconsul M. Si- 
lanus, deprived him of the military command, and 
placed the legion under a legatua of his own. (Tac 
Hi^ iv. 48.) From the account of Dion Cassias, 
which is, however, obviously inexact in some points, 
it would seem that Numidia was alt<^ther sepa- 
rated from Africa, and made an imperial prorincc 
under the UgaJhu Caetarit. (Dion Cass. lix. 20: koI 
9ix<i rh iOvos ytifiasj irdpif r6 re arparutru^ 
KoX rovs voftdHas rovs xtpl avro irpoo'era{c.) Ta- 
citus does not mention this separation, but rather 
points out the evil results of the divided authority 
of the proconsul and legatus in a way which seems 
to imply that they had coordinate powers in the 
same province. A recent writer suggests that Na- 
midia was always regarded, from the time of the 
settlement by Augustus, as a province distinct finxn 
Old Africa; that it may have been governed by a 
legatus under the proconsul; and that the only 
change made by Caligula was the making the le- 
gatus immediately dependent on the emperor (Mar- 
quardt, Becker^* Rom. Alt. voL iii. p. 229); and 
certainly, in the list given by Dion Cassius (liii. 12) 
of the provinces as constituted by Au^fostus, Nu- 
midia is mentioned as well as Africa. On the whole, 
however, it seems that the exact relation of the New 
Province of Africa to the Old, from the time of Ca- 
ligula to that of Diocletian, must be considered as 
somewhat doubtful. 

The above historical review may aid in removing 
the difficulty often found in understanding the state- 
ments of tlie ancient writers respecting the limits of 
Africa. Mela (i. 7; comp. c 6), writing in the 
reign of Claudius, gives Africa its wide>t extent, 
from the river Ampsaga and the promontory Metago- 
nites on the W. (the same, doubtless, as the Tretum 
of Stralx), Ras Seba Rouiy i. e. 7 Capes) to the Arne 
Phihienorum on the E.; while Pliny (v. 4. s. 3), 
making Numidia extend from the Ampsaga to the 
Tusca, and Africa from the Tusca to the frontier of 


CyrrKSoLf jvt speaki of the 2 pravinces in* the 

dbiot ooBDictXHi (A«Dn»i&ie et A/rioae ab Av^maga 

JMfitmh DLXXZ. M. P.), and seems even to include 

tkaa boUi imder the name of Africa {Africa a fiu- 

no Ampmpn pofpuks xxvL habet). Ptolemy (iv. 3) 

fins Afkica the same extent aa Mela, from the 

JbnpHiga to the bottom of the Great Sjitls ; while 

he api^ies the name New Nomldia (NovfuSta vta) 

tt» a pait of the coontij, evidently corresponding 

vitli the later Namidia of other writ»« (§ 29), the 

rfdthet Xew hew^ used in contradistinction to the 

acdoit Numidia, the W. and greater part of \rhich 

had been added to Mamnetania. In PtoIemy^s list 

of the pnrinces (rilL 29), Africa and Nmnidia are 

iwntkiied together. 

In the 3rd oenturyf probably under Diocletian, 
the vhole country, from the Ampsaga to Cyre- 
ulca, was dinded into the foor provinces of Nu- 
mieHa, Africa Propria or Zeugitana, Byzadum 
or Bysaeema, and Tripolit or TryMUtcma. (Sezt 
fo£ Brer. 8.) Nnmidia no longer extended S. of 
Zci^itana and Byxacinm, bat that part of it was 
added to Byzaciom; while its £. part, on and 
betvecD the Syrtcs, farmed the province of Tripoli- 
liBi. We are enahlfd to draw the boundary-lines 
vith ioferable exactness by means of the records of 
the nomaoaa eccledastlcal councils of Africa, in 
which the several bishoprics have the names of their 
pranaccs ai^mded to them. (For the fullest in- 
finnatiaQ, see Morcelli, Africa CkrisUana., Brixiae, 
1817. 3 vols. 4ta) Zeugitana, to which, in the 
RTidutiaa of time, the name cf Africa had thus 
cone to be again a|^piopriated, remained a senatorial 
pnnriiKe undo' the Proeontul Africat^ and was 
cfien called simply iVovtncta Procotuularis ; the 
nai were imperial provinces, Byzacium and Numidia 
bdog governed by Coruuhrety and Tripolis by a 
Fneges, The Proooosul Afiicae (who was the odIj 
■oe in the W. emjure, and hence was often called 
mm^j Prooansnl) had under him two legati and a 
quKtitar, besides legati for special branches of ad- 
mha^Aration. His residence was at the restored city 
of Carthage. The other three proAinces, as well as 
the two Mauretanims, were subject to the praetorian 
pnefiect of Italy, who governed them by his repre- 
aentative, the VicariuM Africae, (BScking, NotiHa 
iHfuilaivm, voL iL c. 17, 19, &c.) Beferring for 
the Rmunxi^ details to the articles on the separate 
froriaces, we proceed to a brief account of the hXet 
aarina histocy of Africa. 

At the time referred to, the name of Africa, besides 
id a ar tow es t aense, as properly belonging to the 
pmsBsabr province, and its widest meaning, as 
af|«ed to the whole OHitinent, was cmistantly used 
to iDdade all the provinces of N. Africa, W. of the 
Great Syitis, and the following events refer, for the 
BMC put, to that extent of country. At the set- 
tkment of the empire undei Ccostantine, the African 
proriDces were among the most prosperous in the 
Bnmaa worid. The valleys of Mauretania and 
Nmnidia, and the plains of Zeugitana and Byzacium, 
hid always been proveri>ial for their fertility; and 
the fjtat dties along the coast had a flourishing 
conmerce. The internal tranquillity of Africa was 
■ridom distorbed, the only fomiidable insurrection 
heiair that under the two Gordians, which was 
ip*«hly repressed, A. n. 238. The emperors Sep- 
tiosias Sevens and Kacrinus were natives of N. 
Africa. Amidst the prosperous population of these 
panful prorinoes, Christianity had early taken firm 
>Ht; the neords of ecclesiastical history attest the 



great number of the African churches and bishoprics, 
and the frequency of their synods; and the fervid 
spirit of the Africans displayed itself alike in the 
stead&stness of their martyrs, the eneigy of their 
benevolence, the vehemence of their controverBies, 
and the genius of their leading writers, as, for ex- 
ample, Tertullian, Cyprian, and Augustine. 

But here, as on the other frontiers of the empire, 
the diminished vitality of the extremities bore witness 
to the declining energy of the heart. That perfect 
subjection of the native tribes, which forms such 
a singular contrast with the modem history of 
Algeria, had already been disturbed; and we read 
of increased mUitaiy forces, insurrections of native 
princes, and incursions of the Numidians, or, as 
they now came to be generally called, the Moors, 
even before the end rf the 3rd century. There is 
not space to recount the wars and troubles in Africa 
during the struggles of Constantiae and his com- 
petitors for the empire; nor those under his suc- 
cessors, including the revolt of Firmus, and the 
exploits of the count Theodosius, under the 1st and 
2nd Valentmian (a. d. 373 — 376), the usurpation 
of Maximus, after the death of Valentinian II. ; and 
the revolt of the count Gildon, after the death of 
Theodosius the Great, suppressed by Stilicho, a. d. 
398. At the final partition of the empire, on the 
death of Theodosius (a. d. 395), the African pro- 
vinces were assigned to the W. empire, under 
Honorius, whose dominions met those of his brother, 
Arcadins, at the Great Syrtis. 

Under Valentinian III., the successor of Honorius, 
the African provinces were lost to the W. empire. 
Boniface, count of Africa, who had successfully de- 
fended the frontiers against the Moors, was recalled 
from his government by the intrigues of A^tins, and 
on his resistance an army was sent against him (a. d. 
427). In his despair, Boniface sought aid from the 
Vandals, who were already established in Spain ; and, 
in May, 429, Geiserich (or Genserich) the Vandal 
king, led an army of about 50,000 Vandals, Goths, 
and Alans, across the Straits of Gades into Maure- 
tania. He was joined by many of the Moors, and 
apparently favoured by the Donatists, a sect of 
heretics, or rather schismatics, who had lately 
suffered severe persecution. But, upon urgent so- 
licitations from the court of Ravenna, accompanied 
by the discovery of the intrigues of A^ltius, Boniface 
repented of his invitation, and tried, too late, to 
repair his error. He was defeated and shut up in 
Hippo Regius; the only other cities left to the 
Romans being Carthage and Cirta. The Vandals 
overran the whole country from the Straits to the 
Syrtes ; and those fertile provinces were utterly 
laid waste amidst scenes of fearful cruelty to the 
inhabitants. The siege of Hippo lasted fourteen 
months. At length, encouraged by reinforcements 
from the eastern empire, Boniface hazarded another 
battle, in which he was totally defeated, a. d. 431. 
But the final loss of Africa was delayed by negotia- 
tion for some years, during which various partitions 
of the country were made between the Romans and 
the Vandals; but the exact terms of these tniccs 
are as obscure as their duration was uncertain. 
The end of one of them was signalized by the sur- 
prise and sack of Carthage, Oct. 9, 439 ; and before 
the death of Valentinian III. the Vandals were in 
undisputed possession of the African provinces. 
Leo, the emperor of the East, sent an unsuccessful 
expedition against tliem, under Heraclius, a. n. 468 ; 
and, in 476. Zcno made a treaty with Geiseric, 




which lasted till the time of Jnstiiuaii, under whom 
the conntrj was recovered for the Eastern Empire, 
and the Vandals almost exterminated, by Belisariiui, 
A. D. 533 — 534. (For an acooont of the Vandal 
kings of Africa, see Vaxdau : for the histoiy of this 
period, the chief authority is Procopius, Bell.Vand,) 

Of the state and constitntion of Africa under 
Justinian, we have most interesting memorials in 
two rescripts, addressed by the emperor, the one to 
Archelaus, the praetorian pniefect of Africa, and the 
other to Belisarias himself. (Booking, NoHt. Diffn. 
vol. iL pp. 154, foil.) From the fonner we learn 
that the ieven African provinces, of which the 
island of Sardinia now made one, were erected into 
a separate pracfecture, under a Pratfectus Praetorio 
Magnificm; and the two rescripts settle their civil 
and military constitution respectively. It should be 
observed that Mauretania Tingitana (from the river 
Mulucha to the Ocean), wliich had formerly be- 
longed to Spain, was now included in the African 
province of Mauretania Caesariensis. [Comp. Mau- 
retania.] The seven African provinces were 
(from E. to W.J, (1) Tripolis or Tripditana, (2) 
BjTzadum or Byzacena, (3) Africa or Zeugis or 
Carthago, (4) Numidia, (5) Mauretania Sidfensis 
or Zaba, (6) Mauretania Caesariensis, and (7) Sar- 
dinia: the first three were governed by ConsulareSj 
the last four by I^aendea. 

The history of Africa under the E. empire con- 
sists of a series of intestine troubles arising frt>m 
court intrigues, and of Moorish insurrections which 
became more and more diflScult to repel. The 
splendid edifices and fortifications, of which Jus- 
tinian was peculiarly lavish in this part of his 
dominions, were a poor substitute for the vital 
energy which was almost extinct. (Procop. deA edif, 
Justin.) At length the deluge of Arabian invasion 
s^vept over the choicest parts of the Eastern Em- 
pire, and the conquest of Eg3rpt was no sooner 
completed, than the Caliph Othman sent an army 
under Abdallah against Africa, A. d. 647. The 
praefect Gregory was defeated and slxdn in the great 
battle of Sufetula in the centre of Byzacena ; but 
the Arab force was inadequate to complete the con- 
quest. In 665 the enterprize was renewed by 
Akbah, who overran the whole oountxy to the shores 
of the Atlantic; and founded the great Arab dty 
of Al-Ktsvnoan (i. e. Ihe carcman)^ in tlie heart oS 
Byzacium, about 20 miles S. W. of the ancient 
Iladrumeturo. Its inland position protected it from 
the fleets of the Greeks, who were still masters of 
the coast. But the Moorish tribes made common 
cause with the Africans, and the forces of Akbah 
were cut to pieces. His successor, Zuheir, gained 
several battles, but was defeated by an army sent 
from Constantinople. The contest was prolonged by 
the internal dissensions of the successors of the 
pniphet ; but, in A. d. 692, a new force entered 
Africa under Hassan, the governor of Egypt, and 
Carthage was taken and destroyed in 698. Again 
were the Arabs driven out by a general insurrection 
of the Moors, or, as we now find them called, by the 
name ever since applied to the natives of N. Africa, 
the Berbers (from fidpSapoi) ; but the Greeks and 
Bomans of Africa found their domination more 
intolerable than that of the Arabs, and welcomed 
the return of their conquerors under Musa, who 
subdued the country finally, and enlisted most of 
the Moors under the faith and standard of the pro- 
phet, A. D. 705 — 709. With the Arab conquest 
ends the ancient history of Africa. [P. S.] 



A'GARI (^Ayapot)^ a Scythian people of Saimatia 
Europaea, on the N. shore of the Palus Maeotts (&a 
o/Agov)f about a promontory Agarum and a river 
Agarus, probably not far £. of the Isthmus. Thej 
were sldlfiil in medicine, and are snid to have cored 
wounds with serpents' venom! Some of them al- 
ways attended on Mithridates the Ghreat, as j^j- 
sicians. (Ay^aXL MithrSS; Ptol. iii. 5. § 13.) A 
fungus called Agaricum (prob. German ti$tder), 
much used in ancient medidne, was said to grow in 
their country (Plin. zxv. 9. s. 57 ; Dioscor. iil 1 ; 
Galen, defac, simp, med, p. 150). Diodoms (xx. 
24), mentions Agsuns, a kmg of the Scythians, near 
the Cimmerian Bosporus, b. c. 240. (Bockh, Cor- 
pus Inscr. voL iL p. 82; Ukert, yoL iii. pt 2, pp. 
250, 433.) [P. S.] 

AGASSA or AGASSAE, a town in Pieria in 
Macedonia, near the river Mitys. Livy, in relating 
the campaign of b. a 169 against Perseus, sajs 
that the Boman consul made three days' march 
beyond Dium, the first of which terminated at the 
river Mitys, the second at Agassa, and the third at 
the river Asoordus. The last appears to be the 
same as the Acerdos, which occurs in the Tabular 
Itinerary, though not marked as a river. Leake 
supposes that &d Mitys was the river of JTafertaa, 
and that Acerdos was a tributary of the Haliacmon. 
(Liv. xliv. 7, xlv. 27; Leake, Northern (Treeoe, 
vol. iii. p. 423, seq.) 

AGATHUSA. [Tklob.] 

Polyb. ap. Steph.Byz.'A7a0i{f>yoy,PtQl.: Agathyma, 
Sil. ItaL xiv.259; Liv.; Agi^ymum, Plin.), a dty 
on the N. coast of Sicily between Tyndaris and 
Calacte. It was supposed to have derived its name 
from Agathymus, a son of Aeolus, who is said to 
have settled in this part of Sicily (Diod. v. 8). But 
though it may be inferred from hence that it was an 
andent city, and probably of Sicelian origin, we find 
no mention of it in history until after Sicily became 
a Boman province. Ihuing the Second Ptmic War 
it became the head-quarters of a band of robbers 
and freebooters, who extended their ravages over the 
neighbouring country, but were reduced by the con- 
sul Laevinus in b. c. 210, who transported 4000 of 
them to Rhegium. (Liv. zxvL 40, xxvii. 12.) It 
very probably was deprived on this occasion of the 
municipal rights conceded to most of the Sicilian 
towns, which may account for our finding no notice 
of it in Cicero, though it is mentioned by Strabo 
among the few cities still subsisting on the N. coast 
of Sicily, as well as afterwards by Pliny, Ptolemy 
and the Itineraries. (Strab. vi. p. 266; Plin. iiL 8; 
PtoL iii. 4. § 2 ; Itin. Ant. p. 92 ; Tab. Pent) Its 
situation has been much disputed, on account of the 
great discrepancy between the authorities just dted. 
Strabo places it 30 Boman miles from Tyndaris, and 
the same distance from Alaesa. The Itinerary gives 
28 M. P. firom Tyndaris and 20 from Calacte: while 
the Tabula (of which the numbers seem to be mors 
trustworthy for this part of Sicily than those (^ the 
Itineraiy) gives 29 from Tyndaris, and only 12 from 
Calacte. If this last measurement be supposed 
correct it would exactly coincide with the diistaDce 
from Caronia (Calacte) to a place near the sea- 
coast called ^c^tie Zhlci below ^S'. Fiiadelfo (called 
on recent niape S. Fratello) and about 2 miles W. 
of Sta Agataj where Fazello describes ruins of con- 
siderable magnitude as extant in his day: but which 
he, in common with Cluverius, regarded as the re« 


vaSm «f Alnntiiiin. The latter city maj, howefrer, 
be pheed with much more probability at S. Marco 
[AurmrM] : and the rniiis near S. Frat^Uo woald 
limbe those of AgaUijma, there being no other city 
cf say znagnitiide that we know of in this part q{ 
SicOr. Two ohjectioins, however, ranam: I. that 
the dblance fium this site to Tjrndaiis is greater than 
that given by any of the anthoritieSi being certainly 
net ksa than 36 miles: 2. that both Pliny and Pto- 
koy, from the oider of their enumeration, appear to 
phee Agathyma Letweeu Alontiam and XyndariB, 
sad tbenfore if the former city be correctly fixed at 
& Marco, Agathyma mnst be looked for to the £. 
«f that town. FaaeHoaooordingly placed it near Capo 
Oriaadoi, hat admits that th^ were scarcely any 
Todges visible there. The qnestion is (ne hardly 
sasoqicible of a satisfactoiy condnsion, as it is im- 
OQ any view to xeooocile the data of all om* 
the aigmnents in favour of the ^cjtie 
Jklei seem on the whole to pedominate. UnfOTtn • 
iHldy the imns there have not been examined by 
sny recent tnavdler, and have very probably disap- 
peared. Captain Smyth, however, speaks of the re- 
■wns of a fine Boman bridge as visible in the 
Fimmmn di Boaa Marma between this place and S. 
Marco. (FaseU. ix. 4, p. 384, 5. p. 391 ; Cluver. 
£feil p. 995 ; Smyth's Sidbfy pi 97.) [£. H. B.] 
AGATHYRSI CAydBvfMroi, 'AyaBOpatot), a 
pei^ of Sarmatia Europaea, very fitvqnently men- 
tionsd by the ancient writers, bat m difierent posi- 
tioBa. Their name was known to the Greeks veiy 
coriy, if the Pieisander, from whom Snidas («. v.) 
sttl Strphanns Byzantinas («. v.) qnote an absurd 
nnlikd etymokigy of the name (jhth ruy dvptrvy 
rti AiiFotroti) be the poet Pelaander of Rhodes, 
B. G. 645; hat he is much more probably the 
yiNDiger Pdaander of Laraoda, a.d. 222. Another 
Djtfa IS repeated by Herodotus, who beard it from 
the Greeks on the Euxine; that Hercules, on his 
retani from his adventure against Geiyon, passed 
through the xegion of Hylaea, and there met the 
FfhMn^^ who bore him three sons, Agathyrsus, 
Oeknos, and Scythes; of whom the last alone was 
dble to bold a how and to wear a belt, which Her- 
cuks had left hehind, in the same manner as Her- 
cides himadf had used them ; and, accordingly, in 
ebe&noe to their fiither^s command, the Echidna 
Aove the two dder out of the land, and gave it to 
Scythes (Herod, iv. 7 — 10 : comp. Tsetz. Chil. viii. 
222, 759). Herodotus himsdf, also, r^azds the 
.Agathyni aa not a Scythian people, but as closely 
related to the Scythians. He places them about 
the upper coone of the river Karis {Maro§ch)f that 
k, in the SEb part of Dada, or the modem Tnm- 
tglnmin (iv. 4: the Maris, however, does not fiiU 
Erectly, as he states, into the Ister, Dcmubey but 
into that great tributary of the Danube, the Theits). 
they were the first of the peoples bordering on 
ScyUiia, to one going inland from the Ister; and 
next to them the Neuri (iv. 100). Being thus se- 
parated by the ^. Carpathian mountains from 
Srythia, they were able to refuse tho Scythians, 
tjiag before Dareius, an entrance into their country 
(Hrrod. iv. 125). How far N. they extended cannot 
be ddermined firam Herodotus, for he assigns an 
g mneuus coone to the Ister, N. of which he oon- 
fUea the land to be quite desert [ScnrTHiA.] The 
btff wrUen, for the roost part, place the Agathyrsi 
father to the N., as is the case with nearly all the 
flevthian tribes; vr Ff*^ place them on the Palus Mae- 
olM and some mkmd; and they are generally spdcen 



of in close connection with the Sarmatians and t];e 
Geloni, and are regarded as a Scythian tribe (Ephor. 
ap. Scymn. Fr. v. 123, or 823, ed. Meineke ; Mela 
ii 1; Plin. iv. 26 ; PtoL iii. 5; Dion. Perieg. 310; 
Avien. Deter, Orb. 447 ; Steph. B. ». v. ; Suid. «. v. 
&C.). In their oountiy was found gold and also 
precious stones, among which was tiie diamoiui, 
m^tar TOf^wiijrtfv (Herod, iv. 104 ; Amm. Marc 
xxii. 8; Dion. Perieg. 317). According to Hero- 
dotus, they were a luxurious race (aff/N>Tdroc, Ritter 
explains this as referring to fine clothing), and wore 
much gold : they had a community of wives, in order 
that aJl the people might r^ard each other as 
brethren ; and in their other customs they resembled 
the Thradans (iv. 104). They lived under kingly 
government; and Herodotus mentions their king 
Spaigapeithes as the murderer of the Scythian king, 
.Ajriapeithes (iv. 78). Frequent allusions are made 
by later writers to their custom of painting (or 
rather tattodng) their bodies, in a way to incUcate 
their rank, and staining their hair a dark blue (Virg. 
Aen. iv. 146; Serv. ad loc; PUn. iv. 26; Solin. 20 ; 
Avien. I. &; Ammian. 2. c; Mela ii. 1 : Agaihyrsi 
ora (Xiutque pingunt: tU quique nuyoribut prae" 
stani, ita tnagia, vel mimu: ceterum iudem omneg 
notUf et sic-iU ablui nequeant), Aristotle men- 
tions their practice of solemnly reciting their laws 
lest they should foi^t them, as observed in his time 
(^Fi^. xix. 28). Finally, they are mentioned by 
Virgil (/. c) among the worshippers of the Delian 
Apollo, where their name is, doubtless, used as a 
specific poetical synonym for the Hyperboreans in 
general: — 

" mixtiqae altaria circum 
Creteaque Dryopesque firemunt pictique Agathyrsi.** 

Niebuhr (Kldne Schriftea^ vol. i p. 377) regards 
the Agathyrsi of Herodotus, or at least the people 
who oocapied the position assigned to them by Hero- 
dotus, as the same people as the Getae or Dacians 
(Ukert, 2, pp. 418-421 ; Georgii,vol. ii.pp. 
302, 303 ; Kttcr, VorhaUe, pp. 287, foil.) [P. S.] 

AGBATANA [Ecbatana.] 

tinger Table, one of the chief towns of the Senones 
in the time of Caesar {B. (r. vi. 44, viL 10, 57). 
The orthography of the word varies in the MSS. 
of Caesar, where there is Agendicum, Agedincum, 
and Agedicum. If it is the town which w^s after- 
wards called Senones (Amm. Marc. xvi. 3, Senonas 
oppidum), we may condnde that it is represented 
by the modem toivn of SenSj (m the river Tonne. 
Some critics have supposed that ProvvM represents 
Agendicum. Under the Boman empire, in the later 
division of Gallia, Agendicum was the diief town of 
iiUgdunensis Quarta, and it was the centre of several 
Boman roads. In the walls of the dty there are 
some stones with Boman inscriptions and sculptures. 
The name Agredicum in the Antonine Itineraxy 
may be a oormption of Agendicum. ^ [G. L.] 

AGINNUM or AGENNUM {Agm\ was the 
chief town of the Kitiobriges, a tribe situated be- 
tween the Garumna and the Ligeris in Caesar^s 
time (^B. G. vii. 7, 75). Aginnum was on the road 
from Burdigala to Argentomagus (It Antonin.). 
It is the origin of the modem town of Agen^ on the 
river Garonne, in the department of Lot and Garonne, 
and contains some lUmian remains. Aginnum is 
mentioned by Ansonius (^Ep. xxiv. 79); and it was 
the birthplace of Sulpidus Severas. [G. L.") 

AGISYMBA, i'Ayiovtil8a\ the general naroo 



under wliich Ptolemy includes the whole interior of 
Africa S. c^ the Equator ; which he r^ards as be- 
longing to Aethiopia (i. 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, iv. 8, vii. 
6). [P. S.] 

A'GORA ('AYoptt), a town situated about the 
middle of the narrow neck of the Thracian Cherso- 
nesus, and not fiir from Cardia. Xerxes, when in- 
vading Greece, passed through it. (Herod, vii. 58; 
Scylax, p. 28 ; Steph. B. a, v.) [L. S.] 

AGRA CAypa 'ApoMlas, PtoL vL 7. § 5 ; Stcph. 
B. s, w. *Ia0pi«ira,''E7pa), a small district of Arabia 
Felix, situated at the foot of Mount Hippus, on the 
eastern coast of the Red Sea, in Ut 29 ( N. {AkrcC), 
lathrippa or Lathrippa scans to have been its prin- 
cipal town. [W. B. D.] 

AGRAE. [Attica.] 

AGRAEI ('A^poibt, Thuc. iii. 106; Strab. p. 
449 : 'Aypoclir, PoL xvii. 5 ; Steph. Bjz. », v.), a 
people in the NW. of Aetolia, bounded on the W. 
by Acamania, from which it was separated by 
Mount Thyamus (^Spartovun£)\ on the NW. by the 
territory tA Axgos Amphilodiicum; and on the 
N. by Ddopia. Their territory was called Agrais, 
or Agraea ('Aypats , 4BoSf Thuc. iii. 1 1 1 ; '/^palaj 
Strab. p. 338), and the river Achelous flowed 
through the centre of it. The Agraei were a non- 
Hellenic people, and at the commencement of the 
Peloponnesian war were governed by a native king, 
called Salynthins, who is mentioned as an ally of the 
AmbrRdots, when the latter wefe defeated by the 
Acurnanians and Demosthenes in B. c. 426. Two 
years afterwards (424) Demosthenes nuurched against 
Salynthins and the Agraei, and compelled them to 
join the Athenian alliance. Subsequently they be- 
came subject to the Aetolians, and are called an 
Aetolian people by Strabo. (Thuc. 11. 102, iii. 106, 
114, iv. 77; Strab. p. 449; Pol. xvii. 5; Liv. 
xxxii. 34.) This people is mentioned by Cicero 
(in Pison, 37), under the name of Agrinae, which 
is perhaps a corrupt form. Strabo (p. 338) mentions 
a village called Ephyra in thmr country; and Agri- 
nium would also appear from its name to have been 
one of their towns. [Ephtba; Aoiunium.] The 
Aperanti were perhaps a tribe of the Agraei. 
[Aperantia.] The Agraei were a differmt people 
from the Agnanes, who lived on the borders of 
Macedonia. [Aobiakes.] 

AGRAEI ('A7paro«,Ptol. V. 19. §2; Eratosth. 
op. Strab. p. 767), a tribe of Arabs situated near the 
main road which led from the head of the Bed Sea 
to the Euphrates. They bordered on the Naba- 
thaean Arabs, if they were not indeed a portion of 
that race. According to Hieronymus (^Quae»U m 
ihn, 25), the Agraei inhabited the district which 
the Hebrews designated as Midian. Pliny (v. 11. 
B. 12) places the Agniei much further westward ii! 
the vicinitv of the Laenitae and the eastern shore of 
the Red Sea. [W.B.D.] 

AGRAULE or AGRYLE. [Attica.] 

decuma, tithe), tithe lands, a name given by the 
Romans to the country E. of the Rhine and N. of 
the Danube, which they took possession of on the 
withdrawal of the Germans to the E., and which they 
gave to the immigrating Gauls and subject Germans, 
and subsequently to their own veterans, on the pay- 
ment of a tenth of the produce. Towards tiie end of 
the first or the beginning of the second century after 
Christ, the country became part of the adjoining 
Roman province of Rhaetia, and was thus incorporated 
with the empire. (Tadt Gtrm, 29.) Its boundary 


towards the free part of Germany was protected partlj 
by a wall (fttun Ratisbon to Lorch), and partly bj 'a 
mound (from Lorch to the Rhine, in the neighbonr- 
hood of Cologne) and Roman garrisons. The pro- 
tection (^ those districts against the ever renewed 
attacks of the Germans required a considerable mili- 
tary force, and this gave rise to a number of tuwiu 
and military roads, of which many traces still exiitt. 
But stall the Romans were unable to maintain tbem. 
selves, and the part which was lost first seems to 
have been the country about the river Maine and 
Mount Taunus. The southern portion was probably 
lost soon after the death of the emperor Probiu 
(a.d 283), when the Alemanni took possession of it 
The latest of the Roman inscriptions found m that 
country belongs to the reign of Gallienus (a. d. 260 
— ^268). (Comp. LeichUen, Schwaben unier de» 
Homemj Freiburg, 1825, 8vo.) The towns in the 
Decumates Agri were Ambiatinus vicus, Ausum, 
Divitia, Gesonia, Yictoiia, Bibema, Aquae J^Iattiacae, 
Munimentum Trajani, Artaunum, Triburinm, Bni- 
godurum or Bragodunum, Budoris, Carithni, and 
others. Comp. Rhabtia. [L. S.] 

AGRIA'NES {'Aypidyris : JErgina), a small rim 
in Thrace, and one of the tributaries of the Uebms. 
(Herod, iv. 89.) It flows from Mount Hienm in a 
NW. direction, till it joins the Hebms. Some have 
supposed it to be the same as the Erigon, which, 
however, is impossible, the latter being a tributary 
of the Axins. [L. S.] 

AGRIA'NES CAypuuffs), a Paeonian people, 
dwelling near the sources of the Strymon. They 
formed excellent light-armed troops, and are fre- 
quently mentioned in the campaigns of Alexander 
the Great. (Strab. p. 331 ; Herod, v. 16; ThaciL 
96; Arrian, Anab. L 1. § 11, i. 5. § 1, et alib.) 

AGRIGENTUM ('Airprf-yoy*: £th. and Adj. 
*AKp«yajrrwo$j Agrigentinus: Giryenti)^ one of 
the most powerful and celebrated of the Greek cities 
in Sicily, was situated on the SW. coast of the 
island, about midway between Selinus and Gela. 
It stood on a hill between two and three miles from 
the sea, the foot of which was washed on the £. 
and S. by a river named the Acraoas, from whence 
the city itself derived its appellation, on the W. 
and SW. by another stream named the Htfsas, 
which unites its waters with those of the Acragas 
just below the city, and about a mile from its mouth. 
The former is now called Uie Fiume di S. Biagio, 
the latter the Drcigo, while thdr united stream is 
commonly known as the Fiume di Girgenti (Polyb. 
ix. 27 ; Siefert, Akragas u, tein Gtbiet, p. 20—22). 

We learn fix>m Thucydides that Agrigentum was 
founded by a colony from Gela, 108 years after the 
establishment of the parent city, or b. c. 582. The 
leaders of the colony were Aristonous and Pystilus, 
and it received the Dorian institutions of the mother 
country, including the sacred rites and observances 
which had been derived by Gela itself from Rhodes. 
On this account it is sometimes called a Rhodian 
colony. (Thuc. vi. 4; Scymn. Ch. 292; Strab. vi. 
p. 272, where Kramer justly reads TtXtptov for ^ltiv<)cv\ 
Polyb. ix. 27. Concerning the date of its founda- 
tion see Schol. ad Pmd. 01. iL 66 ; and Clinton, F. II. 
vol. ii. p. 265.) We have very little information 
concerning its early history, but it appears to have 
very rapidly risen to great prosperity and power: 

* The form Acraoas or Agraoas in Latin is 
found only in the Roman poets. (Virg. Aen. iii 
703; SU. Ital. xiv. 210.) 


flmif^ it p e BtismJ its fibcrty lor but a Terj short 
period hrfbre it feO onder the joke of Pbalam (aboot 
570 B. c). The histovy of that despot ia inTolved 
in ■> BDoh nnoertamty that it is difficult to know 
wlttt pvt of it can be depended on as really his- 
toriciL [Dice ofBioffr. art. Pkalajos, vol. ill.] 
Bnt it aeeoia certain that he xaised Agrigentam to 
be Qoe of the most powerfnl cities in Sdlj, and ex- 
taM his dondnion by force of arms orer a oon- 
■denUe part of tlie iahuid. Bat the cmel and 
tyfaiiBieal character of his internal government at 
Ingth proToked a general insurrection, in irhidi 
Flulixis himsdf perished, and the Agrigeniines re- 
comed their Eberty. (Diod. E»c, VaL p. 25; Cic. 
dfe Of. iL 7 ; Ueradides, J\)UL 37.) From this 
period tiQ the acceaaion of Theron, an interval of 
about 60 yt ara, we haTe no infbrmaticn conceming 
A^rigcDtnm, except a casual notice that it was suo- 
eeasi^ely governed by Alcamenes and Alcandms (bat 
whether as despots or chief magistrates does not 
a^csr), and that it rose to great wealth and pros- 
perity ouW their role. (Hersdid. I c.) The 
pnctss date when Theron attained to the sovereignty 
of his oative city, as well as the steps by which he 
iwe to power, are unknown to us: but he appears to 
have beooBie despot of Agrigentam as early as b. c 
488. (Diod. zL 53.) By his alliance with Gdon of 
Sjracnse, and still more by the ezpulsian of Terillns 
£ram Himera, and the annezatian of that city to his 
domioiau, Theron extended as well ss confirmed 
his power, and the great Carthaginian invasion in 
■L c. 480, which for a time threatened destruction 
to all the Gre^ cities in Sicily, ultimately became 
a sooroe of increased prosperity to Agrigentam. For 
after the great victory of Geloa and Theron at Hi- 
Den, a vast number of Carthaginian prisoners fell 
into the hands of the Agrigentines, and were em~ 
pfevfd by them partly in the cultivation of their 
extensive and fertile territoiy, partly in the oon- 
stractaoD of public woiks in tiie dty itself, the 
ma^^nificence of which vras long afterwards a subject 
if «^mii ^ti«i (Diod. xL 25.) Nor does the go- 
venuDcnt of Theron appear to have been oppressive, 
■ad he I'^i***'""*^ in the undisturbed possession of 
the sonefcign power till his death, B. c. 472. His 
aoo Thrasydaeas on the c<xitrary quickly alienated 
kb si^igeets by his violent and arbitrary conduct, 
and was expelled £ram Agrigentum vrithin a year 
afto- his fiuher^s death. (Id. xL 53. For further 
dcisb eonccnang the history of Agrigentum during 
this period, see the articles Tbsboh and Thrast- 
tumm in the DicL o/Btogr. toL iiL) 

The Agrigentines now established a democratic 
faia of govcnment, whidi they retained without 
iatcRapdan for the space of above 60 years, untU 
the ^^'1^WF'"*" invasion in B.a 406 — a period 
wUek imy be r^arded as the most prosperous and 
•mwjAwig in the histocy of Agrigentum, as well as 
if BMBy others of the Sidfian cities. The great 
pobfic works wfaacfa were commenced or completed 
daring *^M« interral were the wonder of succeeding 
m»; the dty itself was adorned with buildings 
boik pabKc and private, inferior to none in Greece, 
nd the wealth *™l magnificence of its inhabitants 
itffa inf rfwfoft proverbiaL Their own citizen £m- 
p«k)cks is said to have remarked that they built 
their houss as if they were to live for ever, but gave 
tknwdvcs up to luxury as if they were to die on 
thenontfw. (Diog. Laert. viiL 2. § 63.) :i^ 

The oumber of dtizcns of Agrigentum at this 
tow is staled by Diodonis at 20,000: but he esti- 



mates the whole population (including probably 
slaves as vrell as strangers) at not less than 200,000 
(Diod. xiii. 84 and 90), a statement by no means 
improbable, while that of Diogenes La^us (/. c), 
who makes the populatiim of ^e dty alone amount 
to 800,000, is certainly a gross exaggeration. 

This period was however by no means one of un- 
broken peace. Agrigentum could not avdd parti- 
dpating — though in a less degree than many other 
dties — in the troubles consequent on the expulsion 
of the Gelonian dynasty fiKnn Syracuse, and the 
revolutions that followed in di£ferent parts of Sicily. 
Shortly afterwards we find it engaged in hostilities 
with the Sicd chief Ducetius, and the conduct of 
the Syracusans towards that chieftain led to a war 
between them and the Agrigentines, which ended in 
a great defeat of the hitter at the river Himera, 
B. 0.446. (Diod. XL 76, 91, xii. 8.) We find also 
obscure notices of intemid dissensions, which were 
allayed by the wisdom and moderation of Empedocles. 
(Diog. Laert. viii 2. § 64 — 67.) On occasion of the 
great Athenian expedition to Sicily in b. o. 415, 
Agrigentum maintained a strict neutrality, and nofcr 
only declined sending auxiliaries to either party but 
refosed to allow a passage through thdr territory to 
those of other dties. And even when the tide of 
fortune had turned decidedly against the Athenians, 
all the efibrts of the Syracusan partisans within the 
walls of Agrigentum foiled in inducing their fellow- 
dtizens to declare for the victorious party. (Thuc. 
vii. 32, 33, 46, 50, 58.) 

A moro formidable danger was at hand. The 
Carthaginians, whoso intervention was invoked by 
the Segestans, were contented in theu> first expedition 
(b. c. 409) with the capture of Selinus and Himem: 
but when the second was sent in b. c. 406 it was 
Agrigentum that was destined to bear the first brunt 
of the attack. The luxurious habits of the Agri- 
gentines had probably rendered them little fit for 
war&re, but they were supported by a body of mer- 
cenaries under the command of a Lacedaemonian 
named Dexippus, who occupied the dtadd, and the 
natural strength of the dty in great measure defied 
the efforts of the assailants. Bat notwithstanding 
these advantages and the effident aid rendered them 
by a Syracusan army under Daphnaeus, they were 
reduced to such distress by fomine that after a siege 
of eight months they found it impossible to hold out 
longer, and to avdd surrondenng to the enemy, 
abandoned thdr dty, and migrat^ to Gela. The 
sick and helpless inhabitants were massacred, and 
the city itself with all its wealth and magnificence 
plundoed by the Carthaginians, who occu|»ed it as 
thdr qoarters during the winter, but completed its de- 
struction when they quitted it in the spring, b.c.405. 
(Diod. xiii. 80—91, 108; Xen. HeU, i. 5. § 21.) 

Agrigentum never recovered from this fotal blow, 
though by the terms of the peace oonduded with 
Dionydus bj the Carthaginians, the fugitive inha- 
bitants were permitted to return, and to occupy the 
ruined dty, subject however to the Carthaginian 
rule, and on condition of not restoring the fortifica- 
tions, a permisdon of whidi many appear to have 
availed themselves. (Diod. xiii. 1 14.) A few years 
later they were even able to shake off the yoke of 
Carthage and attach themselves to the cause of 
Dionydus, and the peace of b. c. 383, which fixed 
the river Halycus as the boundary of the Cartha- 
ginian dominions, must have left them in the enjoy- 
ment of thdr liberty; but though we find them re- 
peatedly mentioned during the wars of Dionydui 




and his sueoessora, it is evident that the city iras 
far from having rocofvered its previous importance, 
and continned to play but a subordinate part. (Diod. 
»v. 46, 88, XV. 17, xvi. 9 ; Plut. Dion, 25, 26, 49.) 
In the general settlonent of the affiiirs of Sicily by 
Timoleon, after his great victoiy over the Cartha- 
ginians on the Grimissns, b. c. 340, he found 
ilgrigentum in a state of such depression that he 
resolved to recoloniso it with citizens from Velia in 
Italy (Pint TimoL 85.): a measure which, combined 
with other benefits, proved of such advantage to the 
city, that Timoleon was looked upon as their second 
founder: and during the interval of peace which fol- 
lowed, Agrigentum agun attained to such great 
prosperity as to become once more the rival of 

Shortly after the accession of Agathocles, the 
Agrigentines, becoming apprehensive that he was 
aspiring to the dominion of the whole island, entered 
into a league with the Geloans and Messenians to 
oppose his power, and obtained from Sparta the 
assistance of Acrotatus the son of Cleomenes as their 
general: but the character of that prince frustrated 
all their plans, and after his expulsion they were 
compelled to purchase peace from Syracuse by the 
acknowledgement of the Hegemony or supremacy of 
that city, B.C. 314. (Diod. xix. 70,71.) Some years 
afterwards, in b. c. 309, the absence of Agathocles in 
Africa, and the reverses sustuned by his partisans 
in Sicily, appeared agam to offer a favourable opening 
to the amUtion of the Agrigentinc», who chose 
Xenodocus for their general, and openly as]nred to 
the Hegemony of Sicily, proclaiming at the same 
time the independence of the several cities. They 
were at first very successful : the powerful cities of 
Gela and £nna joined their cause, Heri)essus and 
£che^ were taken by force; but when Xenodocus 
ventured on a pitched battle with Leptines and De- 
mophUus, the generals of Agathocles, he sustained 
a severo defeat, and was compelled to i^ut himself 
up within the walls of Agrigentum. Agathocles 
himself shortly afterwards returned from Aftica, and 
quickly recovered almost all that he had lost: his 
general Leptines invaded the territory of Agrigentum, 
totally defeated Xenodocus, and compelled the Agri- 
gentines once more to sue for peace. (Diod. xx. 31, 
32, 56, 62.) 

After the death of Agathocles, Agrigentum fell 
under the yoke of Phintias, who became despot of 
the city, and assumed the title of king. We have 
very little information concerning the period of his 
rule, but he appears to have attained to great power, 
as we find Agyrium and other cities of the interior 
subject to his dominion, as well as Gicla, which he 
destroyed, in order to found a new city named after 
himself. [Geui.] The period of his expulsion is 
unknown, out at the time when Pyirhus landed in 
Sicily we find Agrigentum occupieid by Sosistratus 
with a strong force of mercenary troops, who how- 
ever hastened to make his submission to the king of 
Epeirus. (Diod. xxii. Exc. ffoesch. p. 495—497.) 

On the commencement of the First Punic War, 
Agrigentum espoused the cause of the Carthaginians, 
and even permitted their general Hannibal to fortify 
tiieir dtadel, and occupy the city with a Cartha- 
ginian garrison. Hence after the Romans liad 
secured the alliance of Hieron of Syracuse, their 
principal efforts were directed to the reduction of 
Agrigentum, and in b. c. 262 the two consuls L. 
Postumius and Q. Mamilias laid siege to it with 
their whole force. The siege lasted nearly as long 


as that by the Carthaginians in b. c 406, and tlwt 
Romans suffered severely finom disease and want of 
provisions, but the privations of the besieged were 
still greater, and the Cartha^nian general Hanno, 
who had advanced with a large army to relieve the 
dtj, having been totally defeated by the Roman 
consuls, Hannibal who commanded the army within 
the walls found it impossible to hold out any bnger,, 
and made his escape in the night with the Garths* 
ginian and mercenary troops, leaving the city to its 
fiite. It was immediately oocu]iied by the Rraimii& 
who carried off 25,000 of the inhabitants into sla- 
very. The siege had lasted above seven montiis, 
and is said to have cost the victorious army more 
than 30,000 men. (Diod. xxui. Exc. Iloegch. p. 501 
—503; Polyb. i. 17—19; Zonar. \'iii. 10.) At a 
later period of the war (b. c. 255) successive losses 
at sea having greatly weakened the Roman power in 
Sicily, the Carthaginian general Carthalo recovered 
possession of Agrigentum with comparatively little 
difiiculty, when he once more laid the city in ashes 
and razed its walls, the surviving inhabitants havmg 
taken refuge in the temple of the Olympian Zens. 
(Diod. I. c. p. 505.) 

From this time we hear no more of Agrigentum 
till the end of the First Punic War, when it passed 
under the dominion of Rome : but it must have in 
some d^ree recovered from its late calamities, as it 
plays no unimportant part when the contest between 
Rome and Carthage was renewed in the Second 
Punic War. On this occaaon it continued steadfast 
in its adherence to the Romans, but was surprised 
and taken by Hinulco, before Marcellus could arrive 
to its support (Liv. xxiv. 35.) : and from henceforth 
became the chief stronghold of the Carthaginians in 
Sicily, and held out agunst the Roman oonsal 
Laevinus long after the other cities in the island had 
submitted. At length the Numidian Mutines, to 
whose courage and skill the Carthaginians owed their 
protracted defence, having been ofiended by their 
general Hanno, betrayed the city into the hands of 
Laevmus, b. c. 210. The leading citizens were put 
to death, and the rest sold as slavra. (Liv. xxr. 40, 
41, xxvi. 40.) 

Agrigentum now became, in common with the 
rest of the Sicilian citias, permanently subject to 
Rome: but it was treated with much &vour and 
enjoyed many privileges. Three years after its 
capture a number of new citizens ftom other parts of 
Sicily were established there by the praetor Mamilins, 
and two years after this the municipal rights and 
privileges of the citizens were determined by Scipio 
Africanus in a manner so satisiactoiy that they con- 
tinued unaltered till the time of Verres. Cicero 
repeatedly mentions Agrigentum as one of the most 
wealthy and populous cities of Sicily, the fertility of 
its territory and the convenience of its port rendering 
it one of tlie chief emporiums for the trade in com. 
(Cic. Verr. ii. 50, 62, iii. 43, iv. 33, 43.) It is 
certain, however, that it did not in his day rank as 
a Roman colony, and it is very doubtful wliether it 
ever attained this distinction, though we find that it 
was allowed to strike coins, with the Latin inscrip- 
tion Agrigentum, as late as the time of Augustus. 
(Eckhel, D. N. vol. i. p. 193,)* If it really obtained 
the title and privileges of a colony under that em- 
peror, it must have soon lost them, as neither Pliny 

*Mommsen (Das Romische Miatz-Wesen^ p. 
237) considers Agrigentum to have been on the 
footing of a Colonia Latina, like Nemausus in Gaul. 


DOT PtoleiBj nekon it among the Roman ookmies in 
Solr. Fran the time of Aogostos we find no his- 
torical ONOtian of it imder the Roman empire, but 
its ecvtzmd exLrtence is attested by the geographers 
aod Itineyaries, and as long as Sicily len^ained 
nlljleet to the Greek empire, Agiigentom is still 
lae ntim gd as one of its most canaderable dties. 
{Stub. Ti pi 272; Plin. H. N. m. 8. § 14; Ptol. iiL 
4. $ U; Itin. Ant p. 88; Tab. Pent.; Const. Porph. 
Wb Prc€. u. 10.) It was one of the &8t phuxs that 
611 into the hands of the Saracens on their inyasion 
of Skalj in 827, and was wrested from them by the 
Xarmans nnder Roger Gniscaxd in 1086. The 
imkni dty of GirgenH still contains aboat 13,000 
■habitants, and is the see of a bishop, and capital 
of one of the seren districts or Intendenze into which 
Skilr b now divided. 

The sitnatian of Agrigentnm is well described by 
PiaMsos (ix. 27). It oocnpied a hill of considerable 
ottBt, rising between two small riren, the Acragas 
aad H jpMS, of which the southern front, thongh of 
sBuD eJeratkm, presrated a steep escarpment, mn- 
ang oeariy in a straight line from £. to W. From 
hoKe the grocmd sloped gradually upwards, thongh 
tnwned by a chms valley or depres8i(»i, towards a 
Bndi OKire elevated ridge which formed the northern 
pntiao of the dty, and was divided into two sum- 
niti» the north-western, on ^diich stands the modem 
dtr of GirgmH, and the north-eastern, which de- 
nied from a temple of Athena, that crowned its 
height, the uune cf tlie i^enaean hill {6 *A$nveuos 
JUfpf, DkxL ziii. 85). This summit, which at- 
tdoB to the height of 1200 feet above the sea, and 
ii the most efemted of the whole dty, is completely 
|wq | Mt o ns and inacoeasible towards the N. and £., 
■od could be approached only by one steep and 
DsiTow path from the aty itself. Hence, it fiwmed 
the utonl citadel or acropolis of Agrigentom, while 
the fcctk slopes and broad valley which separate it 
fioB the SDOtbeni ridge, — now covered with gardens 
md frnit-trees, — aflforded ample space for the ex- 
tmnoB sol development of the dty itself. Great 
ai was the natoral atrength of its position, the whole 
rity was sonoonded with walls, of which consider- 
iUe portions still renoain, especially along the southern 
boat : their whtde circuit was about 6 miles. The 
peealiai^ies of its situation sufficiently explain the 
dmmattaees of the two great si^es of Agngentum, 
n both of which it will be ofaserred that the as- 
uikatB eonfined all their attacks to the southern 
aidsaath-westem parts of the dty, wholly neglect- 
ioK the north and east. Diodorus, indeed, expressly 
tdOft u that there was only one quarter (that ad- 
y«BiB|r the liver Hypeas) where the walls could be 
•ffnached by military engines, and assaulted with 
aar prospect of success. (Diod. xiii. 85.) 

Api^cntom was not less celebrated in andent 
tanea £3r the beauty of its architecture, and the 
»r4pndoDr and variety of its buildings, both public 
and yaxfte, than for its strength as a fortress. 
Ilndar calls it '' the fiuRst of mortal cities " (ira\- 
^'<rra Bpvrwof wo\4mr, Pffth, xiL 2), though many 
*f its most striking ornaments were probably not 
veded till after his time. The magnificence of the 
prirato dwellings of the Agrigentines is snfBciently 
attested by the saying of Empedodes already cited : 
their public edifices are the theme of admiration 
with many andent writers. Of its temples, pro- 
Vtbiy the most sndent were that of Zeus Atabyrios, 
«hnM worship they derived from Rhodes, and that 
•f Aihesa, both of which Stood on the highest 



siunmit of the Athenaean hill above the dty. 
(Pdyb. L e.) The temple of 2^eus Polieus, the 
construction of which is ascribed to Phalaris (Po- 
lyoen. v. 1. § 1), is supposed to have stood on the 
hill oocufned by the modem ci^ of GtrgeaU, which 
appears to have formed a second dtadd or acropolis, 
in some measure detached from the more lofty 
sununit to the east of It Some fragments of 
andent walls, still existing in those of the church 
of Sta Maria die* Greet, are considered to have 
belonged to this temple. But far more celebrated 
than these was the great temple of the 01ym{»an 
Zeus, which was commenced by the Agrigentines 
at the period of their greatest power and prosperity, 
but was not quite finished at the time of the Car- 
thaginian invasion in b. c. 406, and in consequence 
of that calamity was never completed. It is de- 
scribed in considerable detdl by Diodorus, who tdls 
us that it was 340 feet long, 160 broad, and 120 
in hdght, without reckoning the basemerit. The 
columns were not detached, but engaged in ihe 
wall, from which only half of thdr drcumferenoe 
projected: so gigantic were their dimensions, that 
each of the flutings would admit a man's body. 
(Diod. xiii. 82; Polyb. ix. 27.) Of this vast 
edifice nothing remains but the basement, and' a 
few fragments of the columns and entablature, but 
even these suffice to confirm the accuracy of the 
statements of Diodorus, and to prove that the 
temple must not only have greatly exceeded all 
others in Sicily, but was probably surpassed in 
magnitude by no Grecian building of the kind, 
except that of Diana at Ephesos. A considerable 
portion of it (induding several columns, and three 
gigantic figures, which served as Atlantes to sup- 
port an entabUture), appears to have remained stand- 
ing till the year 1401, when it fell down : and the 
vast masses of fallen fragments were subsequently 
employed in the construction of the mole, which 
protects the present port of GirgenH, (FazeU. vol L 
p. 248 ; Smyth's Sicibf, p. 203.) 

Besides these, we find mention in andent writers 
of a temple of Hercules, near the Agora, containing 
a statue of that deity of singular beauty and excd- 
lence (Cic. Verr. iv. 43), and one of Aesculapius 
without the walls, on the south side of the ci^ 
(Cic. L c. ; Polyb. L l^B), the remains of which are 
still visible, not far from the bank of the river 
Acragas. It contamed a celebrated statue of Apollo, 
in bronze, the work of Myron, which Yerres in vain 
endeavoured to carry off. Of the otho* temples, the 
ruins of which are extant on the site of Agngentum, 
and are celebrated by all travellers in Sicily, the 
andent appellations cannot be detennincd with any 
certainty. The most conspicuous are two which 
stand on the southern ridge fadng the sea : one of 
these at the S. E. angle of the city, is commonly 
known as the temple of Juno Ladnia, a name which 
rests only on a misconception of a passage of Pliny 
(//. A'* XXXV. 9. § 90 : it is in a half ruined state, ^'^ 
but its basement is complete, and many of its columns 
still standing. Its position on the projecting angle 
of the ridge, with a pred]:itons bank below it on 
two sides, gives it a singularly picturesque and 
striking character. A few hundred paces to the 
W. of tins stands another temple, in far better pre- 
servation, being indeed the most perfect which 
remains in Sicily ; it is commonly called the temple 
of Concord, from an inscription said to have been 
discovered there, but which (if authentic) is of 
Roman date while both this temple and that Just 



described must oertunlj be referred to the most 
floarishing period of Agrigentine history, or the fifth 
oeotuiy B. c. Thej are both of the Doric order, 
and of much the same dimrasions : both are peri- 
ptertdf or soirouided with a portioo, consisting of 6 
Golmnns in front, and 13 on Mch side. The existing 
vestiges of other temples are much less considerable: 
one to the W. of that of Concord, of which only one 
column is standing, is coomionly r^arded as that of 
Hercules, mentioned by Cicero. Its plan and design 
have been completely ascertamed by recent exca- 
vations, which have proved that it was much the 
largest of those remaining at Agrigentum, after that 
of the Olympian Zeus : it had 15 columns in the side 
and 6 in firont. Another, a little to tiie north of it, 


of which considerable portions have been preserved 
and brought to light by excavation on the spo^ 
bears the name, though certainly without authori^, 
of CastcHT and PoUuz: while another, on the op- 
posite side of a deep hollow or ravine, of which tvo 
columns remain, is styled that of Vulcan. A snuU 
temple or amUcula^ near the convent of 8. Nieoh, is 
commonly known by the designation of the Oretoiy 
of Phalaris : it is of insignificant size, and oertsinljr 
of Roman date. The church of S(.J32m^ or ^JSioj^, 
near the eastern extremity of the Athenaean hill, is 
formed out of tiie cella of an ancient temple, wUch 
is supposed, but without any authority, to have been 
dedicated to Ceres and Proserpine. (For fall detaib 
oonoeming these temples, and the other ruins suU 


A A. Modem City of Gir^nti. 


Temple of Juno Ladnia. 

B B. The Atbenaean Hill. 


of Concord. 

C C. Ancient Walls of Agrigentum, 


of Hercules. 

D. Ancient Port. 


of Zeus Olympius. 

£. Modem Port. 


of Castor and Pollux. 

F F. Ancient Burial Ground. 


of Vulcan. 

G G. River Hypsas (F, Drago). 


of Aesculapius. 

H H. River Acnigas {F. di S. Btagio), 


called Uie Oratory of Phalaris. 

1. Temple of Zeus Pollens. 


Tomb of Theron. 

2. of Athena (?). 


Supposed site of Pisdna described by Di 

3. of Ceres and Proserpine 


at Girymti, ne Sirinbume^B Tnuelt, toL iL 
p,t90-»l; Staphs Skay, p. 207— 212; D*Or. 
nl]e'< JIM^ p.89— 103; i^efert, Akragaa^ p. 24 
— 38: and tspeoaUr Sens di Faloo, Antickitd della 
JSr&i vol ni, wbo gives the resoHs of recent 
laboen en the spot, jdmdj of which irers unknown 
to ftmer wnlcn.^ 

Next to the temple of the Ofympum Zens, the 
]ieblk mtk q£ which Diodoros epetika with the 
pmtmt admirition (zL-25, xilL 72), was ApisemOf 
m i t i T iii of wmtcr, oonstracied in the time of 
Them, which wu not leas than seven stadia in cir- 
canfereaoe, and was plentifnily stocked with fish, and 
fifi]oeiited by nnmeroos swans. It had fidlen into 
4ecaj, and beoooM filled with mod in the time of the 
birtarisD, hut its site ta sappoeed to be still indicated 
bf a deep hoUow or de p res g iwi in the & western 
poftion of the dtj, between the temple of Vnlcan 
lad that of Castor aod Polliiz, now converted into 
a pideD. Coonected with this was an extensive 
fystnn of sohtemiiean eewere and conduits for 
vitcr, constnicted on a scale far saperior to those 
if IDT other Gieek dty: these were called Phaeaoes, 
from the name of their ardiitect Phaeax. 

It vas not onlj in their pablio buildings that the 
ApigeBlBKa, dniJDg the floorishing period of their 
fiiT, lored to dnplay their wealth and Inxoiy. An 
wtcatatkms magmficence appears to hare charao- 
tened thdr haUts of life, in other respects also : 
mA ihowed itself espedallj in their love of horses 
■d chaiiota. Their teeritocy was celebrated for 
the fTffrnmwt of its breed of horses (Viig. Aeim, iii. 
704), an advantage which enabled them repeatedly 
ti bear away the prize in the chariot-raoe at the 
dkjvB^ ganies : and it is recorded that after one 
of then occaaiooa the victor Exsenetns was aocom- 
paied on his triumpihant entry into his native city 
bf BO ksB than three hnndred chariots, all drawn 
by white hcnes. (Diod. xiii. 82.) Not less con- 
flioBsos snd splendid were the hospitaJities of the 
SNR iceahhy citizens. Those of Thenn are cele- 
bnCed hr Pindar (OL iiL 70), hot even these pro- 
\Mj feji short of those of hUer days. Gellias, a 
diaen noted even aft Agrigentnm for his wealth 
sal fpioidoiir of fiving, is said to have lodged and 
fcMled at oooe fire hundred knighta from Gda, and 
Aatisthenes, on oocasioa of his danghter^s manriage, 
finished a banjoet to all the dtixens of A^- 
potam in the several qnarters they inhabited. 
(Diil ziiL 83, 84.) These lozmrioos habits were 
not n na w^ii p wyMJ with a refined taste for the cul- 
tiniian of the fine arts : thdr temples and public 
bdldhigB woe adonied with the choicest works of 
Mdptars and painting, many of which were carried 
iff by Himiloo to Carthage, and some of them after 
the fin of that dty restored to Agrigentmn by Sdpio 
Africanos. (Diod. siL 90 ; Cic Ferr.iv. 43; Plin. 
B. S. joxT. 9. s. 36.) A like spirit of ostentation 
was diqdayed in the magnitude and splendour of 
thor flcpoidiral monuments; and they are said to 
have even eredcd costly tombs to favourite horses 
lad to pet birds. (Died. xiii. 82; Pluu H,N, 42. 
M; Solin. 45. § 11.) The pbin in firant of the 
city, DQcnpying the space fiom the southern wall to 
the eonfiiienoe of the two rivers, was full of these 
vfokkres and monmnents, among which that of 
Tberan was oonspicuoos for its magnitude (Diod. 
ni. 86) : the name is now commanly given to the 
oahr s im e tT o of the kind whidi remains, though 
it it of inconsiderable dimensions, and belongs, in all 
pmnsbility, to the fioman period. 



For this extraordinazy wealth Agiigentum was 
indebted, in a great measure, to the fertili^ of its 
territory, which abounded not only in com, as it 
continued to do in the time of Cicero, and still does 
at the present day, but was especially fruitful in 
vines and olives, with the produce of which it sup- 
plied Carthage, and the whole of the adjoining parts 
of Africa, where their cultivatiou was as yet un- 
known. (Diod. xi. 25, xiiL 81.) The vast multi- 
tude of slaves which fell to the lot of the Agrigoi- 
tines, after the great victoiy of Himera, contributed 
greatly to their prosperity, by fln»Ming them to 
bring into careful cultivation the whde of their 
extensive and fertile dixnain. The valiies on the 
banks of its river furnished excellent pasture for 
sheep (Pind. Pgth, xiL 4), and in later times, when 
the ndghbouring country had ceased to be so richly 
cultivated, it was noted for the excellence of its 
cheeses. (Plin. H. N, xi 42. 97.) 

It is difficult to determine with preddon the 
extent and boundaries of the territory of Agri- 
gentum, which must indeed have varied greatly at 
different times : but it would seem to have extended 
as far as the river Himera on the £., and to have 
been bounded by the Halycus on the W. ; though 
at one time it must have comprised a oondderable 
extent of country beyond that river; and on the 
other hand Heradea Minoa, on the eastern bank of 
the Halycus, vras for a long time independent of 
Agrigentum. Towards the interior it probably 
extended as fer as the mountain range in whidi 
those two riven have their sources, the Nebrodes 
Mons, or Monte Madonia, which separated it from 
the territory of Himera. (Sicfiert, Ahraga»^ p. 9 — 1 1.) 
Among the smaller towns and places subject to its 
dominion are mentioned Motttjm and EbbessuSi 
in the interior of the country, Camicus, the andent 
fortress of Cocalns (erroneously supposed by many 
vrriters to have occupied the dte of the modem 
town of Girgenti), Egnomus on the borders of the 
territory of Gela, and subeequently PHnrriAS, 
founded by the despot of that name, on the dte of 
the modem AUeata, 

Of the two rivers whidi flowed beneath the walls 
of Agrigentum, the most considerable was the 
AcBAGAS, fipom whence according to the common 
consent of most ancient authors the dty derived its 
name. Hence it vnw worshipped as one of the 
tutdary deities of the dty, and statues erected to it 
by the Agrigentines, both in Sicily and at Delphi, 
in which it was represented under the figure of a 
young man, probably vrith horns on his forehead, as 
we find it on the coins of Agrigentum. (Pind. OL 
ii. 1 6, J^fth. xiL 5, and Schd. ad locc ; Empedocles 
ap, Liog. Laert viii. 2. § 68 ; Steph. Byz. v. 
'AKpdyas ; Aelian. V, H. iL 33 ; CastelL Numm, 
Sic. Vet, p. 8.) At its mouth was dtuated the 
Port or Emporium of Agrigentum, mentioned by 
Strabo and Ptdemy; but notwithstanding the ex- 
tensive commerce c^ which this was at one time the 
centre, it had little natural advantages, and must 
have been mainly formed by artificial constractions, 
Oondderable remains of these, half buried in sand, 
were still visible in the time of FazeUo, but have 
since in great measure disappeared. The modem 
port of GirgenU is situated above three miles further 
west. (Strab. vi. pp. 266, 272 ; PtoL iii. 4. § 6 ; 
Fazell. vi. 1. p. 246 ; Smyth's Sicihf, pp. 202, 203.) 
Among the natural productions dl Uie ndghbour- 
hood of Agrigentum, we find no mention in andent 
authors of the mines of sulphur, which are at the 


prosent daj om of the chief Boarce* of prosperily to 
airgaiti ; hut its miiiM of salt (etiU wotked at * 
ptuw called Aboranffi, about 8 miles north of the 
citj), an alluded ta both bj Flinj and SoUnus. 
(Mia. H. X. xuL 7. s. 41 ; Soiio. 5. g§ IB, 19.) 
Sevend writan also notica ■ Snmtaia id the imme- 
diate DOGbboarbiwd of (lie dtj, which produced 
Petrolenm or mineral oil, oomidered to ba of great 
efficocj u a medicament for cattle and sheep. The 
Kurce still exists in a gudcn not Eu from Gii^d, 
nod is frequentlf resorted to bj the peasanta & the 
came pnipoe*. (Dioscorid. i, 1 00 ; Plin, ff. If, ixxt. 
15. 8. 51 i Solin. 5. § 32 i Faiell. ,U ffeS. SeW. vi, 
p. 261 ; Fetrara, Campi FlegreidillaSidiia, p. 43,} 
A mora remarkable object is the mnd volcano (now 
called hj the Arabic itame of ifaccaivhbd) ahoiit 
railea N. of GirgerUi^ the ^^enomena of wbich ai 
described b; Solinns, but unnoticed bj any preriona 
KTiler. (Sohn:6. g 34; FaicIL p. 363; Fe 
to. p. 44; Smyth's 5in7y, p. 213.) 

Among; the nomerone distingtiidied dtl» 
wliian Agrigeutum (^ave birth, the most cotupcnoua 
is tii& philusopher Fmpedocies : among his ountem' 
purnries we maj mention the rhetoriclaii Pohis, and 
the phjatcian Acroo. Of earlier dale than tbese 
waa the comic poet Deinolochns, the puf^I, Ijut 

tbo historian of the First Punic War, ig the latest 


The extant arehitectural remains of Agrigenhim 
hare been already noticed in speaking of its ancient 
edifices. B«id» these, numenma fragznenta of 
buildings, xoae of Greek and others of Roman date, 
an ecitlertd orcr the Hla of the ancieat citr : and 
great Diunbers of sepnldiies have tieen excavated, 
some in the plain bdoH the city, othen within ita 
nalLa. The painted vas» found in these tonba 
greatljr exceed in nmnl>er and varietj those 
oaVBTRl in eny other Sicilian dty, and rival those of 
Campania and Apulia. 

But with this exeeption oomparstively leii works 
of art have been discuvered. A sarcophagus of 
marble, now preserved in the cathedral of Girgaiti, 
on which is represented the story of Phaedra and 
Hippoljtua, haa been greatly extolled hy many tra- 
vellers, but its merits are certainly over-rated. 

Then exist uader the hill occnjned by the modem 
dty eitmsive cataeombt or excavatiaDS in the rock, 
which have been referred hy many writera to the 
ancient Kcnnians, or ascribed to Daedalus. It ii 
probable that, like the very similar eicavationa at 
Syracuse, they were, in fact, comtmcted merely in 
the process of quarrying (tone for building purposes. 

The coins of Apigentum. which are very nume- 
rous and of beautiful workmanship, present as thni 
common type an eagle on the one side and a cralf 
on the other. The one hero figtmd oi which the 
c:i^le is represented as toanng a har« belonga nn- 


doubtedly to (he moat flourishing period of Agfi- 
gcQtine history, that immediately preceding the 
siq^ and capture of the city by the Carthaginiana, 
B. c 406. Other ooins of the same period have a 

victories at the Olympic g«ii«, [E. H. B.] 

AGRI'KIUM (A'xplfiof), a town of Aetolia, Mtn- 
atcd towards the NB. of Aetolia, near the Achieloui. 
Ita poadon ia quite uncertain. From ita nante wv 
might conjecture that it waa a town of the Agraei; 
bat the narrative in Polytaus (v. 7) woold imply 
that it was not so fiki north. In D. C 314 we find 
Agrinjum in alliance with tbe Acamaniaos, when 
Cassander marched to the assistance of the latter 
agunat the Aetolians. Aa soon as Caaeander returned 
to Hacedonia, Agrinium waa besieged by the Aeto- 
liaiu,aiidcapital^ed; bat theAetoliana treacberooEly 
pot to dealJi tbe greater part <£ the inbabilants. 
(Diod. xix. 67, 68) Leake, NorOum Gretce, voL L 

p. ise.) 

AQBIO'PHAQI (Peripl. Hic. Er. p. 3). wen 

the same people u tbe Crei^a^ v fleah-eaters of 
Aethiopa Troglodytica. In enmmer they drove 
their herds down to the pastures td the Astaboras ; 
in the rainy season they returned to the Aethiopian 
nxnntains east of that river. Afl tli«r name and 
diet imply they were hunters and herdsmen. [Axf 
THioi-iA.] rW.B. D.l 

AGYLLA [Cabkb.] 

AGY'RIUH (^Ky6pwr: Eth. 'AYi^inui Agyri- 
nensis), a city i^ the ulterior of Siaij now called S. 
Filippo dAryirh. It was aitaated on the aommib 
of a steep and lofty hill, between Euna and Centoripa, 
and wa£ dictant IS Roman milea from the former, 
and 13 from the latter. (Tab. Pent. The Iliii. Ant. 
p. 93, enoDeotisly gives only 3 jot tbe former dia- 
lance.) It was r^^arded aa one of the most aocienb 
oiliai of Sidiy, and aocording to the mythical tradi- 
tions rf the ioliabilanta was visited by Hencles on 
hia wnnderings, who was received by the inhaiutante 
with divine honours, and instituted various sacred 
rites, which contiimed to be obeorved in the days <£ 
Diodonia. (Diod- tv. 34.) Historically speaking, it 
appears to have been a Siceliaa dty, and did not re- 
ceive a Greek cohuy. It ia first meatiaaed m b. c. 
404, when it was imder tbe goremnMnt of a ptitm 
of the name li Agyris, who was on terms of friend- 
■ alliatKe with Konyrina rf Syiacnse, and 
im on variona ociasona. Agyria exleodcd 
ion over many of the neighbouring tovns 
and fortreosee of the interior, so as to be&mie the 
Pill prince in Sicily ailer Dionysins him- 
self, and the ci^ of Agyrium is said to have been at 

0,000 ciliams. (Diod. liv. 9, 78, 95.> 
During the iuvaiion of the Carthagmiaaa under Mago 
in B. c. 393, Agyris continued atoidfast to the al- 
hance d Dionyaoa, and contributed essential serviai 
■ the Carthaginian general (Id-iiv, 95, 96.) 
hia time we hear no mor» of Agyjis or bis 
city during the rragn <£ Dionyana, bat in a. a 339 
we find Agyrium under the yoke cf a deepot mmed 
Apdllouiadea, who waa cempeiled by Hmdeoo to aln 
dicAle hia power- The inhabitants were now declared 
Syncusan dtizeua; 10,000 new cdonista receival 
' D its exten^ve and fertile territory, and 
the dty itself waa adorned with a magnificent theatre 
and other public buildings. (Diod. xvi. 83, 83.) 

bter period it became subject to Phintias, 
king of Agrigeutum i but was one of tbe first citkn 

Iillwn if fail Tnks, uHl'a ffwjmn iSttx^utSa wa 
ind tfap AgJTBmemix on &iendlj lentu with HSeron 
^tf J SjiiLuae, fix which thej were mrmrded bj 
Ibt {ill rf half the tsriloTj that hai beknged to 

^miil (Diod. nii. Eic Hoacfa. pp. 495, 4990 

tUff the Bcm^ govemiiwiit Chcy cootijinod to be 
( loaiiihu^ and imltfaf eommuiuty, and Cicero 
^■b rf A^jriom H gpc of the mwt oxuidenMe 
adn rf Sidl;. Its mallh wu chie£j' derived frran 
tkr firtiBi]' of it* (cnitmy in com : which preriona 
k lb amiml gf Vcme fonnd empliTnient for 350 
bum (ustise*). a Dumber diininiihed b; the ei- 
Ktka t^hi^ prartorBfaip to no m«« than BO. {Cif:. 
riTT, iii. 18. S7— 31, 51, 53.) Fivm this period 
n htrc tittle tuithir Dotice rf it, in ancient times, 
bticlaaed bj Plin; anuag Iho "populiitipeiidiiuii'' 
rfftjlj.aiid the name is found bath in Ptolani; and 
the ItinenneB. In the middle agea it berame cele- 
hiM fcr a dinnh of St. Fhifip with a miraculoai 
litw, fhm Kbenec tba modeni nanio rt the town is 
faind. It bacame in amseqacDce a gnat nioit of 
pIpiD Eraii >a {Uti cf the iaiand, and is still a 
ooBdmUe pfawc, with the title of a cic^ and abon 
Birw jnK^fnt. (Plin.iii.S.U;PIol.iii.4.gl3: 
FiaL A Stb. SiaJ. T<d. i. p. 435; Ortolani, Du. 
Cdiyr. deOi Sic^iM, p. 111.) 

the histonan Kodcnu Scnlni was a tutiTe ti 
ifjiinn, and ha* preserred to as serem] particniaTs 
«■■<<■ nji»|F his natiTe town. Numerous memofials 
■n {msTTd Ihsv of the pretended Tint of Ho- 
nda: the impnadon of the feet (^ his oiea WIS still 
tum in the nek, and a Ulie or pool fonr slfujia in 

Iw Unu A TaDcna or sacred groTs in the niigh- 
boarhead of the dtj was consccnled lo GsTimes, 
ind anether to lolani, which was an object of peculiar 
Tfwntim: ind ■nnnal games and sacrificei were 
cddnlBl in hoBBT both cf that hen and tf He- 
ndeiUmadf. (IMod. i. 4,iT. 24.) At a later period 
'nmJfca waa the chief bene&ctor of the dtj, where 
hi ta>tnicud several tcmpla, a Boulenlerion ind 
Agcn, as wdl as a thntn which Djodoms tells as 
WM the finsst in all Scilf, after that of Syiacose, 
(Id. xtL 83.) Scaied J any rcnuuns of thoe bnild- 
mp an mw tisibk, the onlj mnjgn cf antiqnilf 
hang 1 few andc&ncd fragments of mssomy. The 
iBBcd caKle on tb« flunmit of the bin, UtribDted bf 
smne wriun to the Greeks, is a work of the Saracens 
B the tenth centnrj. (Amico, ad FaalL p. 440; 
La. Ttifefr. Sit Td. i. p. 38.) [E. H. B.] 



inge which separates ITf^ier Eg^ from the Rrd 
Sra. It was in the parallel rfThebei, and S. of the 
modsrn Aoanr (Philolenu), in lat. 39^. The dis- 
trict occnixed bj the Iclh}^phagi commenced a little 
to the north of the headlond of Aias. [W. B. D.] 
ALABANDA (i> 'AXitatta, tA 'AAiUorfa : Eth. 
'AAaSavSiiif, Alabandeus, Alsbandensis, Alabtnde- 
nna : A<^. AJabandiens), a city of Caria, was litu- 
Bted 160 stadia & of Tralles, and was eepanUed 
frosi the plain of Hjlasa i>7 a DMmiliiia tract. 
SCnbo describes it as IjiDg at the foot of ti 

He aHbrds no di 
Btiai,'wliich is atterly unknown. Clni 
aha writen hare eapposed it to be the 
Ada. bat this seems scarcclj recondlable nilh the 
dramstauH of the ounpaign. (Clnvcr. Itat 
p. 636.) [E. H. B.] 

AIAS or AEAS (A&J tpot, Ptol. i'. 5. g 1 
ho. •! 39. B. 33), was a headland of the limratone 

«•), ' 

ler as to present the appcaranco o 
imiers on. The modeni site is aouoani; oui 
AraA Hiud, en a large branch (^ the Hasandei, now 
called the TMna, which jdns that riier on the S, 
bank, is supposed by Leake to represent Alaband* ; 
and the nature of the gnrnnd conespraids well 
enough with Strabo's descriplion. The Tthina may 
probabl)' be the Marsyas of Herodottu (t. IIB). 
re are the remains of a theatre and many other 
ilngj m this site; hnt very few inscriptions. | 
landa was noted for the Inxnrions habits of P^ 
ddieDS. Under the Roman empire it was 
seat of a Conventiu Joridicns m conrt house, 
one of the moat floarishlng towns of the pro- 
vince of Asia. A ttoae called " lajus AEabandidLs,** 
iighbourhood, was fuuble (Pliu. 
md used fw making glauj and for . 

glaiing vessels.' C^t^liL flTVi-^ IZi^-^ flW-X* XV II . 

gtephanns menSims twT dties of the name of 
Alabinda in Caria, but it does not appear that any 
nther writer mentions two. Herodotus, however 
(viL 195), speaks of Alabanda in Caria (tw ir t^ 
Kapfii), which is the Akbanda of Strabo. The 
words of description added by Herodotos seem to 
imply that there was another city of the name ; and 
in fact he speaks, in another {sssage (viii. 136), of 
Alabanda, a laige c^ty of Fhrygia. This Alahanda 
of Fhrygia cannot be the town on the Tthina, for 
Phrygia never eitended so &r as there. [G. L.] 

'AXiSaaTpar irrfXii, Ptol. ir. 5. § SB; Plin. T. 9. 
s. 1 1, luvii. B. B. 32), a dty cf Egjpt, whose eite ia 
diderently stated by Pliny and Ptolemy. Pliny plscea 
it in Upper Egypt ; Itolemy in the Heptsnomis. It 
would accordingly be dther south or north of the 
Hons Alabastrites. It was donbtless comected with 
the alabaster qnanies of that mountain. If Ala- 
bastia stood in the Heptannnis, it was an iiiland 
town, connected with the Kile by one of the many 
roads which pervade the region between that river 
and the Arabian bills. [W. B. D] 

Ptol. iv. 5. § 27), formed a portion of the limestone 
iwka which nm weetwaid from the Arabian Mils 
into Upper and Middle Egypt. This ufjaud ridge 
or spnr w» lo the out OC the city (rf Uermqnlb 
Uagna, in hit. 37^, and gave ita name to the town 
of Alabastn. It contwied ta^e qnnrriea of the 
beautifnlly veined and white alabaster which the 
Egyptians Bo largely employed for thar sarTojJiagi 
and other worlis of art. The grottoes in this ridge 
are by some writers supposed to occnpy the nte of 
the dty Alsbastra (see preceding article), but this 
wasprobaMyfurtherfromthemoanlain. Theywere 
frstvisitedb<rSirGardBerWilkiDsoninl834. The 
grolloea of Koam-d-Ahmar arc believed lo be the 

the names of some of the earliest Egyptian kings, 
but are inferior in size and splendour lo the aunilar 


'.i' -■: 

i« foliovfed bj 
nar-chATiola, ^ith distiucdi 
Tbe munBTcb is also repTEsenled lU bocse 
of ojHU litUr or Ehrinc, and idnuKnog mlh his 
t^ringa to Ibo Unple of Ftauli. ULs atteDiknti 
mem, Srvm tbar dress, to belong to the militarj 
CMta .luM. (Wilkinson, Topograph^ of Thtbet, 
f.3»a.iMad.Sggpt,i<,liLp.43.) . [W. B. D-l 

Shiph. II>-i., Dioi. ; 'AAaSsc, Ptd. ; A1.UIS, SiL luL 
ziv. 227), a smll lii-cr on the £. anat of Sidlj, 
Honing into tbe Sinut Meguenaii. Diodorns de- 
Bcribea it u a considerable stream istnl 
large baoii, of artilicia] conslniclioii, ■ 
regarded as IIh vork of Daedalu^ and emptying 
itself after a short cdiuh into tbe BeL (Diod. iv. 
78; Vih. Seqoest. p. 4.) This descriptioD emctly 
acoonb wilb tlial given bj Clnveriui of 
called Lt> Coaiaro, «luch isaua fiom ■ 
pious Bource onlj half a mile fmai the coast, and 
flowi into the wa jnst oppa«l« the modem atj of 
Augusta. Some traces of boildings were in luB 
time still visible aroond the basin 4^ its source. 
(Clover. SicU. f. 133; FsifllL voL i. p. 19B.) It 
is pmbsblo that the Abolus ('AeoAos) of Plnlarch, 
on tbe banks of nbicb Timoleun defeated Mamereos, 
the tjranl nf Catajia, in a pitched battle, is no other 
than the Alahua. (Pint. TiaioL 34.) A town of 
the same name with Ihe river is mentioned bj Ste- 
pbsnns of BTiantiun (v. 'AAoftir), bnt is not 
Dotifo) b; BO/ other writer. [E. H. B.} 

ALAESAorHALE'SACA>aHra,Diod.; Strab.; 
Ptd.; Udesa, SU. Ital. liv. 218; Halesim, Cic 
Plin.), s city of Baly, iituaUid neai tbe north coast 
of the isbuid, between Cephaloedium and Calscla. 
It was of Siculian origin, and its fooadation is re- 
lated by IModffliks, who informs us that in b. c 403 
the inhabilanta of Herbila (a Siculian city), bating 
concluded peace with Dionysjus of Syracuse, their 
ruler or chief magistrate Archonides detomined to 
qnit the city and found a new colony, which he 
settled partly with citizens of Herbita, and portly 
with mercenarica and ether strangers who collected 
around him tbnmgh enmity tanaiiis Dionysius. He 
gave to this new colony the name of Alaess, to 
which Ihe e|uthet Archonidea was frequently added 
for the purpoM of diitinctton. Others attributed 
the foundotiuii of tlio city, but erroneously, to tbe 
Cartbaguiiaas. (Diod. itv. 16.) It quickly rose 
to proaperity by maritime commerce: and at the 
eommencement of the First Punic War was one of 
Ihe lirst of tbe Sicilian cities to moke its sntmussion 
to the Homans, to whose alliance it continned steadily 
hithful. It was doubtless ta its conduct in this 
respect, and to (be services that it was able to ren. 
der to the Bomans during their wan in Sicily, that 
it was mdehted for tbe peculiar privilege of retain- 
ing its own laws and independence, exempt Jrom all 
ta^utioD : — an odvantnge enjoyed by only fire cities 
of Sicily. (Diod. liv. 16. ixiii. Eic. H. p. SOI; 
Cic. I'err. ii. 49, 69, ill. 6.) In consequence of 
this Advantageous po^tirai it me ra[adly in wealth 
and prosperity, and became one of tbe most Souriah- 
ing cities of Sicily. On one occauoQ [Is citizens, 
having been involved in disputes among themselves 
concerning the chdee of the senate, C. Claudius 
Pulcher was sent, at their own request in B. c. 9S, 
to regulate the matter by a htw, which be did to 


of all parties. 

leges did not protA]t tbam from Ihe exactions at 

hatieu both in com and mwey. (Id. ib. 73 — 75; 
Ep. ad Fam. xili. 32.) The city appears to have 
subsequently declined, arid had soak in the time ut 
Augustus to the condition of an cadinary muni- 
dpal lon-n (CaslelL /njcr. p. 37): but wbi still 
one cf the few places en the luvth coast of Sicily 
which Strobo deemed worthy of mentioa. (SOsb. 
vL p. 27!.) Pbiy also enumerates it among the 
"stipendiariaecivitatee''of Scily. (ZT.JV. iii. 6.) 
Great dlflerence of opiniou has existed with r^anl 
to the site of Alaoa, arising priodpally from tfaa 
discrepancy in the distances asdgned by Sirabo, the 
Itineraiy, and Ihe Tabula. Sane aS these are ou- 
doubtedly csrrupt or erroneous, but on the whole 
there can be no dotibt that its situaticn is ncrectly 
fixed by Cluverios tai Tctmuniia at the (pot 
mailed by an old chorch called Sla. Maria fa 
Paiale, near the modem town of IWo, and above 
the river Ptttinto. This site coincida jerfeclly 
with the eifnesicn of Diodorns (xiv. IG), that the 
Iowa was built " uu a hill about 8 stadia from the 
seai" as well as with the distance of eighteen H.P. 
from Cepbaloedium assigned by tbe Tabula. (Tbe 
Itinerary girea 28 by an easy error.) The mina 
described by Faxello as viuble there hi his time 
were such as lo indicate the site of a large dty, aoJ 
aeieral inscriptions have been tonnd m the apol, 
acme of them referring distinctly to Alseoa. One of 
these, whidi is of ccsksiderable length and import- 
ance, gives numerous local details couccniing the 
divisicau of land, &«., and meutioas lepeatidly a 
rivei AtAEBUB, evidently the some with the Ha- 
Lzsua of Columella (i. 268), and which is probably 
the modem Ptttinea ; as well as a fountain lumml 
iFiaKHA. This is jierhaps the same spoken of by 
Sohnns (5. % 20) and Frisdau (Perirga. 500), but 
without mentioning its name, as existing in the terri- 
tory of Holeso, the waters of which were awola and 
agitated by the sound of music. Faiello describes 
the ruins as extending from the sea-shore, en which 
were the remains of a large building (probably 
baths), for the space oE more tbsn a mile to tba 

citadel. About 3 miles further inloml was a lar^ 
fountain (probably the Ipyrrha of the inscriptiiHi), 

veyed its waters to the dty. All trace of these 
ruins has now disappeared, except some portions t£ 
the aqueduct : but fragments of stoCaee, as well aa 
ooiuB and inscriptions, have been frequently di^.- 
covered m the spot. (Faiell. dt Kdi. Sic. iz. 4 ; 
Cluvor. Sica. pp. !d8— 290; Boeckh, C. I. torn. iii. 
pp. 612 — 621; Castelli, Hitl. Alaetat, Paaortn. 
1753; li. Imct. Sk. p. 109; Biscari, Vti^gio n 
SicUia, p. 343.) 3^ [E. H. B.] 

-■"■'■'I-*- ^ti?.:*>'^'>^U^')Wi^-a^g3ea 


thfro^LacoDes, onntaimng tempfes of Dionjsns and 
Tlds town was dbtant 30 stadia fixnn 
but its site is luJuiown. (Paua. iu. 21. 
S7,nLS6. 1 11.) 

ALAlXXnfENAE. 1. (^AKaXxofitni, Strab., 
PfeBi.: *AKaXjtofUrto¥, Steph. B.; Eth. 'AXoXjco- 
^HPim,*AAaAjrefMyaZM, 'AAoAJCofifrtof: Sulindri)^ 
la mdtsA town in Boeotia, situated at the foot of 
Ml TilpbosBinra, a little to the E. of Coroneia, and 
BBv the lake Cofpeaa. It was celebrated for the 
wonfaip of Athena, who was said to have been bom 
thm, and ^sbo is hence called AlalcomenCis (*AAaA- 
oyur^) in Homer, The temple of the goddess 
itonil, at a little distance from the town, on the 
TritoQ, a smdl stivam flowing into the bke Copats. 
Berand the modem Tillage of StiUmxrif the site 
d Abkomenae, are some polygonal fonndations, 
sftputntly those of a single building, which are 
pnUiIj' remains of the peribolos of the temple. 
Bath the town and the temple were plundered hj 
SvHa, who carried off the statue of the goddess. 
(Son. It ir. 8; Psns. iz. a § 4, ix. 33. § 5, seq.; 
Slab. pp. 410, 411, 413; Steph. B. «. v.; Leake, 
Ktfikem Greece, voL iL p. 135; Forchhanuner, 
HtOemieOy ^ 185.) 

% Or aLoomksiab CAXicofieyaf), said to be a 
tm in Ithaca (Phit. QvaesL Grate 43; StepL B. 
9.w.\ «r in the anall island Asteris in the neigh- 
boBihaod of Ithaca. (Strsb. p. 456.) 

ALAXIA. ' [Aleria.] 

ALANDER, a river of Phiygia (Liv. xaomiL 
15, 18X whidh is twice mentioncMl by Livy, in his 
aoeooBt of the march of Cn. Manlin^. It was pn>- 
biUj a branch of the Sangarins, as Hamilton (i2s- 
Sfonka m Ana MimoTj voL i. pp. 458, 467) oon- 
jertaras, and the stream which flows in the vallej of 
Biiad; bat he gives no modem name to iL [G.L.] 

ALATn (^AXoyof, *AAa0M>i), a people, found 

both in Asia and in Eurc^, whose precise geogra- 

pinl padtiais and ethnograj^ical relations are diffi- 

ralt to ilrtn minr They probably became first 

known to the Bomaas thrragh the MithridaUc war, 

sad the expedition of Porapey into the countries 

abooi the Gancasos; when they were found in the 

E. part of Caucasus, in the region which was called 

AJhaaiabythe Bcmans, but Alania by Greek writers, 

aad where Akni are found down to a hite period of 

the Greek empire. (Joseph. Ani. Jud. xviii. 4. s. 

(; Lttcan, x. 454; Procop. Per», ii. 29, Gotk. iv. 

4; Const. Porph. de A An. Imp. 42.) Valerius 

Flaceus (Ary. vL 42) mentions them among the 

of the Caucasus, near the HeniochL Am- 

Maxcelhnns, who teUs us more about the 

than any other ancient writer, makes Julian 

hb sokHers by the example of Pom- 

vho, breaking hb way through the Albani 

the Haasagetae, whom we now call Alani, 

saw the waters of the Caspian "* (xxiii. 5). In the 

ktier half of the first centary we hear of the Alani 

in two very remote poations. On the one hand, 

J es ephn s, who describes them as Scythians dwelling 

about the river Tanals {Don) and the Lake Maeotis 

{Sea 9fAM09\ relates ^yw, in the time of Vespasian, 

bosg pemntted by the king of Hyrcania to traverse 

" the pass which Alexander had closed with iron 

pies,** they ravaged Media and Armenia, and re- 

tamed bonne again. On the other hand, they are 

amiaiwl by Seneca (rAjfeft 629) as dwelling on 

the later (AiM6e); and Martial {Epigr. vit. 30) ex- 

pRssiy calk them Samiatians; and Pliny (iv. 12. 

%, 25) neotiaM Ahad and Boialani (i. e. Run- 




AJam) among the generic names applied at diflerent 
times to the inhabitants of the European Scythia or 
Sarmatia. Thus there wore Alani both in Asia, iu 
the Caucasus, and in Europe, on the Maeotis and the 
Enxine; and also, according to Josephus, between 
these two positions, in the great plains N. of the 
Caucasus; so that they seem to have been spread 
over all the S. part of Rusna tn Europe. Under 
Hadrian and the Antonines we find tlie European 
Alani constantly troubling the frontier of the Da- 
nube (Ael. Spart. Had, 4. s. 6; Jul. Capit. Ant. PL 
6. 8. 8, Marc. 22, where they are mentioned with 
the Bozalani, Bastamae, and Peucini); while the 
Alani of the E. again overran Media and Armenia, 
and threatened Cappadoda. (Dion Cass. Ixix. 15.) 
On this occasion the historian Arrian, who was go- 
vernor of Cappadocia under Hadrian, composed a 
work on the Tactics to be observed against the 
Alani {fm-a^is Kar* *AXayc»y), which is mentioned 
by Photius {Cod. Iviii. p. 15, a., Bekker), and of 
which a considerable fragment is preserved (Arrian. 
ed. Dtlhner, in Didot's ScripL Graec. BibL pp. 250 
— 253). Their force consisted in cavalry, like that 
of the European Alani (the ToXvtinrwy ^v\ov 
*hXmmy of Dionysins Periegetes, ▼. 308); and they 
fought without armour for themselves or their horses. 
Ab another mark of resemblance, though Arrian 
speaks of them as Scythians, a name vddch was 
vaguely used in his time for all the barbarians of 
NW. Asia {oonL Alanoe^ 30), he speaks of them 
elsewhere {Tact. 4) in close connection with the 
Sauromatae (Sarmatians), as practising the same 
mode of fighting for which the Polish lancere, de- 
scendants of the Sarmatians, have been renowned. 
Ptolemy, who wrote under the Antonines, mentions 
the European Alani, by the name of 'AAovrot 2<c^- 
0CU, as one of the seven chief peoples of Sarmatia 
Europaea, namely, the Venedae, Peudni, Bastamae, 
lazyges, Boxolani, Hamaxobii, and Akuni Scythae ; 
of whom he places the lazyges and Boxolani along 
the whole shore of the Maeotis, and then the last 
two further inland (iiL 5. § 19). He also mentions 
(iL 14. § 2) Alauni in the W. of Pannonia, no doubt 
a body who, in course of invasion, had established 
themselves on the Soman side of the Danube. Pto- 
lemy speaks of a Mt. Alaunus (t^ 'AAavvoy Spor) 
in Sarmatia, and Eustothius {ad Dion. Perieg. 
305) says that the Alani probably derived their 
name from the Alanus, a mountain of Sarmatia. It 
is hard to find any range of mountains answering to 
Ptolemy's M. AJaunus near the position he assigns 
to the Alauni : some geographers suppose the term 
to describe no mountotfw, properly so called, but the 
elevated tract of land which forms the watershed 
between tiie Dniester and the Dnieper. The Euro- 
pean Alani are found in the geographers who fol- 
lowed Ptolemy. Dionysins Periegetes (v. 305) 
mentions them, first vaguely, among the peoples N. 
of the Palus Biaeotis, with the Germans, Sarmatians, 
Getae, Bastamae, and Dacians; and then, more spe- 
cifically, he says (308) that their land extends N. 
of the Tauri, '* where are the Melanchlaeni, and Ge- 
loni, and Uippemolgi, and Neuri, and Agathyr&i, 
where the Borysthenes mingles with the Euxine." 
Some suppose the two passages to refer to diflerent 
bodies of the Aloni. (Bemhsu^y, ad loc.) They 
are likewise called Sarmatians by Marcian of Hcra- 
cleia {rwf 'AAarwy Sopfidrwv ffhfos: PeripL p. 100, 
ed. Miller; Hudson, Geog. Min. vol. i. p. 56). 
The Asiatic Alani ('AXoi'ol 2Ki$ai) are placed by 
Ptolemy (vi. 14. § 9) in tho extreme K. of Scythia 




irithin the Imaus, near the *' UnknoTm Land ;" 
and here, too, we find mountuns of the same name 
(ra 'AAovi 5pT7, §§ 3, 11), £. of the Hyperhorei 
M. ; he is generally supposed to mean the N. part of 
the Ural chain, to which he erroneously gives a 
direction W. and £. 

Oar fullest information respecting the Alani is 
derived from Ammianus Marcellinus, who flourish- 
ed during the latter half of the fourth century 
(about d50 — 400). He first mentions them with 
tiie Boxolani, the lazyges, the Maeot^te, and the 
laxamatae, as dwelling on the shores of the 
Pains Maeotis (zxii. 8. ^ 30); and presently, 
where the Biphaei M. subside towards the Maeo- 
tis, he places the Arimphaei, and near thein the 
Massagetae, Alani, and Sargetae, with many other 
peoples little known (j(j^>»curi, quorum nee voc<i- 
bula nobU wot noto, nee mores). Again (§ 
48) on the N>V. of the Euxine, about the river 
Tyras {Dniester'), he places " the European Alani 
and the Costobocae, and innumerable tribes of Scy- 
thians, which extend to lands beyond human know- 
lodge ;" a small portion of whom live by agriculture; 
the rest wander through vast solitudes and get their 
food like wild beasts ; their habitations and scanty 
furniture are placed on waggons made of the bark of 
trees ; and they migrate at pleasure, waggons and all. 
His more detailed account of the people is given when 
he comes to relate that greater westward movement of 
the Huns which, in the reign of Valens, precipitated 
the Goths upon the Roman empire, A. d. 376. After 
describing the Huns (xxzi. 2), he says that they 
advanced as far as " the Alani, the ancient Massa- 
getae," of whom he undertakes to give a better 
account than had as yet been published. From the 
Ister to the TanaTs dwell the Sauromatae; and on 
the Asiatic side of the Tanals the Alani inhabit the 
vast solitudes of Scythia; having their name from that 
of their mountains (ex moniium appeUatione cogno- 
nUnatij which some understand to mean that Alani 
comes from ala, a word signifying a mountain). By 
their conquests they extended their name, as well as 
their power, over the neighbouring nations; just as 
the Persian name was spread. He then describes 
these neighbouring nations; the Neuri, inland, near 
lofty mountains; the fiudini and Geloni; the Aga- 
thynd; the Melanchlaeni and Anthropophagi; from 
whom a tract of uninhabited land extended £.- 
wards to the Sinae. At another part the Alani 
bordered on the Amazons, towards the £. (the 
Amazons being placed by him on the TanaTs and 
the Caspian), whence they were scattered over many 
peoples throughout Asia, as far as the Ganges, 
Through these immense regions, but often fiir apart 
from one another, the vcarioug tribes of the AJani 
lived a nomade life : and it was only in process of 
time that they came to be called by the same name. 
He then describes their manners. They neither 
have houses nor till the land; they feed on flesh and 
milk, and dwell on waggons. When they come to 
a pasture they make a camp, by placing their wag- 
gons in a circle; and they move on again when the 
forage is exhausted. Their flocks and herds go with 
them, and their chief care is for their horses. They 
are never reduced to want, for the country through 
which they wander consists of grassy fields, with 
fruit-trees interspersed, and watered by many rivers. 
The weak, from age or sex, stay by the waggons and 
perform the lighter offices; while the young men are 
trained together from their first boyhood to the 
practice of horBemanship and a sound knowledge of 


the art of war. They despse going on foot. In 
person they are nearly all tall and handsome; their 
hair is slightly yellow; they are terrible fin- the 
tempered sternness of their eyes. The lightness of 
their armour aids their natural swiftness ; a circum- 
stance mentioned also, as we have seen, by Arrian, 
and by Joeephns {B,J. vii. 7. §4), iiom whom we find 
that they nJsed the lasso in battle: Lucian, too, de- 
scribes them as like the Scythians in their arms and 
their speech, but with shorter hair (TVnxmf, 51, 
voL ii. p 557). In general, proceeds Anmiianus, 
they resemble the Huns, but are less savage in fcom 
and manners. Their plundering and hunting ex- 
cursions had brought them to the Maeotis and the 
Cimmerian Bosporus, and even into Armenia and 
Media; and it is to their life t» those parts that the 
description of Ammianus eridently refers. Danger 
and war was their delight; death in battle bliss; tha 
less of life through decay or chance stamped disgrace 
on a man's memoiy. Their greatest glory was to 
kill a foe in battle, and the scalps of thdr slain 
enemies were hung to their horses for trappings. 
They frequented neither temple nor shrine; but, 
fixing a naked sword in the ground, with barbaric 
rites, they worshipped, in this symbol, the god of 
war and of their country for the time being. They 
practised divination by bundles of rods, which tliey 
released with secret incantations, and (it would seem^ 
from the way the sticks fell they presaged the fu- 
ture. Slavery was unknown to them : all were of 
noble birth. £ven their judges were selected for 
their long-tried pre-eminence in war. Sevoal of 
these particulars are oonfinned by Jomandes (de 
Rebus GeticiSf 24). Claudian also mentions the 
Alani as dwelling on the Maeotis, and c^mnects them 
closely with the Massagetae (/» Bujm, i. 312): 

^ Massagetes, caesamqne bibens Biaeotida Alanus.** 

Being vanquished by the Huns, who attacked them 
in the plains £. of ^e TanaVs, the great body of 
the Alani joined their conquerors in their invasion of 
the Gothic kingdom of Hermanric (a. d. 375), of 
which the chief part of the European Alani were 
already the subjects. In the war which soon brake 
out between the Goths and Romans in Maesia, so 
many of the Huns and Alani joined the Goths, thai 
they are distinctly mentioned among the invaders 
who were defeated by Theodosius, a. d. 379 — 382. 
Henceforth we find, in the W., the Alani constantly 
associated with the Goths and with the Vandals, so 
much BO that Procopius calls them a tribe of the 
Goths (TorBaAv iOvos: Vand. i. 3). But their 
movements are more closely connected with those of 
the Vandals, in conjunction with whom they are 
said to have settled in Paimonia; and, retiring thence 
through fear of the Goths, the two praples invaded 
Gaul in 406, and Spain in 409. (Procop. L c. ^ 
Jomandes, de Reb. Get, 31; Clinton, F, A «. a.; 
comp. Gibbon, c. 30, 31.) 

In 41 1 the Alani are found in Gaul, acting with 
the Burgundians, Alamanni, and Franks. (Clinton^ 
s, a.) As the Goths advanced into Spain, 414, tlie 
Alani and Vandals, with the Silingi, retreated beforo 
them into Lusitania and Baetica. (Clinton, s, a. 
416.) In the ensuing campaigns, in which the 
Gothic king Wallia conquered Spain (418), the 
Alans lost their king Ataces, and were so reduced 
in numbers that they gave up their separate natloD- 
ality, and transferr^ their allegiance to Gnnderic, 
the king of the Vandals. (Clinton, s, a. 418.) 
Afler Gunderics death, in 428, the allied barbarians 


Spain, the Suevi obtaining Gallaecia, the 
Ahoi LoaBtaaia and the province of New Carthage, 
and the Vaadak Baetica. (Clinton, #. a.) Moat 
«f than aeeacnpanied Gciseric in his invasion of 
A£net in the foDowii^ year (429 : Africa, Vaii'- 
DAu), and among other indicatians of their con- 
tiaaed oonsequenoe in AMca, we find an edict of 
Baanie addzeaaed, in 483, to the bishops of the 
Vaadys amd Alamt (Clinton, «. a.); while in Spain 
«» bear no more of them or of the Vandals, bat the 
pbre of both b occupied bj the SoevL Meanwhile, 
Rcoraing to Eorope, at the time of Attila's invasion 
tf the Roman empire, we find in his camp the de- 
■cendents of thoae Ahns who had at first joined the 
finat; and the perwmal infioence of AStios with 
Attila «> i tainw1 the services of a bodj of Alani, who 
««re settled in Gaol, aboat Valence and Orleans. 
(GibboB, e. 35.) When AttDa mvaded Gaul, 451, 
bt seecQs to have depended partly on the sympathy 
«f these Alanl (GiMnai spoiks of a promise from 
tbdr king Sanjdban to betny Orleans); and the 
peat vietoKy of Chalons, whoe they served under 
Theodorie against the Huns, was nearly loet by their 
drfrrtinw (451). Among the acts rraorded of To- 
raoMMl, in the single year of his reign (451^-452), 
m the oooqueat of the Alani, who may be supposed 
ti bape rebelled. (Clinton, s.aS) In the last years 
if the W. emfure the Alans are mentioned with other 
laibanans as overrunning Gaul and advancing even 
iato L^^nxia, and as resisted by the prowess of Ma- 
jarian (Cfinton, «. a. 461; Gibbon, c 36); but 
tfaoKelarth their name disappears, swallowed up in 
the fjeai kingdom of the Visigoths. So much for 
the Alani of the West. 

An this time, and later, they are still found in 
thor ancient settlements in the £., between the Don 
and Volga, and in the Caucasus. They are men- 
tifload under Jnatinian ; and, at the breaking out of 
the war between Justin IL and Chosroes, king of 
Peria, they are finmd among the allies of the Ar- 
wniaM, under their king Saroes, 572—3. (Theo • 
ihyfaet ap. Phot. Cod, Ixv. p. 26, b. 37, ed.Bekker.) 
The Alani of the Caucasus are constantly men- 
tisned, both by Byzantine and Aratrian writers, in 
the middle ages, and many geographers suppose the 
Ometu of DagkaUm to be their descendants. The 
medieval writers, both Greek and Arab, call the 
cooixtry about the £. end of Caucasus Alania. 

Amidst these materials, coqjecture has naturally 
been bo^. From the Affghans to the Poles, there 
is scarcely a race of warlike horsemen which has not 
been identified with the Alani; and, in fiu^ the 
\ might be applied, consistently with the ancient 
to almost any of the nomade peoples, oon- 
faonded by the ancients under the vague name of Scy- 
thaaas, except the Mongols. They were evidently a 
hnadl of that great nomade race which is found, 
B the be|inning of recorded histoiy, in the NW. of 
Asia and the SE. of Europe ; and perhaps we should 
not be fitf wrong in placmg their original seats in 
the cooBtry of the Kirghiz Tartartj round the head 
of the Caspian, whence we may suppose them to 
ham sfvead W.-ward round the Euzine, and espe- 
daOy to have occupied the great plains N. of the 
b e t we en the Don and Volgay whence they 
fcrth into W. Asia by the passes of the Gau- 
Their permanent settlement also in Sar* 
(ia A Jtigtid) is clearly established, and a 
of the dcaciipClon of them by Anunianus 
Marcdfinus with the fiynrth book of Herodotus can 
feare fittk donht that they were a kindred nice to 



the ]5cTthiuns of the latter, that is, tlie people of 
European Sarmatia. Of their language, one soli- 
tary relic has been preserved. In the Peiriphu of 
the EtLcine (p. 5, Hudson, p. 213, Gail) we are told 
that the city of Theodosia was called in the Alan or 
Tauiic dialect 'ApSd^Sa or ^ApBada, that is, the 
cUy of the Seven gods. (Klaproth, Tableaux de 
FAne; Bitter, Erdkunde^ vol. ii. pp. 845 — 850; 
Stritter, Mem. Pop, vol. iv. pp. 232, 395; De 
Guignes, Hist, des Huns^ vol. ii. p. 279 ; Ukert, 
vol. iii. pt. 2. pp. 550 — 555; Georgii, vol. i. p. 
152, vol. ii. p. 312.) [P. S.] 


ALA'NIA. [Alani.] 

ALATA CASTRA (ytrt^wrbv arpar&K^v^ 
Ptol.*iL 3. § 13), in the territory of the Vacomagi 
(Hurray and Inverness-shire) was the northernmost 
station of the Romans in Britain, and near Inverness. 
This fort was probably raised by Lollius Urbicus 
after his victories in Britannia BarbaniA.D. 139, 
to repress the incundons of the Caledonian clans : 
but it was soon abandoned, and all vestige of if 
obliterated. (Gapitolin. AnUmin. P. 5 ; Pansan. viii. 
43. § 3.) [W. B. D.] 

ALATRIUM or ALETRIUM ('AA A-piov, Strab. ; 

AlATRINATES, Liv. ; AliETRINATES, PlJlL Ct luscr.), 

a dty of the Hemicans, situated to the £. of the 
Via Latina, about 7 miles from Ferentinum, and 
still called AkUrL In early times it appears to 
have been one of the principal cities of the Hemican 
league, and in b. c. 306, when the general council 
of Uie nation was assembled to deliberate concerning 
war with Rome, the Alatrians, in conjunction with 
the citizens of Ferentinum and Vemli, pronounced 
against it. For this they were rewarded, after the 
defeat of the other Hemicans, by being allowed to 
retain their own laws, which they preferred to the 
Roman citizenship, with the mutual right of connu- 
bium among the three cities. (Liv. ix. 42, 43.) 
Its name is found in Plautus {Captivij iv. 2, 104), 
and Cicero speaks of it as in his time a municipal 
town of consideration (^ Ghent. 16, 17). It 
subeequently became a colony, but at what period 
we know not: Pliny mentions it only among the 
"oppida** of the first region: and its municipal 
rank is confirmed by inscriptions of imperial times 
{Lib. Colon, p. 230; Plin. iii. 5. 9; Inscr. ap. 
Gmter. pp.422. 3, 424. 7; Orelli, Inter. 3785; 
Zumpt, de Colon, p. 359). Being removed from 
the high road, it is not mentioned in the Itmeraries, 
but Strabo notices it among the cities of Latium, 
though he erroneously places it on the right or south 
side of the Via Latina. (v. p. 237.) 

The modem town of AkUrij which contains a 
population of above 8000 inhabitants, and is an 
episcopal see, retains the site of the ancient city, on 
a steep hill of considerable elevation, at the foot of 
which flows the little river Cosa. It has few monu- 
ments of Roman times, but the remains of its massive 
ancient fortifications are among the most striking in 
Italy. Of the walls which surrounded the city itself 
great portions still remain, built of large polygonal 
blocks of stone, without cement, in the same style 
as those of Signia, Norba, and Ferentinum. But 
much more remarkable than these are the remains 
of the ancient citadel, which crowned the summit of 
the hill : its form is an irr^ular oblong, of about 
660 yards in circuit, constituting a nearly level 
terrace supported on all sides by walls of the most 
massive polygonal constmction, varying in height 
according to the declivity of the ground, but which 

O 3 



attain at Hie SE. angle an elevation of not less 
than 50 feet It has two gates, one of which, on the 
N. side, appears to have been merely a postern or 
sallj-port, oommnnicating bj a steep and narrow 
subterranean passage with the platform above: the 
principal entrance being on the south side, near the 
SE. angle. The gateways in both instances are 
aqnare-headed, the architrave being formed of one 
enormoos block of stone, which in the principal gate 
is more than 15 feet in length by 5^ in height, 
fcj ^estiges of m de bas- relicfe may be st ill observj ^ 
'a bove tJiesmaTIcr gate' All these walls, as well as 
lose ot the city itselT^ are built of the hard limestone 
of the Apennines, in the style called Polygonal or 
Pelasgic, as opposed to the ruder Cyclopean, and are 
among the best specimens extant of that mode of 
construction, both from their enormous solidity, and 
the accuracy with which the stones are fitted to- 
gether. In the centre of the platform or terrace 
stands tiie modem cathedral, in all probability 
occupying the site of an andent temple. The 
remains at Alatri have been described uid figured 
by Madame Dionigi (Viaggio in alctme Citta del 
LcaiOy Roma, 1809), and views of them are given in 
DodweU's Pelasgic Bemaiiu, pi. 92—96. [E.H.B.] 

ALAUNA, a town of the Unelli, as Caesar (j5. G. 
ii. 34) calls the people, or Veneti, as Ptolemy calls 
them. It is probably the origin of the modem town 
of Aleaumej near Valognes, in the department of 
La Manche, where there are said to be Roman 
remains. [6. L.] 

ALAUNI. [Alani.] 

ALA'ZON (Plin. vL 10. s. 1 1), or ALAZCXNIUS 
QAXa(t&vtoft Stnb. p. 500 : A kucm, A lacki)^ a river 
of the Caucasus, flowing SE. into the Cambyses a 
little above its junction with the Cyrus, and forming 
the boundary of Albania and Iberia. Its position 
seems to correspond with the Abas of Plutarch and 
Dion Cassitts. [Abas.] [P. S.] 

ALAZO'NES {'AXdiMfts), a Scytliian people on 
the Borysthenes (/Mteper), N. of the Callipidae, and 
S. of the agricultural Scythians: they grew com for 
their own use. (Hecat. ap, Strab. p. 550; Herod, 
iv. 17, 62; Steph. B. «. v.; Val. l-Taoc. vi. 101; 
Ukert, vol. iii. pt. 2. p. 418.) [P. S.] 

ALBA DOCILIA, a town on the coast of Liguria, 
known only from the Tabula Peutingeriana, which 
places it on the coast road from CSenua to Vada 
Sabbata. The distances are so corrapt as to afford 
us no assistance in determining its position : but it 
is probable that Cluver is right in identifying it 
with the modem Albistola, a village about 3 miles 
from SavorMj on the road to Genoa. The origin 
and meaning of the name are unknown. (Tab. Pent. ; 
Cluver. ItaL p. 70.) [E. H. B.] 

Strab.; "AA^a ^oviccrrts, Ptol. ; (he ethnic Albenses, 
not Albani; see Varr. de L. L, viii. § 35), an im- 
portant city and fortress of Central Italy, situated 
on the Via Valeria, on a hill of considerable eleva^ 
tion, about 3 miles from, the northern shores of the 
Lake Fudnus, and immediately at the foot of 
Monie Velino. There is considerable discrepancy 
among ancient writers, as to the nation to which 
it belonged: but Livy expressly tells us that it was 
in the territory of the Aequians (^Albam in Aequo»y 
X. 1), and in another passage (xxvi. 11) he speaks 
of the **Albensis ager" as clearly distinct from 
that of the Marsians. His testimony is confirmed 
by Appian {Annib. 39) and by Strabo (v. pp. 
238, 240), who calls it the most inland Latin city, 


adjoining the territoiy of the Marsians. Ptolemy 
on the contrary reckons it as a Marsic city, as 
do Silius Italicus and Festus (Ptol. iii. 1. § 57; 
Sil. Ital. viii. 506; Festus v. AUfesta, p. 4, ed. 
Mttller): and this view has been followed by most 
modem writers. The fact probafily is, that it was 
originally an Aequian town, but bdng situated on 
the frontiers of the two nations, and the M*r»iMte» 
having in lata* times become far more celebrated 
and powerful than their neighbonre. Alba came to 
be commonly assigned to them. Pliny (fT. N. iii. 
12 — 17) redcons the Albenses as distinct both from 
the Marsi and Aequiculi: and it appears from in- 
scriptions that thf7 belonged to the Fabian tribe, 
while the Marsi, as well as the Sabines and Peligni, 
were included in the Serglan. No historical men- 
tion of Alba is found previous to the foundation of 
the Roman colony: but it has been generally as- 
sumed to be a very andent dty. Kiebuhr even 
supposes that the name of Alba I.ionga was derived 
from thence: though Appian tells us on the con- 
traiy that the Romans gave this name to their 
colony firtim their own mother-city (L c). It is more 
probable that the name was, in both cases, ariginal, 
and was derived from their lofty situation, being 
connected with the same root as Alp. The remains 
of its andent fortifications may however be regarded 
as a testimony to its antiquity, though we find no 
special mention of it as a place of strength previooa 
to the Roman conquest. But immediately after the 
subjugation of the Aequi, in b. c. 302, the Romans 
hastened to occupy it with a body of not less than 
6000 colonists (Liv. x. 1 ; Veil. Pat i. 14), and it 
became from this time a fortress of the firat class. 
In B.O. 211, on occasion of the sudden advance of 
Hannibal upon Rome, the dtizens of Alba sent a 
body of 2000 men to assist the Romans in the 
defence of the dty. But notwithstanding their 
zeal and promptitude on this occasion we fii»l them 
only two years after (in B.C. 209) among the 
twelve colonies which declared themselves unable to 
ftimish any further contingents, nor did their pn- 
vious services exempt them from the same punishment 
with the rest for tlUs default. (Appian, Annib. 39; 
Liv. xxvii. 9, xxix. 15.) We afterwards find Alba 
repeatedly selected on account of its great strength 
and inland position as a place o( ccnfinement for 
state prisoners; among whom Syphax, king of Nn- 
midia, Perseus, king of Macedonia, and Bitnitos, 
king of the Arvemi, are particularly mentioned. 
(Strab. V. p. 240; Liv. xxx. 17, 45; xlv. 42; 
Val. Max. ix. 6. § 3.) 

On the outbreak of the Social War, Alba with- 
stood a siege from the confederate forces, but it was 
ultimately compelled to surrender (Liv. Epit bucii.). 
During the Civil Wars also it b repeatedly men- 
tioned in a manner that suifidently attests its 
importance in a military pdnt of view. (Caes. 
B. C. i. 15, 24; Appian, Civ. iii. 45, 47, v. 30; 
Cic. ad AU. viii. 12, A, ix. 6; PkUipp. iii. 3, 15, iv. 
2, xiii. 9). But under the Empire it attracted little 
attention, and we find no historical mention of it 
during that period : though its continued existence 
as a provincial town of some note is attested by 
inscriptions and other extant remains, as well as by 
the notices of it in Ptolemy and the Itmeraries. 
(Ptol. Z.C.; Itin. Ant p. 309; Tab. Peut; Lib. 
Colon, p. 253; Muratori, Jn»cr. 1021. 5, 1038. 1; 
Orell. no. 4166.) Its territory, mi account of its 
elevated situation, was more fertile in fruit than 
com, and was particularly celebrated for the ex- 


crileootflfitsints. (SiL ltd. tuL 506 ; PUn. IT. ^. 
IT. 24.) Dariiig Uw later ages of the Roman 
empire AJha teems to have decUned and sank into 
infl^mfiaiice, as it did not become the see of a 
haOipi DOT is its name mentioned \>j Paulas Diaco- 
BM sBio^g tbe dties of the province of Valeria. 

At the pnMDt daj the name of A&a is still 
RUmed bf a poor riOjige of about 150 inhabitants, 
vUeh oocopes the northern and most elevated 
snannt of the hill eo whidi stood the ancient city. 
The icBoains of the latter are extensive and inter- 
vtJBt:, cspedaDj those of the walls, which present 
cae oif the most perfiect apedmens of ancient fortifi- 
csoan to be focmd in It«] j. Their circuit is aboat 
three nuks, and they endoee three separate heights 
«r soBUQiU of the hill, each of which appears to 
htve had its particular defeoces as an arx or citadel, 
besadei the external waUs which surrounded the 
vhok They are of diflferent construction, and 
froUblf belong to difierent periods: the greater 
fttt flf them being composed of massive, but ir- 
Rgnlar, polygonal blocks, in the same manner as is 
fiaadinsomanyotherdtaes of Central Italy: while 
tfiicr portJoDB, especially a kind of advanced out- 
vwkfpfeMOt mudi more r^ular polygonal masonry, 
bot Krrii^ only as st &cing to the wall or rampart, 
tk fn'MtanfT of which is composed of rubble-work. 
The fanner class of oonstructioa is generally referred 
to the anoent or Aequian city: the Utter to the 
Booao oolooy. (See however on this subject a 
piper in the Chssical Museum, vol. ii. p. 172.) 
Ihada these remains there exist also the traces criT 
SB sDphitheatre, a tlKatre, basilica, and other public 
hnldi^s, and several temples, one of which has been 
eoDToted into a church, and preserves its ancient 
fimat^f^Y^tf^ plui, and odumns. It stands on a hill 
BBvesUed after it the Cotte cU S. Pietro, which forms 
«K «f the smnmita already described; the two others 
«R oovealled the CoOe diPeUorino and CoUe cUAlbe, 
the latter being the kite of the modem village. (See 
the annexed plan). Numerous Inscriptions belonging 
t« ARia have been transported to the neighbounng 




A. CoOe di Albe (site of the modem village). 

B. CoOe di S. Pietro. 

C. CoOe di Pettorina 
ea. Ancient Gates. 

k Theatre. 

c Amphitheatre. 

town of Avezaxtno^ on the banks of the lake Fndnns : 
while many marbles and other architectural orna- 
ments were carried off by Charles of Anjon to adorn 
the convent and church founded by him in com- 
memoration of his victory at Tagliacozzo^ A. d. 
1268. (Promis, ArUichita di Alba Fucmse, 8vo. 
Roma, 1836; Kramer, Der Fttciner See. p. 55—57; 
Hoare's Clastkal Tow, vol. i. p. 371). [E. H. B.] 

4. s. 5. xiv. 3. 6. 4.), a dty of the Helvy. a tribe men- 
tioned by Caesar (A (?. vii. 7, 8) as separated from 
the Arvemi by the Mons Cevenna. The modem 
Alpear ApSy which is probably on the site of this 
Alba, contains Roman remains. An Alba Augusta, 
mentioned by Ptolemy, is supposed by D'Anville 
{NoHoe de la GauU Ancienne) and others to be the 
same as Alba Helviorum ; but some suppose Alba 
Augusta to be represented by Aup$, [G. L.] 

ALBA JULIA. [Apulum.] 

ALBA LONGA ('AA^a: Albani), a very an- 
cient dty of Latium, situated (m the eastern side of 
the lake, to which it gave the name of Lacus Al- 
banus, and on the northern declivity of the mountain, 
also Imown as Mons Albanus. All ancient writers 
agree in representing it as at one time the most 
powerful city in Latium, and the head of a league or 
confederacy of the Latin dties, over which it exer- 
cised a kind of supremacy or H^emony ; of many of 
these it was itself the parent, among others of Rome 
itself. But it was destroyed at such an early period, 
and its history is mixed up with so much that is 
fabulous and poetical, that it is almost impossible to 
separate from thenee the really historical elements. 

According to the l^ndaiy history universally 
adopted by Greek and Roman writers, Alba was 
founded by Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, who re- 
moved thither the seat of government from Lavi- 
nium thirty years after the building of the latter city 
(Liv. i. 3; Dion. Hal. i. 66; Strab. p. 229) ; and the 
earliest form of the same tradition appears to have 
assigned a period of 300 years from its foundation 
to that of Rome, or 400 years for its total duration 
till its destraction by Tullus Hostilius. (Liv. i. 29; 
Justin, xliii. 1 ; Vii^. Aen, i. 272 ; Niebuhr, vol. i. 
p. 205.) The fonner interval was afterwards ex- 
tended to 360 yean in order to square with the date 
assigned by Greek chronologers to the Trojan war, 
and the space of time thus assumed was portioned 
out among the pretended kings of Alba. There can 
be no doubt that the series of these kings is a clumsy 
fbi^ery of a late period; but it may probably be ad- 
mitted as historical that a Silyion house or gens was 
the reigning family at Alba. (Niebuhr, /. c.) From 
this house the R(Hnans derived the origin of theii- 
own founder Romulus; but R(Hne itself was not a 
colony of Alba in the strict sense of the term ; nor 
do we find any evidence of those mutual relations 
Which might be expected to subsist between a metro- 
polis or parent city and its ofispring. In fact, no 
mention of Alba occurs in Roman history from the 
foundation of Rome till the reign of Tullus Hostilius, 
when the war broke out whi(£ terminated in the de • 
feat and submission of Alba, and its total destraction 
a few years afterwards as a punishment for the 
treachery of its general Metins Fufetius. The details 
of this war are obviously poetical, but the destraction 
of Alba may probably be received as on historical 
event, though there is much reason to suppose that 
it was the work of the combined forces of the Latinj^ 
and that Rome had comparatively little share in its 
I acomplbhment. (Liv. i. 29; Dion. Hal. iii. 31; 

<i 4 



Strab. T. p. 231; Niebahr,vol. i. p. 350,3*51.) The 
ci^ was never reboilt; its temples alone had been 
spared, and these appear to have been still existing 
in the time of Augustus. The name, however, was 
retained not onlj by the mountain and lake, but the 
valley immediately subjacent was called the Yallis 
Albfloia, and as late as b. c. 339 we find a body of 
Soman troops described as encamping "sub jugo 
Albae Longae " (Liv. vil. 39), by which we must 
certainly un^^rstand the ridge on which the city 
stood, not the mountain above it. The whole sur- 
rounding territory was tenned the " ager Albanus,** 
whence the name of Albanum was given to the town 
which in later ages grew up on the opposite side of 
the lake. [Albanum.] Soman tradition derived 
from Alba the origin of several of the most illustrious 
patrician families — the Julii, TuUii, Servilii, Quintii, 
Sec. — these were represeuted as migrating thither 
after the fall of their native city. (Liv. i. 30; Tac. 
Ann. xi. 24.) Another tradition appears to have 
described the expelled inhabitants as settling at Bo- 
villae, whence we find the people of that town as- 
suming in inscriptions the title of " Albani Longani 
BovUlenses." (Orell. no. 119, 2252.) 

But, few as are the historical events related of 
Alba, all authorities concur in repr^enting it as 
having been at one time the centre of the league 
c(Hnpo8ed of the thirty Latin cities*, and as exer- 
cising over these the same kind of suprenuuT- to 
which Borne afterwards succeeded. It was even 
generally admitted that all these cities were, in fact, 
colonies from Alba (Liv. i. 52 ; Dion. Hal. iii. 34), 
though many of them, as Ardm, Laurentum, Lar 
vinium, Praeneste, Tnsculum, &c., were, according 
to other received traditions, more ancient than Alba 
itself. There can be no doubt that this view was 
altogether erroneous; nor can any dependence be 
placed upon the lists of the supposed Alban colonies 
preserved by Diodoms (Lib. vii. ap. Euseb. Arm. 
p. 185), and by the author of the Origo Cftntit 
Bomanae (c 17), but it is possible that Virgil may 
have had some better authority for ascribing to Alba 
the foundation of the eight cities enumerated by him, 
viz. Nomentum, Gabii, Fidenae, Collatia, Pometia, 
Gastrum Inui, Bola, and Cora. (Aen. vi. 773.) A 
statement of a very jdifferent character has been pre- 
served to us by Pliny, where he enumerates the 
" popnli Albenses " who were accustomed to share 
wt^ the other Latins in the sacrifices on the Alban 
Mount (iii. 5, 9). His list, after excluding the 
Albani Uiemselves, contains just thirty names; but 
of these only six or seven are found among the cities 
that oompoeed the Latin league in b. c. 493 : six or 
seven others are known to us from other sources, as 
among the smaller towns of Ladum*, while all the 
others are wholly unknown. It is evident that we 
have here a catalc^ue derived from a much earlier 
state of things, when Alba was the head of a minor 
league, composed principally of places of secondary 
rai^, y^ch were probaUy either colonies or de- 
pendencies of her own, a relation which was after- 
wards erroneously transferred to that subsisting be< 
tween Alba and the Latin lei^ue. (Niebuhr, voL i. 
pp. 202, 203, vol. ii. pp. 18 — ^22; who, however, pro- 
bably goes too far in regarding these " popuU Al- 
benses " as mere demea or townships in tlw territory 
of Alba.) From the expressions of Pliny it would 
seem clear tliat this minor confederacy co-existed with 

* The discussion of this list of Pliny is given 
under the aiticle Latini. 


a larger one including all the Latin cities; for fiier^ 
can be no doubt that the common sacrifices an tin 
Alban Mount were typical of such a bond of nnioA 
among the states that partook of them; and the &ct 
that the sanctuary on the Mods Albanus was tli« 
aoesae of these sacred rites aflR>rds strong confinn^ 
ation of the fact that Alba was really the chief city 
of the whole Latin confederacy. Perhaps a sdfl 
stronger proof is found in the circumstance that th« 
Lucus Ferentinae, immediately without the walla 
of Alba itself, was the scene of thdr political «s- 

If any historical meaning or value oonld be at^ 
tached to the Trojan legend, we should be led to con* 
nect the origin of Alba with that of Laviniom, and 
to ascribe ^em both to a Pelasgian source. But 
there are certainly strong reasons for the oontnuy 
view adopted by Niebuhr, according to which Alba 
and Lavinium were essentially distinct, and eyen op- 
posed to (me another; the latter being the head of the 
Pelasgian branch of the Latin race, while the former 
was founded by the Sacrani or Casci, and becanw 
the centre and representative of the Oscan element 
in the population of Latium. [Lahni.] Its name 
— which was connected, according to the Trojan le- 
gend, with the white sow discovered by Aeneas on his 
landing (Virg. Aen. iiL 390, viii. 45; Serv. ad loe.\ 
Varr. de L. L. v. 144 ; Propert. iv. 1. 85) — wis 
probably, in reality, derived from its lofty or Alpine 

The site of Alba Longa, though described with 
much accuracy by ancient writers, had been in mo- 
dem times lost sight of, until it was rediscovered bj 
Sir W. Gell. Both Livy and Dionysius distinctly 
describe it as occupying a long and narrow ridge be- 
tween the mountain and the lake; from which or- 
cumstance it derived its distinctive epithet of Longa. 
(Liv. i. 3; Dion. Hal. i. 66; Varr, /. c.) Precisely 
such a ridge runs out from the foot of the central 
mountain — the Mons Albanus, now MonU Coco — 
parting from it by the convent of Palazzoh, and ex- i 
tending al<Hig the eastern shore of the lake to its I 
north-eastern extremity, nearly opposite the village P^ 
of Marino. The side of this ridge towards the ]ake i 
is completely precipitous, and has the appearance of 
having been artificially scarped or hewn away in its 
upper part; at its northern extremity remain many 
blocks and fiiigmente of massive masonry, whidi 
must have formed part of the andent walls: at the 
opposite end, nearest to PalazzolOj is a commanding 
Imoll forming the termination of the ridge in that 
direction, which probably was the site of the Arx, 
or citadd. The declivity towards the £. and N£. 
is less abrupt than towanis the lake, but still x'erv 
steep, so that the dty must have been confined, as 
described by ancient authors, to the narrow sununit 
of the ridge, and have extended more than a mile in 
length. No other ruins than the fragments of the 
walls now remain; but an andent road may be dis- 
tinctly traced from the knoll, now called Mte. Cuccu, 
along the margin of the lake to the northern ex- 
tremity of the city, where one of its gates must have 
been situated. In the deep valley or ravine between 
the site of Alba and Marino, is a fountain with a co- 
pious supply ofwater, which was undoubtedly the Aqua 
Ferentina, where the confederate Latins used to hdd 
their national assemblies ; a custom which evidently 
originated while Alba was the head c( the league, 
but continued long after its destruction. (Gell, 
Topogr. of Rome, p. 90 ; Nibby, IHntomi di Roma, 
vol. i. p. 61—65; Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 199.) ^ The 


territory «f Alba, frbaah stOl retained the name of 
'^merAMmsas^ was fertile and well cnltiviited, and 
edefanted in particolar for the exoellenoe of its wine, 
wtkh WQ8 oonaidered inferior oolj to the Falernian. 
(D>«. HaL L66; Plin« J7. J^T. xxiii. 1. 8.20; Hor. 
Ctrm. IT. 11. 2, Sat, ii. 8. 16.) It prodaoed also 
A kind of Tofeanic stone, now called Peperino, which 
gnasly CKedled the onmmon tnfb of Borne as a bnild- 
iag material, andwasextenaiTelj naed as such nnder 
tte aaBaa of " lapis Albanus." The ancient qnarries 
nay he ttifl seen in the vallej between Alba and 
Jfo^M. (VitniT. it 7 ; Plhi. 27. iV: xizTi. 22. s. 48 ; 
Sm.Aug.72; Kibbj, JSoMa jiis^ica, voL i. p. 240.) 
Prenona to the time of Sir W. Gell, tlvB site of 
Alba L4inga was generally supposed to be occupied by 
the cdovcnt of PaUtaohf a situation which does not 
at all eorrespond with the description of the site 
ftand in ancient anthors, and is too confined a space 
to hxn ever afRvded room for an ancient dtj. Nie- 
bahr b certainlj in error where he speaks of the 
village of 12ocea(/i PqMi as baring been the 
of Alba Longa (vol. L p. 200), that spot being 
hr too (fistant to have ever had any immediate con- 
aeeliao with the ancient city. [E. H. B.] 

ALBA FO^tFElACAX€aTlofnrrita, Ptd.: Al- 
be&aes Pempdani), a considerable town cf the 
iatcrior of Ligoria, aitoated on the river Tauarus, 
near the nortlieni foot of the Apennines, still called 
AAa, We have no acooont in any ancioit writer 
of its fbandation, or the origin of its name, bnt there 
is every pn)faability that it derived its distinctive 
^pdaticn firom Cn. Pompeios Strabo (the father 
•f Pompey tlie Great) who conferred many privileges 
fltt tibe Cisalpine Ganls. An inscription cited by 
Spaa {MitedL pc 163), according to which it was 
a Boman colony, fooiMied by Sdpio Afncanus and 
bj Pompeins Magnus, is undoubtedly spu- 
(See Mannert. voL i. p. 295.) It did not 
fotonial rank, bnt appears as a municipal 
tmm both in Pliny and on inscriptions: though the 
fotaner anther reckons it among the " uobilia oppida" 
<€ L^nria. (Plin. ul 5. s. 7; Ptol. iiL 1. § 45; 
OreO. /mct. 2179) It was the buth-phu» of the 
gupu o i Pertinaz, whose fiither had a villa in the 
•ei^ibomhood named the Villa Martis. (Dion Cass. 
3; Jnl. CapitoL Pert, 1, 3.) Its territory 
partkalaily fevourable to tiie growth of vines. 
(PGn. xvu. 4. a. 3.) Alba'iB still a considerable town 
with a popalation of 7000 souls; it is an episcopal 
aee and the oqpital of a district. [E.H. B.] 

ALBA'NL\ (4 'AAfoyfa: Eth, and Adj, 'AA- 
Co^, *AA<^Mf , Albanus, Albanios), a country of 
Asia, lying abont the E. part of the chain of Cau- 
The first distinct information concerning it 
obtaiiMd by the Bomans and Greeks through 
P«Bipey*s expedition into the Caucasian countries in 
pnrrait of M^hri^^*** (b. c. 65); and the know- 
ledge obtained from then to the time of Augustus is 
■Mwpdtfd in Strabo's full description of the country 
■id people (ppL 501, foU). Aooordmg to him, 
A&ana was boonded on the £. by the Caspian, here 
caBed the Albanian Sea (Mare Albanum, Plin.); 
•ad on the N. by the Caucasus, here called Ceraunins 
Mobs, which divided it from Sarmatia Asiatica. On 
the W. it joined Iberia: Strabo gives no exact boun- 
dary, bnt he mentions as a part of Albania the 
^iCiict of Cambyseoe, that is, the valley of the 
Caoibywii, where he says the Armenians touch both 
the Iberians and the Albanians. On the S. it was 
^rnied fimn the Great Armenia by the ri>-er Cyrus 



(JTow). Later writers give the N. and W. boun- 
daries differently. It was found that the Albanians 
dwelt (m both sides of the Caucasus, and accordingly 
Pliny carries the country further K. as far as the 
river Casius (vi. 13. a. 15); and he also makes the 
river AukZON {Ahuan) the W. boundary towards 
Iberia (vi. 10. s. 11). Ptolemy (v. 12) names the 
river Soana (Sodva) as the N. boundwy; and for 
the W. he assigns a line which he does not exactly 
describe, but which, from what fbllows, seems to lie 
either between tiie Alazon and the Uambyses, or 
even W. of the Cambyses. The Soana of Ptolemy 
is probably the Sulak or S. branch of the great river 
Terek (mth. in 43° 46' N. hit.), S. of which Ptolemy 
mentions the Gerrhus (Alksayf); then the Caesins, 
no doubt the Casius of Pliny (^Koisou).; S. of which 
again both Pliny and Ptolemy phtce the Albonuq 
(prob. Samovr)j near the dty of Albana (Dfirbent). 
To these rivers, which fall into the Caspian N. of 
the Caucasus, Pliny adds the Cyrus and its tribu- 
tary, the Cambyses. Three other tributaries of the 
Cyrus, rising in the Caucasus, are named by Strabo 
as navigable rivers, the Sandobanm, Bhoetaces, and 
Canes. The countiy corresponds to the parts of 
Georgia called Sckirvan or (rtn'rvan, with the ad- 
dition (in ita wider extent) of Leghistan and DagheS' 
tan. Strabo*s descripticm of the country must, of 
course, be understood as applying to the part of it 
known in his time, namely, the plain between the 
Caucasus and the Cyrus. Part of it, namely, in 
Cambysene (on the W.), was mountainous; the rest 
was an extensive plain. The mud brought down 
by the Cyrus made the land along the shore of the 
Caspian mai-shy, but in general it was extremely 
fsTtile, producing com, the vine, and vegetables of 
various kinds almost spontaneously; in some parts 
three harvests were gathered in the year from one 
sowing, the first of them yielding fifty-fold. The 
wild and domesticated animals were the finest of 
their kind; the dogs were able to cope with lions: 
but there were also scorpions and venomous spiders 
(the tarantula). Many of these particulars are con- 
firmed by modem travellers. 

The inhabitants were a fine race of men, tall and 
handsome, and more civilised than thrir neighbours 
the Iberians. They had eridenUy been originally a 
nomade people, and they continued so in a great 
degree. Paying only slight attention to agriculture, 
they lived chiefly by himting, fishing, and the pro- 
duce of thdr fiocks and herds. They were a war- 
like race, their force being chiefly in their cavalry, 
but not exclusively. When Pompey marched into 
their country, they met him with an army of 60,000 
infantry, and 22,000 cavalry. (Plut. Pomp. 35.) 
They were armed with javelins and bows and arrows, 
and leathem helmets and shields, and many of their 
cavalry were clothed in complete armour. (Plut. 
/. c; Strab. p. 530.) They made finequent preda- 
tory attacks on their more civilised agricultural 
neighbours of Armenia. Of peaceful industry they, 
were almost ignorant; their traffic was by barter, 
money being scarcely known to them, nor any regular 
system of weights and measures. Their power of 
arithmetical computation is said to have only reached 
to the number 100. (Eustath. ad Dion. Perieg. 
729.) They buried tiie moveable property of the 
dead with them, and sons received no inheritance 
from their fothers; so that they never accumulated 
wealth. We find among them the same diversity of 
race and language that still exists in the r^ons of 
the Caucasus; they spoke 26 di0hrcnt dialects, and 



were divided into 12 hordes, each governed bj its ova 
chief, bat all, in Strabo's time, subject to one kiag. 
Among their tribes were the Legae (Aqtcu), whose 
name is still preserved in LeghUtanj and Gelae (r^- 
\au) in the mountains on ^e N. and NW. (Strab. 
p. 503), and the Gerrhi (Tip^oi) on the river 
Gerrhos (Ptd.). 

The Albanians worshipped a deitj whom Strabo 
identifies with Zens, and Uie Sun, but above all the 
Moon, whose temple was near the irootier of Iberia. 
Her priest ranked next to the king : and had onder 
his command a ridi and extensive sacred domain, 
and a body of temple-slaves (Up66ovkoi)y many of 
whom prophesied in fits of frenzy. The subject of 
such a paroxysm was seized as he wandered alone 
through the forests, and kept a year in the hands of 
the priests, and then offered as a sacrifice to Seleue; 
and auguries vrere drawn from the manner of his 
death : the rite is fiilly described by Strabo. 

The origin of the Albanians is a much disputed 
point. It was by Pompey's expedition into the Cau- 
casian r^oos in pursuit of Mithridates (b. c. 65) 
that they first became known to the Bomans and 
Greeks, who were prepared to find in that whole 
region traces of the Argonautic voyage. Accord- 
ingly the people were said to have descended from 
Jasou and his comrades (Strab. pp. 45, 503, 526; 
Plin. vi 13. s. 15; Solin. 15); and Tacitus relates 
(^ 34) that the Iberi and Albani claimed de- 
scent from the Thessalians who accompanied Jason, of 
whom and of the oracle of Phrixus they preserved 
many legends, and that ihey abstained frx>m coring 
rams in sacrifice. Another l^nd derived them from 
the companions of Hercules, who followed him out of 
Italy when he drove away the oxen of Creryon; and 
hence the Albanians greeted the soldiers of Pompey 
as their brethren. (Justin, xlii. 3.) Several of the 
later writers r^ard them as a Scytiiian people, akin 
to the Massagetae, and identical with the Alani; 
and it is still disputed whether they were, or not, 
original inhabitaats of the Caucasus. [Alani.] 

Of the history of Albauia there is almost nothing 
to be said. The people nominally submitted to 
Pompey, but remained r»Uly independent. 

Ptolemy mentions several cities of Albania, but 
none of any consequence except Albana (^Derbend)^ 
which commanded the great pass on tho shore of 
the Cas|nan called the Albaniae or Caspiae Pylae 
{Pass cf Derbend), It is formed by a NE. spur 
of Caucasus, to which some geographers give tlie 
name of Ceraonius M., which Strabo applied to the 
£. part of Caucasus itself. It is sometimes con- 
founded with the inland pass, called Caucasiae 
PiTLAK. The Gangara or Gaetara of Ptolemy is 
supposed to be BahoUj famous for its naphtha springs. 
Pliny mentions Cabalaca, in the interior, as the 
captaL Bespecting the districts of Caspiene and 
Cambysene, which some of the ancient geographers 
menticQ as belonging to Albania, see the separate 
articles. (Ukert, vol. iii. pt 2, pp. 561, &c; 
Georgii, vol. i. pp. 151, &c.) - [P. S.] 

ALBA'NIAE POBTAK [Albania, Caspiae 


ALBA'XUM (;AX€ay6y), a town of Latium, 
situated oa the western border of the Lacus Albanus, 
and on the Via Appia, at the distance of 14 miles 
from Borne. It is still caUed Albano, There is 
no trace of the existence of a town upon this spot 
in early times, but its site fiormed part of the ter- 
ritory of Alba Longa, which continued long after 
the fall of tliat city to retain the name of " Albanus 


Ager." (Cic. de Leg, Agr. iL 25.) During the 
latter period of the republic, it became a favourite 
resort of the wealthy Boman nobles, who constructed 
villas here on a magnificent scale. We read of such 
as belonging to Pompey, to Clodins — who was 
killed l^ Milo dose to his own villa — to Bratoa and 
to Curio. (Cic Or, m Pison, 31, pro Mil 10, 
19, 20, Ep. ad AtL vii. 5, ix. 15, de OraL iL 55; 
Pint. i\Mnp. 53.) Of these the villa of Pompej, 
called according to the Latin idiom "Albannm 
Pompeii," appears to have been the most oonspacuoos, 
and is repei^edly alluded to by Cicero. It fell after 
the death of Pompey into the hands of DolabeUa 
(Cic. PhUipp, xiii. 5), but appears to have ultimately 
passed into those of Augustas, and became a 
fiivourite place of resort both with him and his 
successors. (SneL Ner. 25; Dion Cass. liii. 32, 
Iviii. 24.) It was, however, to Domitian that it 
owed its chief aggrandisement; that emperor made 
it not m^ely a place of retirement, but his habitual 
residence, where he transacted public business, 
exhibited gladiatorial shows, and e\'en summoned 
assemblies of the senate. (Suet DomU. 4, 19; 
Dion Cass. Ixvi. 9, Ixvii. 1; Juv. Sat iv.; OreU. 
Inscr. No. 3318.) Existing remains sufficiently 
attest the extent and magnificence of the gardens 
and edifices of all descriptions with which he 
adorned it; and it is probably from his time that 
we may date the permanent establishment there of 
a detachment of Praetorian guards, who had a 
regular fortified camp, as at Bome. The proximity 
of this camp to the dty naturally gave it mu<^ 
importance, and we find it repeatedly mentioioed by 
succeeding writers down to the time of Constantine. 
(Ael. Spart CaraatU. 2 ; Jul. Capit. Mtaamm. 23 ; 
Herodian. viii. 5.) It is doubtless on aooount of 
this fortified camp that we find the title of " Arx 
Albana" applied to the imperiid residence qf 
Domitian. (Tac Agric. 45; Juv. Sat, iv. 145.) 

We have no distinct evidence as to the period 
when the town of Albanum first arose, but there 
can be little doubt that it must have begun to grow 
up as soon as the place became an imperial residence 
and permanent military station. We first find it 
mentioned in ecclesiastical records during the reign 
of Constantine, and in the fifth centniy it became 
the see of a bishop, which it has continued ever 
since. (Nibby, vol. i. p^ 79.) Procopins, in the 
sixth centniy, mentions it as a city (ir^Ai^/ia), and 
one of the places occupied by Belisarius for the 
defence of B(xne. (j5. G, ii. 4.) It is now but 
a small town, though retaining the rank of a dty, 
with about 5000 inhabitants, but is a fsvourite 
place of resort in sununer with the modem Boman 
nobles, as it was with their predecessors, on account 
of the salubrity and freshness of the ur, arising 
from its elevated situation, and the abundance of 
shade furnished by the neighbouring woods. 

There still remain extensive ruins of Boman 
tiroes; the greater part of which unquestionably 
belong to the villa of Domitian, and its appur- 
tenances, including magnificent Thermae, an Am- 
phitheatre, and various other remains. Some 
fragments of reticulated masonry are supposed, by 
Nibby, to have belonged to the villa of Pompey, and 
the extensive terraces now induded in the gardens 
of the Villa Barberiniy between Albano and Castel 
Gandolfo^ though in their present state belonging 
undoubtedly to the imperial villa, may probably he 
based upon the " insanae substructiones " of Clodiua 
alluded to by Cicera (^Pro Mil, 20.) Besidea 


graal put of the walls aii<! odc of the 
gatci «f the Pmetoriaa camp may be observed in 
the tifwn of ^Acpto .- it was aa usual of quadrilateral 
fain, and the walls which surround It are bnilt of 
Bmow Uocfcs of p eper ii tOj some of them not less 
tJian IS feet in length, axid presenting maeh re- 
•nnblanoe to the more UMaent fiNttificatiioos of 
Bunrnns ItaSaa cities, firom which thej difo, 
r, in their compAratiyelj small thicbiess. 
the most interesting remains of an- 
tkjQxtj still Tisible at Albano may be noticed 
tfane iffnarkaMe aepnlchral monaments. One of 
thFse, aboat half a mile firom AUfwto on the road 
to Borne, catoeeding SO feet m deTstioo, is com- 
raoolj, hut ecTODeoaslj', deemed the sepnlchxe of 
Cbdina: aaotfaer, on the same road doee to the 
pte of AfbamOj has a far better daim to be 
le g ai de d as that of Pompej, wiw was really boned, 
as we leani from Phitardi, in the immediate neigh* 
bouhood of his Alban Tilla. (Pint. Pomp. 80.) 
The third, satoated near the opposite gate of the 
town oo the road to Arida, and vnlgarlj known as 
the Sepoldire of the Horatii and Coriatii, has been 
sappoaed bj some modem antiqaarians to be the 
tomb of Anma, son of Porsena, who was killed in 
battle near Axida. It is, however, probable that 
B ii of mnch later date, and was constnicted in 
rwititJ^Ti of the Etiroscan style towards the dose 
of the Boman repoblic. (Nibby, 2L c p. 93 ; Ganina 
in Amu deW Inst. Arch, toL ix. p. 57.) For fall 
ifacatb oonoenmig the Boman remains at Albano, 
aee liibhy, DkOomi di BomOy pi 88— -97; Biccy, 
Storm di Alba LoagtL, 4to. Bome, 1787; Pinmesi, 
AmtidaA di AWano, Boroa, 1762. [E. H. B.^ 
ALBA'NUS. [Albakia.] 
ALBA'NUS LACUS, now called the La^o di 
AlbamOj is a remarkable lake of Latiom, situated 
iaooHdiately beneath the mountain of the same 
nune (ntvw JfomU Cavo), about 14 miles S. £. of 
BoEBe. It is of an oval ferm, about six miles m 
CTOomferenoe, and has no natural outlet, being 
lanoanded en all sides by steep or predpitous 
banks of volcanic tufo, which rise in many parts to 
s height oif three or four hundred feet above the 
levd of the lake. It undoubtedly formed, at a very 
e«iy period, the crater of a vdcano, but this must 
bare ceased to exist long before the historical era. 
Thoi^h sitnated apparently at the foot of the Hons 
Albanoa, it is at a considaable devation above the 
pbiB of Latiom, the levd of its waters being 918 
feet abore the sea: their depth is said to be veiy 
great. The most interesting drcumstanoe con- 
nected with this lake is the oonstructiaa of the 
oddnted emiasary or tunnd to cany off its super- 
flams waters, the formati<m of which is narrated 
both by Uxj and IHonydos, while the work itsdf 
rvsoaias at tlie present day, to confirm the accuracy 
ef thdr aoooonta. Acoordii^ to the statement thus 
tnnamitted to ns, this tunnd was a work of the 
Bomans, undertaken in the year 397 b. c, and was 
orcamoed by an extraordinary swelling of the lake, 
tlw waters of which rose fer above their accustomed 
bei^, so as even to overflow their lofty banks. 
The legend, which connected this prodigy and the 
work itadf with the siege of Vdi, may be safely 
^«nw^ as unhistorical, but there seems no reason 
fir rejecting the date thos assigned to it. (Liv. v. 
15—19; Won. Hal. xii. 11—16, Fr. Mai; Cic 
de Dtrin. L 44.) This remarkable work, which, 
St the presoit day, after the lapee of more than 
2000 jeazs, eontmues to serve the porpose for which 



it was arigiDally designed, is carried under the ridge 
that forms the western boundary of the lake near 
Cattd Gtmdolfo, and which rises in this part to a 
height of 430 feet above the levd of the water; 
its actual length is about 6000 feet; it is 4 feet 
6 inches wide, and 6^ feet high at its entrance, but 
the height rapidly diminishes so as in some places 
not to exceed 2 feet, and it is, in consequence, 
Impossible to penetrate further than about 130 
yards fnm. the opening. The entrance firom the 
lake is through a flat archway, constructed of large 
blodcs of peperino, with a kind of court or quadri- 
lateral space endosed by massive masonry, and a 
second archway over the actual opening of the 
tunnd. But, notwithstanding the simple and solid 
style of their construction, it may be doubted whe- 
ther these works are coeval with the emissary itsel£ 
The oppodte extrenuty of it is at a spot called 
2s JIfole, near Cattel SaveUif about a mile from 
AlbanOf where the waters that issue from it form a 
c o nd d e r sKle stream, now known as the RhoAlbanOy 
which, after a course of about 15 miles, joins the 
Tiber near a spot called La Valoa. Numerous 
openings or shafts firom above (" tpiramina") were 
necessarily sunk during the process oi construction, 
some of which remain open to this day. The whole 
work is cut with the chisd, and is computed to 
have required a period of not less than ten years for 
its completion : it is not however, as asserted by 
Niebuhr, cut throogh "lava hard as iron,*' but^;* 
tKroogE the soft volcanic tufo of which all these 
hills are composed. (Gdl, Topogr. ofRom», p. 22 
— 29 ; Nibby, DnUomi di Roma, vol. i. p. 98 — 
105 ; Westphal, EomitcheKampagney p. 25 ; Abeken, 
Mmd-ItaUm, p. 178; Nicbuhr, voL ii. pp. 475,:^ 
507.) Cicero justly remarks (<fe lAvin, ii. '32) 
that such a work must have been intended not only 
to carry off the superfluous waters of the lake, but 
to irrigate the subjacent plain: a purpose which is 
still in great measure served by the Rivo AUxmo. 
The baida of the lake seem to have been in andent 
times, as they are now, in great part covered with 
wood, whence it is called by Livy (v. 15) " lacus 
in nemore Albano.'* At a later period, when its 
western bank became covered with the villas of 
wealthy Bomans, numerous edifices were erected on 
its immediate shores, among which the remains of 
two grottoes or " Nymphaea " are oonspicuons. 
One of these, immediately adjoining the entrance of 
the emissary, was probably connected with the villa 
of Domitian. Other vestiges of andent buildings 
are vinble bdow the surface of the water, and tlds 
circumstance has probably given rise to the tradition 
common both in andent and modem times of the 
submerdon of a previously existing dty. (Dion. 
Hal. i. 71; Niebuhr, vd. L p. 20p, with note by 
the translators.) " [£. H. B.] 

ALBANUS MONS (rb 'AX^oybv 6pos, Strab.; 
Monte Cavo) was the name given to the highest 
and central summit of a remarkable group of 
mountains in Latium, which fenns one of the most 
important phydcal features of that country. The 
name of Albui Hills, or Jlionti Albania is commonly 
applied in modem usage to the whole of this group, 
wludi rises from the surrounding plain in an isolated 
mass, nearly 40 miles in circumference, and is 
wholly detached from the monntdns that rise above 
Praeneste on the east, as well as from the Volsdan 
mountams or Monti Lqwn on the south. But 
this more extended use of the name appears to have 
been unknown to the andents, who speak only of 





the Mons Albanns in the singalar, as designating 
the highest peak. The whole mass is clearlj d* 
volcanic origin, and may be conceived as having 
once formed a vast crater, of which the loftj ridge 
jijir now called Monte Ariano constituted the southern 
side, while the Heights of Mt. Algidus, and those 
cKxnpied bj Rocca Priore and Tnsculum continued 
the circle on Uie E. and NE. Towards the sea the 
original mountain wall of this crater has given way, 
and has been replaced by the lakes of AJbano and 
JViemf , themselves probably at one time separate 
vents of volcanic eruption. Within this outer circle 
rises an inner height, of a somewhat conical form, 
the proper Mons Albanus, which presents a repeti- 
tion of the same formation, having its own smaller 
crater surrounded on three sides by steep mountain 
ridges, while the fourth (that turned towards Rome) 
has no such barrier, and presents to view a green 
mountun plun, commonly known as the Campo di 
Armtbale, from the belief — ^wholly unsupported by 
any ancient authority — ^that it was at one time 
occufaed by the Carthaginian generaL The highest 
of the surrounding summits, which rises to more 
than 3000 feet above the level of the sea, is the 
culminating point of the whole group, and was 
occupied in ancient times by the temple of Jupiter 
Latiaris. (Cic. pro Mil. 31 ; Lucan. L 198.) It 
is fipom hence that Virgil represents Juno as con- 
templating the contest between the Trojans and 
Latins (^Aen. xii. 134), and the magnificent pro- 
spect which it commands over the whole of the 
surrounding country renders it peculiarly fit for 
such a station, as well as the natural site for the 
central sanctuaiy of the Latin nation. For the same 
reason we find it occupied as a militaiy post on the 
alarm of tiie sudden advance of Hannibal upon 
Rome. (Liv. zxvL 9.) 

There can be no doubt that the temple of Jupiter 
Latiaris* had become the religious centre and place 
of meeting of the Latins long before the dominion of 
Rome: and its connection with Alba renders it 
almost certain that it owed its selection for this 
purpose to the predominance of that city. Tar- 
quinius Superbns, who is represented by the Roman 
annalists as first instituting this observance (Dion. 
Hal. iv. 49), probably did no more than assert 
for Rome that presidii^ authority which had pre- 
viously been enjoyed by Alba. The annual sacrifices 
on the Alban Mount at the Feriae LiUanae continued 
to be celebrated long after the dissolution of the 
Latin league, and the cessation of their national 
assemblies: even in the days of Cicero and Augus- 
tus the decayed Mnuidpia of Latium still sent 
deputies to receive their share of the victim immo- 
lated on their common behalf, and presented with 
primitive simplicity their ofierings <^ lambs, milk, 
and cheese. (Liv. v. 17, xxL 63, xxxii. 1; Cic 
pro Plane. 9, de JHvin. L 11; Dion. HaL iv. 49; 
Suet. Claiid. 4.) 

Another custom which was doubtless derived 
from a mcnre ancient period, but retained by the 
Romans, was that of celebrating triumphs on the 
Alban Mount, a practice which was, however, re- 
sorted to by Roman generals only when they failed 
in obtaining the honours of a regular triumph at 
Rome. The first person who introduced this mode 
of evading the authority of the senate, was C. Papi- 

* Concerning the forms, Latiaris and Latialis, see 
Orell. Onomast vol. ii. p. 336; Ernest, ad Suet. 
Califf. 22. 


rius ^laso, who was consul in b. c. 231 : aT|maro 
illustrious example was that of Marcellns, afte^ the 
capture of Syracuse, b. c. 211. Only five instmces 
in all are recorded of triumphs thus celebrated. 
(Val. Max. iii. 6. § 5; Liv. xxvi. 21, xxxiii. 23, 
xlii. 21 ; Fast. Capit.) 

The remains of the temple on the summit of the 
mountain were still extant till near the dose of the 
last century, but were destroyed in 1783, when the 
church and ooivent which now occupy the site were 
rebuilt. Some of the massive blocks of peperino 
which formed the substruction may be still seen 
(though removed from their original site) in the 
walls of the convent and buildings annexed to it. 
The magnificence of the marbles and other archi- 
tectural decorations noticed by earlier antiquarians, 
as discovered here, show that the temple must have 
been rebuilt or restored at a comparatively late 
period. (Piranesi, AntichUa di ABxmo,- Nibby, 
Bintomi di Roma, voL L pp. 112, 113.) But 
though the temple itself has disappeared, the 
Roman road which led up to it is stOl preserved, 
and, from the absence of all traflSc, remains in a 
state of singular perfection. The polygonal blodu 
of hard basaltic lava, of which the pavement ia 
composed, are fitted together with the nicest ac- 
curacy', while the " crepidines " or curb-stones are 
still preserved on each side, and altogether it pre- 
sents by far the most perfect specimen of an andent 
Roman road in its original state. It is only 8 feet 
in breadth, and is carried with much skill up the 
steep acclivity of the mountain. This road may be 
traced down to the chesnut woods below Rocca di 
Papa: it appears to have passed by Palazeohf 
where we find a remarkable monument cut in the 
face of the rock, which has been conjectured to be 
that of Cn. Cornelius Scipio, who died in b. c. 176. 
(Nibby, /. c. pp. 75, 114, 115; Gdl, Top. of Rome, 
p. 32.) 

Numerous prodigies are recorded by Roman 
writers as occurring on tlie Alban Mount: among 
these the felling of showers of stones is frequently 
mentioned, a circumstance v^ch has been supposed 
by some writers to indicate that the volcanic enei^ 
of th^e mountains continueid in historical times; 
but this suggestion is sufi^dently disproved by his- 
torioil, as well as geological, considerations. (Dau- 
beny on Volcanoes, p. 169, seq. [E. H. B.] 

A'LBICI, a barbaric people, as Caesar calls them 
(B. C. i. 34), who inhabited the mountains above 
Massilia {MargeiUe). They were employed rat 
board their vessels by the Massilienses to oppose 
Caesar s fleet, which was under the ' command of 
D. Brutus, and they fought bravely in the sea-fight 
off Massilia, b. c. 49 (Caes. B. C. I 57). the 
name of this people in Strabo is *A\Stus and 'AA- 
€toiKoi (p. 203); for it does not seem probable that 
he means two peoples, and if he does mean two 
tribes, they are both mountain tribes, and in the 
same mountain tract. D'Anville infers that a place 
called AUnotCj which is about two leagues from 
Riez, in the department of Basses Alpes, retains the 
traces of the name of this people. [G. L.] 

AL'BII, ALBA'NI MONTES (ra •'AA^io ifm, 
Strab. vii. p. 314 ; rh *KKScafhv 6pos, Ptol. ii. 14. § 1 ), 
was an eastern spur of Mount Carvancas, and the ter- 
mination of the Camic or Julian Alps on the confines 
of Illyricum. The Albii Montes dip down to the 
banks of the Saave, and connect Mount Carvancas 
with Mount Cetius, inclosing Aemona, and forming 
the southern boundary of Pannonia. [W. B. D.l 



ALBIKGAUKUM. [Auiium Ihoauhol] 
ALBnOA, a oonsidcimble nvvt of Etruxu, stni 
caOni the Albfyma, ristug in the mountains at the 
lack of Satsmia, nd flowii^ into the sea between 
tht Bvtos Tdamonis and the remarkable jvoimontory 
caDed Ifon Axf^CDtarina. The name is found only 
in the TabiUa; but the Aijonia or Almika of the 
Muitioie Itinnaiy (p. 500} ia evidentlj the same 
riTBT. [E. H. B.] 

ALBINTEMELIUlf. [Albiux Intemeuum.] 
AXBION. [Bbixahvia.] 
ALBIS CAAtfts or ""AA^iot: die EJbe\ one of the 
pott men of Gennanj. It flows fitom SE. to 
XW^ and empties itaelf in the Northern or CSer- 
nm Ocean, having its sources near the Sdmeekoppe 
«a the Bohemian side of the BietengMrge, Tacitus 
{Genu 41) places its somrces in the country of the 
Uomondnri, which is too fiv east, perhaps because 
be oQofimnded the Elbe with the i^ger; Ptolemy (ii. 
II) puts them too fax from the Ascibuigian moun> 
taios. Dion Caasios (!▼. 1) moTB oonectly repre* 
sots it as rising in the Vandal mountains. Strabo 
(p290) deacribea its oourseas paFaUel,and as of equal 
\eB^ with that of the Bhine, both of which notions 
an efTODoona. The Albis was the most easterly and 
anrtheriy rirer reached by the Bomans in Germany. 
Tbrr fint reached its banks in R.a9, under Chudius 
Drasna, bat did not cross it. (Liy. Epit. 140; Dion 
Caai. L e.) Domitioa Ahenobaibus, b. c. 3, was the 
fint who cnased the river (Tacit. Atm, iv. 44), and 
two Tears bter be came to the banks of the lower 
Albis, meetiBg the fleet which had sailed up the river 
iram the sea. (Tacit. I c; VelL Pat.iL 106; Dion 28.) Aiter that time the Bomans^notthink- 
m^ it aafe to keep their I^ods at so great a distance, 
and amid such waz£ke nations, never again proceeded 
as &r as the Albis, so that Tacitus, in speaking of it, 
lavs : jfamea lacfehnw et notum cUm; mmc ta$Uum 
aJUm'. [L. S.] 


CAAChrywpwr, Strak, Ptol.: AWenga), a dty on 

the eoast of IJguria, alwat 50 miles SW. of Grenua, 

sad the capital of the tribe ol the Ingauni. There 

en be no doubt that the fuU form of the name, 

Albiom Ix^gaonnm (giv«n by Pliny, iii 5. s. 7, and 

Vano, lie J2L iZL iiL 9. § 17), is the correct, or at 

least the original one: but it seems to have been 

eirly abbreviated into Albingaunum, which is fbflnd 

in Stnbo, Ptolemy, and the Itineraries, and is re- 

taiaei, with little alteration, in the modem name 

«f ABmgtL Strabo places it at 370 stadia from 

Vada Sdbbata ( Vado), which is much beyond the 

tnith: the Itin. Ant gives the same distance at 20 

M. P., which is rather lees than the real amount. 

(Strah. pt SOS; PtoL iiL 1. § 3; Itin. Ant p. 

S95; Itin. Maiit p. 502; Tab. Pent) It ap- 

pFars to have been a municipal town of some im- 

pcftanoe under the Boman empire, and was occupied 

bv the troops of Otho during the civil war between 

tfarm and the Vitellians. (Tac Bitt, iL 15.) At 

a later period it is mentioned as the birthplace of 

the emperor PTocnlus. (Voptsc. ProaU. 12.) The 

Bodero city of Albenga contains only about 4000 

JahiMfsnts, but is an episcopal see, and the capital 

«f a district. Some inscriptions and other Boman 

nottiiis have been fennd here: and a bridge, called 

the Pbmie Lmgo, a considered to be of Boman con- 

stroetiaa The city is situated at the mouth of the 

river Ceata, which has been erroneously supposed 

to be the Mcrula of Pliny: that river, whidi still 

nUasa iu ancient name, flows into the sea at An- 



dorti, about 10 m. further & Nearly opposite to 
Albenga is a little island, called Galuhaua In- 
sula, from its abounding in fowls in a half-wild 
state: it still retains the name of GaUiwxra, (Varr. 
I c; ColumeU. riu. 2. § 2.) [£. H. B.] 

LIUM ("AAtfiov *lvrtiUXuw^ Strsb. ; 'AASurrf^^ 
Ajor, PtoL: VwlimigUa)^ a city on the coast of 
Liguria, situated at the foot of the Maritime Alps, 
at the mouth of the river Butuba. It was the 
capital of the tribe of the Intonelii, and was distant 
16 Boman miles fipom the Portus Monoed {Monaco^ 
Itin. Marit p. 502). Strabo mendons it as a city 
of considerable size (p. 202), and we learn from 
Tacitus that it was of municipal rank. It waa 
plundered by the troops of the emperor Otho, while 
resisting those of Vitellius, on which occaricm the 
mother of Agrioola lost her life. (Tac. Hiat, ii. 13, 
Agr, 7.) According to Strabo {L c), the name of 
Albium applied to this city, as well as the capital 
of the Ingauni, was derived from their Alpine situ- 
ation, and is connected with the Celtic word Albot 
Alp, There is no doubt that in this case also the 
full form is the dder, but the contracted name 
Albintemelium is already found in Tacitus, as well 
as in the Itineraries; in one of which, however, it is 
ooRupted into Vintiimlinm, from whence comes the 
modem name of VmtimigUa. It is still a consider- 
able town, with about 5000 inhabitants, and an 
episcopal see: but contains no antiquities, except a 
few Boman inscriptions. 

It is situated at the mouth of the river Bojcl, the 
Butuba of Pliny and Lucan, a torrent of a for- 
midable charscter, appropriately termed by the latter 
author " cavus," from the deep bed between precipi- 
tous bonks which it has hoUowed out for itself near 
its month. (Plin. /. c. ; Lucan. ii. 422.) [E.H.B.] 

ALBUCELLA CAA«Ac«Ao: VmaFtuOa), a city 
of the Vaccaei in Blispania Tarraconensis (Itin. Ant ; 
PtoL), probably the Ari>ocala ('AptfovKcUiy) which 
is mentioned by Polybios (iii. 14), Livy (zxi. 5), 
and Stephanos Byzantinus (a r.), as the chief 
dty of the Vaccaei, the taking of which, after an 
obstinate resistance, was one of Hannibal's first ex- 
ploits m Spam, b. c. 218. [P. S.] 

AXBULA 1. The ancient name of the Tiber. 


2. A small river of Pioenum, mentioned only by 
Pliny (iii. 13. s. 18), who appears to pkice it N. of 
the Truentus, but there is great difficulty in as. 
signing its position with any certainty, and the text 
of Pliny is very corrupt: the old editions give Al- 
BuiATES for the name of the river. [Picemuh.] 

3. A small riv^ or stream of sulphureous water 
near Tibur, flowing into the Anio. It rises in a 
pool or small lake about a mile on the left of the 
modem road from Bome to Tivoli, but which was 
rituated on the actual line of the ancient Via Tibur- 
tina, at a distance of 16 M. P. from Bome. (Tab. 
Pent; Vitrav. viii. 3. § 2.) The name of Albnla. 
is applied to this stream by Vitravius, Martial (i. 13. 
2), and Statins {SUv, L 3. 75), but more commonly 
we find the source itself designated by the name 
ofAIbulae Aquae (jh 'AAtfovAa Hl^tera^ Strab. p. 
2dB> The waten both of the kke and stream are ^ 
strongly impregnated with sulphur, and were in great 
request among the Bomans for their medidnal pro- 
perties, so that they were frequently carried to Bome 
for the use of baths: while extensive Thermae were 
erected near the lake itself, the ruins of which 
are still visible. Their construction is common^ 

^ ' 



iiflcribed, bat witiioat authority, to Agrippa. The 
waters were not hot, like most snlphiireous sooioes, 
bat cold, or at least ood, their actual temperatnre 
being abont SOP of Fahrenheit; bat so strong is the 
sulphareons vapoar that exhales from their surface 
as to give them the appoarance alluded to by Martial, 
of " smoking." ( Canaque mdpkureit AVnda fumaX 
aquity L c.) The name was doubtless derived from 
the whiteness of the water: the lake is now com- 
monly known as the Solfatara, (Plin. rm'. 2. s. 6 ; 
^^ ^ ^ Strab. L c; Pans. iv. 35. § \0{ Soet. Aug. 82, 
' / JVIer. 31; Vitffiv.'t c.) ^o allusian is foimd in 
'Z*/> andent authors to the |nroperty possessed by these 
'iC'^ waters of incrustjng all the vegetation on their banks 
with carbonate of lime, a process which goes on with 
such rapidity that great part of the lake itself is 
crusted over, and portions of the deposit thus formed, 
breaking off from time to time, give rise to little 
floating islands, analogous to those described by 
^,,'. ... ancient writers in the Cntilia n Lake. For the same 
reason the present chaS^of the sbesm has re- 
quired to be ardficially excavated, through the mass 
of travertine which it had itself deposited. (Nibby, 
DitUorni di Rama, vol. i. pp. 4 — 6; Gell, Tcp. of 
Home, pp. 40, 41.) 

It h^ been generally sapposed that the Albunea 
of Horace and Virgil was identical with the Albnla, 
but there appear no sufficient grounds far this as- 
sumption: and it seems almost certain that the 
** doraus Albuneae resonantis " of the former ( Carm. i. 
7. 12) was the temple of the Sibyl at Tibur itself, 
in the immediate neighbouihood of the cascade 
[Tibur], while there are strong reasons for 
transferring the grove and oracle of Fannus, and the 
fountain of Albunea connected with them (Viig. 
^sfi. vii. 82), to the neighbourhood of Ardea. 
[Ardba.] [E. H. B.] 

ALBUM PROMONTORIUM (Plin. v. 19. s, 17), 
was the western extremity of the mountain range 
Anti-Libanus, a few miles south of ancient Tyre 
(Palai-Tyms). Between the Mediterranean Sea and 
the base of the headland Albnm ran a narrow road, 
in places not more than six feet in breadth, cut out 
of the solid rock, and ascribed, at least by tradition, 
to Alexander the Great. This was the communi- 
cation between a small fort or castle called Alexan- 
droechene (^ScandcUium) and the Moditertanean. (It. 
Hieros. p. 584.) The Album Promontorium is the 
modem Cape Blanc, and was one bourns journey to 
the north of Ecctippa (^Dthib or ZSt), [W. B. D.] 

ALBURNUS MONS, a mountain of Lucanio, 
mentioned in a well-known passage of Virgil {Gwrg, 
iii. 146), from which we learn that it was in the 
ndghbourhood of the river Claras. The name of 
JUonte Albf*mo b said by Italian topographers to be 
still retained by the lofty mountain group which 
rises to the S. of that river, between its two tribu- 
taries, the Tanoffro and Colore. It is more com- 
monly called the Monte di PosdgUone, from the 
small town of that name on its northern declivity, 
and according to Gluverios is still covered with 
forests of holm-oaks, and infested with gad-flies. 
(Cluver. ItaL p. 1254; Romanelli, vol. L p. 418; 
Zannmii, Carta del Jiegno di NapoU.) 

We flnd mention, in a fragment of Ludlins, of a 
PORTUS Alburnus, which appeara to have been 
situated at the mouth of the river Silarus, and pro- 
bably derived its name from the mountain. (Lucil. 
Fr. p. 11, ed. Gerlach; Probus, ad Virg. G. iii. 
146; Vib. Seq. p. 18, with Oberlin.) [E. H. B] 

ALCO'M£NAK('AAjcottcya/: i^cA. 'AAjco/icfci;s> 


1. A town of the Denriopes on the Er^n, in Paeo. 
nia in Macedonia. (Strab. p. 327.) 

2. [Alaixxihenae, No. 2.] 

ALCY<yNIA ('AXjcvoWa), a lake in Argolis, 
near the Lemaean grove, through which IMonysos 
was said to have descended to the lower worid,in order 
to bring back Semele from Hades. Panaanias sajs 
that its depth was unfathomable, and tbatNerohad tet 
down several stadia of rope, loaded with lead, with- 
out flnding a bottun., As Fausanias does not meD- 
tion a lake Lema, but only a district of thu name, 
it is probable tiiat the lake called Alcyonia by 
Pausanias is the same as the Lerna of other writers. 
(Paos. iL 37. § 5, seq. ; Leake, Morea, vol. IL 
p. 473.) 

ALGYO'NIUM MARK [Corihthiacus Si- 


A'LEA QKKia: EtK 'AA^os, 'AAcdnis), a town 
of Arcadia, between Qrchomenus and Stymphalm, 
contained, in the time of Pausanias, temples of the 
Ephesian Artemis, of Athena Alea, and of Dionystis. 
It appears to have been situated in the territory 
either of Slymphalus or Orcfaomenus. Pausamas 
(viii. 27. § 3) caUs Alea a town of the Maenalians; 
but we ought jnnbably to read Asea in this psasage, 
instead of Alea. The ruins of Alea have been dia- 
oovered by the French Gommissioii in the middle of 
the dark valley of Skotini, about a mile to the K£. 
of the village of BmfdH. Alea was never a town 
of importance; but some modem writers have, 
though inadvertently, placed at this town the cele- 
brated temple of Atb^ Alea, which was situated 
at Tegea. [TsoEiL.] (Paus. y'vL 23. % 1 ; Steph. 
B. #. v.; Boblaye, JZeesAercAety ^, p. 147; Leake, 
Peiopownetiaca, p. 383.) 

ALEMANNI. [Gbk.manta.] 

ALEIUA or ALAXIA (,'AAaXrir, Herod.; 'AA- 
AaX/o, Steph. B.; 'AXcp(a, PtoL: 'AAAaXjoSm, 
Steph. B.), one of the chief dties of Corsica, sitnsted 
on the E. coast of the island, near the mouth of the 
river Rhotanus {Tamgnano). It was origmallya 
Greek colony, founded about b. g. 564, by the Pho- 
caeans of Ionia. Twenty years later, v^ien the 
parent city was captured by Harpagna, a large por- 
tion of its inhabitants r^aired to their cdony of 
Alalia, where th^ dwelt for five years, but tibar 
piratiod conduct involved them in hostilities with 
the* Tyrrhenians and Carthaginians; and in a great 
sea* fight with the combined fleets of these two 
nations th^ suffered such heavy loss, as induced 
them to abandon the island, and repair to the S. of 
Italy, where they ultimately established themsekea 
at Velia in Lucanla. (Herod, i 165—167; Steph. 
B.; Died. v. 13, where Kikapts is evidently a cor- 
rupt reading for *AAaf>la.) No further raention is 
found of the Greek colony, but the city appears 
again, under the Roman form of the name, Aieris, 
during the first Punic war, whoi it was captured 
by the P/>man fleet under L. Scipio, in b. c. 259, an 
event which led to the subnussion of the whole island, 
and was deemed worthy to be expressly mentioned 
in his epitaph. (Zonar. viii. 11 ; Flor. ii. 2; OrelL 
Inacr, no. 552.) It subsequoitly received a Roman 
colony under the dictator SuUa, and appeara to have 
retained its colonial rank, and continued to be one 
of the chief cities of Corsica under the Roman Em- 
pire. (Plin. iii. 6. s. 12; Mela, ii. 7; Died. v. 13; 
Seneca, Cont,adHelv,S] PtoL iii. 2. § 5; Itin. 
Ant. p. 85.) 

Its ruins are still visible near the south bank of 
the river Tavignano : they are now above half a 



w«8 in the Boman 

nOe Crao tbs eoMt, thoqgli 

ALSISIA (il^), a town of the Mudabii, who 
wviv wj^gMwow of the Aedoi. The name is emne- 
tiaiei wiftta Akzia (Fknis, iii. 10, note, ed. Duker, 
aad cfaevhen). Tmdition made it a verj old town, 
fcr tie stay was tliat it was foonded by Hercules 
m. Ui nCara from Iberia; and the Cdtae were said 
t» fcoerats it as the hearth ( j<rr(a) and mother dty 
<€ aO Cdtica (Diod. ir. 19). Strabo (p. 191) de- 
Btxftca AJeoa as situated on a loftj hOl, and sur- 
roviM bj moontains and by two stxeama. This 
^eRiiptiflo may be taken from that of Caesar {B, G. 
vL OX vho adds that in front of the town there 
a pbin aboot three Roman miks long. The 
eonespoDds to that of ifoirf Avxois , dose to 
b a phoe now called ate Jiemed2.Ute , The 
two itnams are tlie JjoteraM and the /Iwe, both 
of the Totme, In b. a 52 the Galli 
a last eflbrt to throw off the Soman yoke, and 
aftir they had sustained several defeats, a large 
face nader Verdqgetorix shut themaelTes up in 
After a Tigonms resistance, the place was 
to Caesar, and Verdngetorix was made 
(j5. G. tIL 68 — 90). Caesar does not 
fltak of the destmctiaR of the phuse, bat Florus 
mn that it was boint, a dbreomatanoe which is not 
g I — i l l I li t with its being afterwards restored. 
FlnT(ixxiT. 17. s.48)8pedcsof Akaiaasnotedftr 
dicF-|ilsti^g articles of haness for horses and beasts 
«f bsnfan. Traces of several Roman roads tend 
toiwds this town, which appears to haye been finally 
M^voed about the ninth century of oar aera.i|[G« L.J 
ALE^LAE (*AAf«r£ai), a village in Laoraiia, on 
tbe road from Therapne to Mt. Taygetus, is placed 
hj Leake nearly in a line between the soathem ex- 
tmity of Sparta and the site of Bryseae. (Pans. 
SL Sa § 2; Leake, J^elo p o tme siaea, p. 164.) 

AL£SL\£UM CAAc^ricubr), called AL£rSIU>f 
(*AA«ivier) by Homer, a town of Pisatis, situated 
^B the road leading across the moontains firom Elis 
to OhnpiB. Its ate is uncertain. (Strab. p. 341 ; 
H«L A u. 617; Steph. B. s.«. 'AAi^iar.) 
ALESITS 1I0N& [MAimmEiA.] 
ALETIUM CAA^i^MT PtoL iii. 1. § 76; £tk, 
AMdoi, FUn. iii. 1 1. s. 16), a town of Calabria, 
DoliaBed, both by Pliny and Ptolemy, among the 
iafand atiBs which they assign to the Salentim. Its 
■te (crroDeously placed by Claver at Lecce) is 
rJarlj marked by the andent church of Sta Maria 
Ms Liaa (fonnerly an episcopal see) near the 
vilh^ of FuaoUi, about 5 miles from GdUipoliy on 
J» nad to Otr^mto. Here many ancient remains 
kre beea £scovered, among whidi are namerous 
tflnbsy whh inscriptions in the Messapian dialect. 
(IKABTiIfe, AwaL Gtoffr. de ritaUe, p. 233; Momm- 
ta, Umter-ItaL IHalekU, p. 57.) The name is 
eorrapdy written Baktium in the Tab. Peut,j which 
bseever correctly places it between Neretum (Aar- 
d») sad Uicntam (£^j|«nto), though the distances 
pw ars BMCcnrate. In S^:abo, also, it is probable 
that wi should read with Kramer 'AKnria for So- 
Aaivja, wUch he describea as a town in the interior 
«f CaUbria, a short distance from the sea. (Strab. 
Ii2S2; and Kramer, ocf foe.) [E.H.a] 

ALEXANDBEIA, -LA or -EA (^ 'AAc^a^Spcia: 
Elk *AAe(a»Spc^, more rarely 'AAc(ay8p(Ti}r, 
'AA<v9pi^nts, 'AXfl|av8piar^Y, 'AAc^oySpu'Of, 
*A\f(a»<^(mt, Alexandrinus ; /em, 'AA«(ay8pif: 
tbt Bodera EtSkamderiMh), the Hellenic capital of 
EB^wMfiBondedby Akzander the Great in b. c. 


332. It stood inhit3lOK.; long.47^£. (Arrian,^ L o 7 ^» 
iii. 1, p. 166; Q. Curt. iv. 8. § 2.) On his voyage ^*^'^^ f ,7 . 
firom Memphis to Canobus he was struck by the/ ^^^ ' AtV" 

natural advantagea of the little town of Rhacdtis, 
on the north-eastern angle of the Lake Mareotis. 
The harbour of Rhacdtis, with the adjacent island 
of Pharos, had been fiom very remote ages (Horn. 
Od, iv. 355) the resort of Greek and Phoenician 
sea-rovers, uid in the former place the Pharaohs kept 
a permanent garrison, to prevent foreigners entering 
their dominions by any other approach than the city 
of Naucratis and the Canobic branch of the Nile. 
At Bhac6tiB Alesumdor determined to construct the 
future capital of his western conquests. His archi- 
tect Deinocrates was instructed to survey the harbour, 
and to draw out a plan of a military and commercial 
metropoliB of the first rank. (Vitruv. ii. j>rooem.; 
Solin.c.32; Amm.MarcxziL40; Va].Maz.i.4.§l.) 
The ground-plan was traced by Alexander himself; 
the building was commenced immediately, but the 
city was not completed until the reign of the second 
monarch of the Lagid line, Ptolemy Phiiadelphus. 
It continued to receive embellishment and extension 
from nearly every monarch of that dynasty. The plan 
of Deinocrates was carried out by another architect, 
named Cleomenes, of Naucratis. (Justin. xiiL 4. § 1 .) 
Ancient writers (Strab. p. 791, seq.; Pint. Akx^ 
26; Plin. v. 10. s. 11) compare the general form 
of Alexandreia to the cloak (chhunys) worn by the 
Macedonian cavalry. It was of an (^long figure, 
rounded at the SE. and SW. extremities. Its length 
from R to W. was nearly 4 miks; its breadth from 
S. to N. nearly a mile, and its circumference, ac- 
cording to Plby (/L e.) was about 15 miles. The 
interior was laid out in parallelograms : the streets 
crossed one another at right angles, and were all 
wide enough to admit of both wheel carriages and 
foot-passengers. Two grand thoroughfares nearly 
bisected the 6!ij, They ran in straight lines to its 
four prindpel gates, and each was a plethrum, or 
about 200 fleet wide. The longest, 40 stadia in 
length, ran fiiom the CanoUo gate to that of the 
Necropolis (£. — ^W.): the shorter, 7 — 8 stadia in 
length, extended from the Gate of the Sun to the 
Gate of the Mo(m (S. — N.). On its northern side 
Alexandreia was bounded by the sea, sometimes de- 
nominated the Egyptian Soi: on the south by the 
Lake of Marea or Mareotis; to the west were the 
Necropolis and its numerous gardens; to the east 
the Eleusinian road and the Great Hippodrome. The 
tongue of land jipon which Alexandreia stood was 
singularly adapted to a commercial city. The island 
of Pharos broke the force of the north wind, and of 
the occasional high floods of the Mediterranean. 
The headland of Lochias sheltered its harbours to 
tiie east; the Lake Mareotis was both a wet-dock 
and the general havoti of the inland navigation of 
the Nile- valley, whether direct from Syene, or by 
the royal canal from ArsinoS on the Red Sea, whilo 
various other canals connected the lake with the 
Deltaic branches of the river. The springs of Rha- 
cotis were few and brackish; but an aqueduct con- 
veyed the Nile water into the southern section of the 
city, and tanks, many of which are still in use, dis- 
tributed fresh water to both public and private edi- 
fices. (Hirtins, B. Akx. c. 5.) The soil, partly 
sandy and partly calcareous, rendered drainaf:e 
nearly superfluous. The fogs which periodically 
linger on the shores of Cyrene and Egypt were dis- 
persed by the north winds which, in the summer 
season, ventilate the Delta; whilo the ralubrious 



€ . 


' , f 

■*■ i. 

* '^y 





•t '. 

r ^_ ^ 



KtmwplKn for which Aleuodidk wai olebnUeil 
wu directly tvouied by tlie Lake Mimnlis, whose 
bad vu uiDuliy filled fran the Nile, ud the 
mtmnk iwadait to kgoom Kattend bj the re- 
gnlu influx of iti purifying Hooda. The mdiOB- 
tim of tlte itreeli from eul to iteit concuind Kilb 
then eaaia b> lEodec Aleiwdreiii htaltliy; dnce it 
broke Ibe fbn:« of Ch« Etedan or DOitbem bneiei, 
and diffused ah equibJe tempenture over the city. 
Nor were ilA military leu itriking than iU com- 


merdil Adrutagcs. 1(3 tirbonn Hire mffickotly 
CA{«doufl to adniit of hu^ fleets, and niffidfotlf 
coDlnctnl It their eBlnnce to be defended by hoaaa 
Kid chum. A numbet of uniiU isliuidi uwud lU 
PhuDg mkI the harbnun weit occupied ttilh forti, 
ind tlie approach bom the north wu f urtbn u- 
cuied by the difficulty of navigating ainoeg tbe 
liuiesteoe reeSi and mad-baukfl winch tronl tbe it' 
bmtchura of the Nile. 

I. Acmlochiiu. 

5. Lochias. 

3. Closed or Royal Port 

*. Anliriiodos. 

G. Boyal Dockyards. 

6. Poeddeion. 

7- City DockTardi and Quays. 

8. Gats of the Moon. 

9. Kibotus, Uasin of Ennoelus. 

10. Great Mole (Ifeptartadium). 

11. Ennottos, Hai-en of Happy IteturiL 

12. The Island Pharos. 

13. The Tower Pharta (DiamoDd-Itock), 
U. Tbe Pirates' Bay. 

IS. Regio JodaeonuiL 

IG. Theatre of the MusentD. 

We ehall Er^t describe the harbour^line, and neit 
the interior of the city. 

The harbour-line commenced from the east with 
the peninsular strip Lochias, which terminated Se- 
ward in a fort called Acro-Lochias, tbe modem 
Pharllloa. The rums of a pter on the eoilem 
>ide of it mark an ancient landlnc-pUee, probably 
belun^png to the Palace which, with its groVFs and 
ganlens, occupied this Peninsula. Like all theprin- 
cipal buildings of Aleiandreia, itconmiandfd a view 
of thebayandlhePharoa. The Lochias fornud, with 
the islet of Antirhodm, the Closed or Royal Fort, 
which was kept eiclusiielj for the kinj^i gallies, 
and aroand the head of which weie (he Royal Dock- 
yards, West of (he Closed Port was the Posddcioo 
or Temple of Neptune, where embarkins and rettini- 
ing niarinera registered their vows. The northern 
point of this temple was called the Timonium, 
whither the defeated triumvir U. Antonias retiied 
after Lis flight fnim Adium in B.C. 31. (Hut. 

23. Rhacetis. 

S4. Lake Mareotia. 

^5. Ciml to Lake Uareotis. 

!6. Aqueduct from the Nile. 

37. Necropolis. 

28. Uippcdrunte. 

29. Gate of the Sun. 

30. Amphitheatre. 

31. Emporium or Royal Exchange. 

Anton. 69.) Between Lochias and the Great Mola 
(Heptastadium) was the Greater Harbonr, and on 
tbe waitem side of the Mole was the Haven of 
Happy Return ((frsirrai), connected by tin baam 
(Kitarrot, chest) with (he canal that led, hj one arm, 
to the Lake Mareolis. and by the other to the Canobic 
am of the Nile. The haven of " Hapj^ Hetnni" 
fronted the qnarter of the < ■ --— ■■ 

. of a> 

n the Greater Har- 

-. aa tlie reefs and shoals lie principally UK. of 
the Pharos. Its modem name is (lie Old Port 
From the Poseidcioa to the Mole the short was 
lined with dockyards and warehouses, upon whose 
broad granils quays shipe dischar^ their lading 
without the intervention of boats. On the western 
bom of the Eunnstus were public granaries. 

Fronting Ihe ciTj, and sheltering both its har- 
bours, lay the long narrow island of Pharos. It was 
a dazsiing white calcareous rock, about a mile frotn 
Aluandreiu, and, nccoidlng to Stnbo, ISO stadia 


firamtiMCuobie moath of the Nile. At ita eftstem 

point Blood the fitf-fiuned lighthonae, the work of So- 

■tntes of Cnidiis, and, neuer the Heptastadinm, was 

a iBnfk d Phtah or Hephaestus. The Pharos was 

bqnni bj- Ptolem J Soter, but oompleted hy his sac- 

ceuor, aad dedicated bj him to **tbe gods So- 

tenss*' or Soler and Berenice, his parents. (Strsb. p. 

792.) It onottsted of sereral stories, and is said to 

have been foor hundred feet in height. The old 

lijrht-hanse of Akxandreia still occupies the site of 

it§ sDcient predecessor. A deep bay on the northern 

aide of the island was called the " Pirates' Haven,** 

frqm its having been an earlj jdace of refuge for 

Cariaa and Sandan mariners. The islets whidi 

•tad the northern coast of Pharos became, in the 

4tii and 5th centuries ▲. d., the resort of Christian 

anchorites. The island is said by Strabo to have 

been neailj desolated by Julius Caesar when he was 

beaef!ed by the Akxttadiians in B. c. 46. (Hirt 

£, Akx. 17.) 

The iiiarob was coonected with the mainland by 
aa aztifidal mound or causeway, called, from its 
hapk (7 stadia, 4270 English feet, or | of a mile), 
the Heptastadium. There were two breaks in the 
lUe to let the water flow through, and prevent the 
jocamoktioD of sflth ; over these passages bridges 
w<ae hid, which oonld be raised up at need. The 
leaipfe of Hephaestus on Pharos stood at one ex- 
tnaoty of the llcile, and the Gate of the Moon on 
the mainland at the other. The form of the Hepta* 
stidhim can no koger be distinguished, since modem 
Aksandieia is principally erected upon it, and upon 
the earth which has •rf^rnnnninfaH about its piers. It 
pobably lay in a direct line between fort CaffareBi 
and the island. 

IiOerior of the CUf^, Alexandreia was divided 
vio three regions. ( 1 ) The Begio Judaeonim. (2) 
The Brocheium or Pyrocheimn, the Boyal or Greek 
Qaarter. (3) The Bhaodtis or Egyptian Quarter. 
Thai division corresponded to the three original oon- 
fTTtaents of the Alexandrian popuhition (jpla yirrii 
Pojyh. xxxir. 14; Strab. p. 797, seq.) After 
a. c. 31 the Romans added a foorth element, but 
this was prindpally militaxy and financial (the garri- 
son, the govenunent, and its official staff, and the 
BegntJatores), and confined to the Region Bruchdom. 
1. Jiegio Jmdaeonan, or Jews' Qnaiter, occupied 
tile KE. angle of the dty, and was encompassed by 
the Ks, the dty walls, mm! the Bmchdmn. Like 
the Jewry of modem European dties, it had walls 
nd gates of ita own, which were at times highly 
aeceaisiy far its security, since between the Alexan- 
drian Greeks and Jews frequent hostilities raged, 
iafiamed both by pditical jealousy and religions 
haEred. The Jews were governed by their own 
Edmareb, or Arabarches (Joseph. Antiq. xiv. 7. § 2, 
la § 1, xviiL 6. § 3, xix,5. § 2, B.J, iL 18. § 7), 
by a sanhedrim or senate, and their own national 
Inrs. Augustus Caesar, in B. c 31, granted to the 
Akxandiian Jews equal privil^^ with their Greek 
Mbw citizens, and recorded liis grant by a pnblic 
Eacriptian. (Id. AnHq. xiL 3, c. Apion, 2.) Philo 
Jndaeos {L^fot, m Cotum) gives a full account of 
the immanities of the R^io Jadaeoram. They 
vers frequently confirmed or annulled by succes- 
■he Bonum emperors. (Sharpe, Bitt, of Egypt^ 
p. 347, seq. Snd edit.) 

«, BrmMmm^ or Pymehama (Bpwxeibi', IIupo- 
XM', Salmasins, ad SpartioH, Badrian, c 20), the 
Bofal or Greek Qaarter, was bounded to the S. and 
£.'by the dty walls, K. by the Greater Uaibour, 



and W. by the region Rhacdtis and the main stnet 
which connected the Gate of the Sun with that of 
the Moon and the Heptastadium. It was also sur- 
rounded by its own walls, and was the quarter in 
which Caesar defended himself against the Alex- 
andrians. (Hirtius, B. Alex. 1.) The Brachdnm 
was bisected by the High Street, which ran from the 
Canobic Gate to the Necropolis, and was supplied 
with water from the Nile by a tunnel or aqueduct, 
which entered the dty on the south, and passed a 
little to the west of the Gymnasium. This was the 
quarter of the Alexandrians proper, ta Hellenic dti- 
zens, the Royal Residence, and the district in which 
were contained the most conspicuous of the public 
buildings. It was so much adorned and extended 
by the later Ptolemies that it eventually occupied 
one-fifth of the entire dty. (Plin. v. 10. s. 1 1 .) It 
omtained the following remarkable edifices: On the 
Lochias, the Palace of the Ptolemies, with the smaller 
palaces appropriated to their children and the adja- 
cent gardens and groves. The far-&med Library | 
and Museum, with its Theatre for lectures and / 
public assemblies, connected with one another and 
with the palaces by long colonnades of the most 
costly marble from the Egyptian quarries, and 
adorned with obelisks and sphinxes taJsen from the | 
Pharaonic dties. The Library contained, according I 
to one account, 700,000 volumes, according to 
another 400,000 (Joseph. Antiq. xii. 2; Athen. i. 
p. 3); part, however, of this unrivalled collection was 
lodged in the temple of Serapis, in the quarter Rha- 
cdtis. Here were deposited the 200,000 volumes 
collected by the kings of Pergamus, and presented 
by M. Antonins to Cleopatra. The libra ry of the ^ 
Museum was destn^ed during theblockaHo of Julius 1 
Caesar in the Bracheium; that of the Serapeion 
was frequently injured by the cHUBrMla <^Xlex- 
andreia, and especially when that temple was de- 
stroyed by the Christian fanatics in the 4th century 
A. D. It was finally destroyed by the orders of the 
khalif Chnar, a. d. 640. The collection was begun 
by Ptolemy Soter, augmented by his successors, — 
for the worst of the Lagidae were patrons of litera- 
ture, — and respected, if not increased, by the Cae- 
sars, who, like their predecessors', appointed and sala- 
ried the librarians and the professore of the Museum. 
The Macedonian kings replenished the shdves of the 
Library zealously but unscrapulously, since they laid 
an embaiigo on all books, whether public or private 
property, which were brought to Alexandreia, retained 
the originals, and gave copies of them to thdr proper 
owners. In this way Ptolemy Euergetes (b. c. 246 
— ^221) b said to have got possession of authentic 
copies of the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and 
Euripides, and to have returned transcripts of them to 
the Athenians, with an accompanying compensation 
of fifteen talents. The Museum succeeded the once 
renowned college of Heliopolis as the University of 
Egypt. It contained a great hall or banqueting 
room (oIkos lUyas), where the professors dined in 
common; an exterior peristyle, or corridor (vcpiira- 
Tot), for exercise and ambulatory lectures; a theatre 
where public disputations and scholastic festivals 
were held; chambers for the different professors; and 
possessed a botanical garden which Ptolemy Phila- 
ddphus enriched with tropical flora (Philostrat. Vit. 
ApoUon, vi. 24), and a menagerie (Athen. xiv. p. 
654). It was diWded into four prindpal sections, — 
poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine,— and 
enrolled among its professors or pupils the illustrious 
naoies of Euclid, Ctcsibius, Collimachus, Aratus, 



Aristopfianea and Aristarchns, the critics and gram- 
marians, the two Heros, Ainmoiuus Saccas, Po- 
lemo, Clemens, Origen, Athanasios, Theon and his 
celebrated daughter Hypatia, with many others. 
Amid the turbulent factions and frequent calamities 
of Alexandreia, the Museum maintained its reputa- 
tion, until the Saracen invasion in a. d. 640. The 
emperors, Uke their predecessors the Ptolemies, kept 
in their own hands the nomination of the President 
of the Museum, who was considered one oS the four 
chief magistrates of the citj. For the Alexandrian 
Library and Museum the following works may be con- 
sulted: — Strab. pp. 609, 791, seq. ; Vitruv. vii. 
prooetn,; Joseph. Antiq. zii. 2, c, Apion, ii. 7; 
Glom. Alex. Strom, i. 22 ; Cyrill. Hieros. CiOechet. 
iv. 34; Epiphim. Mens, et Pond, c. 9; Augustin. 
Civ. D. xviii. 42; Lipdus, dc Biblioth. § ii.; Bo- 
namy, M^. de I Acad, des Inscr. ix. 10; Matter, 
rEcole d'AlexandrUf vol. i. p. 47; Fabric j9i6/. 
Graec. vol. iii. p. 500. 

In the Brucheium also stood the Caesarium, or 
Temple of the Caesars, where divine hcnsours were 
paid to the emperors, deceased or living. Its site is 
still marked by the two granite obelisks called ** Cleo- 
patra's Needles," near which is a tower perhaps not 
inappropriately named the " Tower of the Romans." 
Proceeding westward, we come to the public gra- 
naries (Caesar, B. Civ. iii. 112) and the Mausoleum 
of the Ptolemies, which, from its containing the body 
of Alexander the Great, was denominated Soma 
(X&fta^ or ^rjfM, Strab. p. 794). The remains of 
the Macedonian hero were originally indosed in a 
A / coffin of gold, which, about b. c. 118, was stolen by 
*^*^ ^'^z Ptolemy Soter II., and replaced by one of glass, in 
jb, Jy^, which the corpse was viewed by Augustus in b. c. 
30. (Sueton. Odaio. 18.) A building to whidi 
tradition assigns the name of the " Tomb of Alex- 
ander " is found among the ruins of the old city, but 
its site does not correspond with that of the Soma. 
It is much reverenced by the Moslems. In form it 
resembles an ordinary sheikh's tomb, and it stands to 
the west of the road leading from the Frank Quarter 
to the Pompey's -Pillar Gate. In the Soma were also 
deposited the remains of M. Antonius, the only alien 
admitted into the i^Iausoleum (Plut. Ant. 82). In 
tins quarter also were the High Court of Justice (i>i- 
castenum), in which, under the Ptolemies, the senate 
assembled and discharged such magisterial duties as 
a nearly despotic government allowed to them, and 
where afterwards the Roman Juridicus held his 
court A stadium, a gymnasium, a palaestra, and an 
amphitheatre, provided exercise and amusement for 
the spectacle-loving Alexandrians. The Arsinoeum, 
on the western side of the Brucheium, wa.s a monu- 
ment raised by Ptolemy Philadelphus to the memory 
of Ms favourite sister Arsinoe; and the Panium was 
a stone moimd, or cone, with a spiral ascent on the 
outside, from whose summit was visible every quarter 
of tlie city. The purpose of this structure is, how- 
ever, not ascertained. The edifices of the Brudieium 
had been so arranged by Deinocrates as to command 
a prospect of the Great Harbour and ike Pharus. 
In its centre was a spacious square, surrounded by 
cloisters and flanked to tiie north by the quays — 
the Emporium, or Alexandrian £lxchange. Hither, 
for nearly eight centuries, every nation of the civil- 
ized world sent its representatives. Alexandria had 
inherited the commerce of both Tyre and Carthage, 
and collected in this area the traffic and speculation 
of three contincntR. The Romans admitted Alex- 
andreia to be the second aty of the world; but the 


quays of the Tiber presented no such spectacle m 
the Emporium. In the seventh century, when the 
Arabs entered Alexandreia, the Brucheinm was in 
ruins and almost deserted. 

3. The RhacdtiSy or Egyptian Quarter^ occaped 
the site of the ancient Rhacotia. Its principal build- 
ings were granariea along the western arm of the 
cibotus or basin, a stadium, and the Tonple of Se- 
rapis. The Serapeion wa s erected by the first or^ 
second of the raiemies. The image of the god, 
whidi was of wood, was according to Clemens (Cle- 
mens Alex. Protrepi, c. 4. § 48), indoaed or pUted 
over with layers of every kind of metal and precious 
stcmes : it seems also, either from the smoke of in- 
cense or from vanush, to have been of a black cdoor. 
Its origin and import are doubtfuL Serapis is some- 
timos defined to be Osiri-Apis; and sometimes the 
Sinopite Zeus, which may imply either that he 
was brought from the hill Sinopeion near Memphis, 
or from Sinope in Pontus, whence Ptdemy Stater 
or Philadelphus is said to have imported it to 
adorn his new capital. That tJie idd was a pan- 
theistic emblem may be inferred, both from the ma* 
terials of which it was composed, and finom its being 
adopted by a dynasty of sovereigns who sought to 
blend in one mass the creeds of Hellas and Egypt . 
The Serapdon was destroyed in a. d. 390 by Theo- 
philus, patriarch of Alexandreia, in obedience to the 
rescript of the emperor Theododus, whidi abolished 
paganism (^Codex Theodos. xvi. 1, 2).* The Cop- 
tic population of this quarter were not properly Alex- 
andrian dtizens, but rajoyed a franduse inferior 
to that of the Greeks. (Plin. EpieL x. 5. 22, 23; 
Joseph, c, Apion. c. 2. § 6.) The Alexandreia which 
the Arabs besieged was nearly identical with the 
Rhac6tis. It had sufiered many calamities both 
from civil feud and from foreign war. Its Serapeion 
was twice consumed by fire, once in the reign of 
Marcus Aurolius, and again in that of C<»nmodu5. 
But this district survived both the Begio Judaeortm 
and the Brttcheium.^ 

Of the renuurkaSle oeauty of Alexandreia (yi KaX\ 
'AAc(<£y8f»e<a, Athoi. i. p. 3), we have the testi- 
mony oi numerous writers who saw it in its prime. 
Ammianus (xxli. 16) calls it " vertex omnium dri- 
tatum;" Strabo (xvii.p. 832) describes it as ftiytff- 
roy iforopuov t^j oMoi/juii^t; Theocritus {IdsjH 
xvii.), Philo {ad Flacc. ii. p. 541), Enstathius (/t 
B.), Gregory of Nyssa ( ViL Gregor. Thamnaturg.)f 
aiKi many others, write in the same strain. (Comp. 
Diodor. xvii. 52 ; Pausan. viii. 33.) Perhaps, how* 
ever, one of the most striking descriptions of its 
effect upon a stranger is that of Achilles Tatius in 
his romance of Cleitophon and Leudppe (v. 1). Its 
dilapidation was not the effect of time, but of the 
hand of man. Its dry atmosphere preserved, for cen- 
turies after their erection, the sliarp outline and gay 
colours of its buildings; and when in A. d. 120 the 
emperor Hadrian siirveyed Alexandreia, he behdd 
almost the virgin dty of the Ptolemies. (Spartian. 

* The following references will aid the reader in 
forming his own opinion respecting the much con- 
troverted question of the origin and meaning of 
Serapis: — Tac. ffisi. iv. 84; Macrob. Sat. i. 29; • 
Vopiscus, SaturrUn. 8; Amm. Marc. xx. 16^ Plut. 
Is. et Osir. cc. 27, 28; Lactant. InsL i. 21 ; Clem. 
Alex. Cohort, ad Gent. 4. § 31, Strom. L 1 ; Au- 
gust. Civ. D. xviii. 5 ; Mem. de TAcad. des Inscr, . 
vol. X. p. 500; Gibbon, Z>. and F, xxviii. p. 113. »""^- : 


jMrJok e. IS.) It snflvred mach from tlie intestine 
fndi t( tbe Jews and Greeks, and the Bnichdum 
««• aeadj reboQt 1^ tiie emperor Gallienus, A. d. 
S60— 0. But the eeal of its Christian population 
wit moie dettrnctiTe; and the Saracens only oom- 
jiittd their prnoos work of demolition. 

I^fmlatimofAkaaMdreia. DiodorosSicnlos^who 
Tbfted Alexandma aboat b. c. 58, estimates (xvii. 
5S) its five citizcDS at 300,000, to which som at lesst 
an eqnsl number most be added for sUves and casnal 
rendatL Beadet Jews, Greeks, and Egyptians, 
rh» popolatioa cu na ia tfd , according to Dion Chry- 
Mitoin, who saw the citj in ▲. d. 69 {OrcU, zzziL), 
«f " Itaiiam, Syrians, Libyans, Cilicians, Aethiopians, 
Anbisai, Baetnana, Persians, Scythians, and lu- 
(fiiat;* and Pdybins (xzxix. 14) and Stxabo 
(jk. 797) eooAnn his statement Ancient writers 
^enenlly ghv the Alexandrians an ill name, as 
a doQUe^tangned (Hirtios, B. Alex. 24), Actions 
(TifML PoU. Triff. Tyran, c 22), irascible (Phil 
Wr. Ftaoe, iL p^ 519), blood-thirsty, yet cowardly 
set (Dion Caas. i. p. 621). Athenaens speaks o( 
tbem as a jorial, boastennis race (x. p^ 420), and 
nratioasthrir passion for mosie and the nnmber and 
tfnage appellatiaDs of their mnsical instrmnents 
(d. IT. 176, xiT. PL 654). Dion Chiysostom (Ont. 
xxxil) upbraids theai with thdr levity, their insane 
Jowof ipectades, hotse races, gambling, and dissi- 
{■DflB. They were, however, singulariy indnstrioas. 
Besiiks their export trade, thedtywas fnllof mann- 
fiKtanes of paper, finen, glass, and mnslin (Yopisc. 
JMftua . 8). Erca the lame and blind had their 
occapations. For tlieir mien, Greek or Boman, they 
ianated nicknames. The better i'tolemies and Cae- 
MJS amiled at theae affionts, while Phyacon and 
CacacsDa repaid tliem by a general massacre. For 
■ore particolar information respecting Alexandreia 
«c icftr to Hatter, tEeoU dAlexandrU, 2 vols. ; 
!k srticfe " AUsDimJruii»cht SckuU " in Pauly's 
Sai EmeyelopaetUe ; and to Mr. Sharpe's Hutory 
'*fEgjfpt, 2nd ed. 

lit GifvernmaU of Alextmdreia, Under the 
Ptekmies the Alexandrians possessed at least the 
— '^nfif of a oonstitntion. Its Greek inhabitants 
enjoyed the pririkges of beating anns, of meeting in 
the Gjmnasium to discuss thor general interests, 
aad to petition fer redress of grievances; and they 
were addraaed in royal proclamations as " Men of 
UacedoQ." Bat they had no political constitution 
able ts resist the grasp of despotism; and, after the 
RiZBS of the 6rBt three kings of the JLagid house, 
vcre deprived of even the shadow of freedom. To 
tbtA etti the division of the city into three nations 
directly eontxibated; for the Greeks were ever ready 
tD take np amu against the Jews, and the Egyp- 
tiaaa feared and oantenmed them both. A corum- 
Man, indeed, existed between the latter and the 
Greeks. (Letroone, /user. i. p. 99.) Ofthegovem- 
wal of the Jews l^ an Ethnarch and a Sanhedrim 
we hare already spoken: how the quarter Bhacdtis 
«ai sdmimsteied we do not know; it was probably 
ndo' a priesthood of its own: but we find in in- 
arripdiaDs and in other scattered notices that the 
Gredc popaUti0n was divided into tribes (jpuXai)^ 
aad into wards (huioi}. The tribes were nine in 
■anber (*AA#cd:r, 'AfMoXrft, Aijtoycipif,' AiojoMffr, 
Einft, Btcrls^ Soatnisy MapuvlSf 2ra^X(r). 
(Hrineke, Amalicta Aiexandrinaj p. 346, seq. Berl. 
1843.) There was. indeed, some variation in the 
apprllatinnB of the tribes, since ApoUonius of Bhodes, 
tbe aathor of the Atytmaitiiea, belonged to a tribe 



called nroXtfuds, ( Vil, ApolL Mod. ed. Brunk.) 
The senate was elected from the principal membera 
of tbe wards {Afifjidrat), Its functions were chiefly 
judicial. In inscriptions we meet with the titles 
yvfiyatrtdpxBSi 8firaio8({nyr, inrofuniiueriypai^Sy 
ipxi^ucdjrris, iryopdifofios, &c. (Letronne, RecueU" 
des Inter, Gr. et Lot. de tEgypU^ vol. i. 1842, 
Paris; id. Recherchea pow servir h VHiatoire de 
tEgypte, &c Paris, 1823—8.) From the reign 
of Augustus, B. c. 31, to that of Sepdmius Seve* 
rus, A. D. 194, the fdnctions of the senate were 
suspended, and their place supplied by the Boman 
JuridicuSj or Chief Justice, whose authority was 
inferior only to that of the Praefectut Avguatalis. 
(Winkler, da Jurid. Alex. Lips. 1827~-8.) The 
latter emperor restored the '^jW huleiOarum.^ 
(Spartian. SevenUy c. 17.) 

The Boman government of Alexandreia was alto- 
gether peculiar. The country was assigned neither 
to the senatorian nor the imperial provinces, but 
was made dependent on the Caesar alone. For 
this regulation there were valid reasons. The Nile- 
vaUey was not easy of access; might be easily de- 
fended by an ambitious prefect; was opulent and 
pq>nlous; and was one of the principal granaries of 
Brane. Hence Augustus inteidicted the senatorian 
order, and even the more Dlustrious equites (Tac 
Ann. ii. 59) from visiting Egypt without special 
licence. The prefect he sdected, and his snccessora 
observed the rule, either frtm his personal adberentS| 
or frtmi equites who looked to him alone for pro- 
motion. Under the prefect, but nominated by the 
emperor, was the Juridicus (^iLpxiliutdffTTis)^ who 
presided over a numerous staff of inferior magis- 
trates, and whose decisions could be annulled by the 
prefect, or perhaps the emperor alone. The Caesar 
app(»nted also the keeper of the public records 
(ywofumifuer^pcuf^os^y the chief of the police (vvk- 
rtptyht arpwniy6s)j the Interpreter of Egyptian 
law (itifynrhs irarptuw voiu»v\ the praefectus an- 
nonae or warden of the markets (^w</icAifT^s T«r 
rp wtSXci xf>'7^^'<M'), and the President of the Mu- 
seum. All these officers, as Caesarian nominees, 
wore a scarlet-bordered robe. (Strab. p. 797, seq.) In 
other respects the domination of Borne was highly 
conducive to the welfiire of Alexandreia. Trade, 
which had declined under the later Ptolemies, 
revived and attained a prosperity hitherto unex- 
ampled : the army, instead of being a horde of lawless 
and oppressive mercenaries, was restrained under 
strict discipline: the privileges and naticoial customs 
of the three constituents of its population were re- 
spected: the luxury of Rome gave new vigour to 
commerce with the East; the corn-supply to Italy 
promoted the cultivation of the Delta and the busi- 
ness of the Emporium; and the frequent inscription 
of the imperial names upon the temples attested that 
Alexandreia at least had benefited by exchanging 
the Ptdemios for the Caesars. 

The nistorff of Alexandreia may be divided 
into three periods. (1) The Hellenic. (2) The 
Boman. (3) The Christian. The details of the 
first of these may be read in the History of the 
Ptolemies (^Dict. of Biogr. vol. iii. pp. 565 — 599). 
Here it will suffice to remark, that the city pros- 
pered under the wisdom of Soter and the genius of 
Philadelphus ; lost somewhat of its Hellenic cha- 
racter under Euergetes, and began to decline under 
Philopator, who was a mere Eastern despot, sur- 
rounded and governed by women, eunuchs, and fa- 
vourites. From Epiphanes downwards these evils 

n 2 



-were aggravated. The army was disorgataised ; trade 
■and a^culture declined; the Alexandrian people 
grew more servile and vicious: even the Museum 
exhibited symptoms of decrepitude. Its professors 
continued, indeed, to cultivate science and critidsm, 
but invention and taste had expired. It depended 
upon Rome whether Alexandreia should become 
tributary to Antioch, or receive a proconsul from the 
senate. The wars of Rome with Carthage, Macedon, 
and Syria alone deferred the deposition of the La^ 
gidae. The influence of Rome in the Ptolemaic 
kingdom commenced properly in b. c. 204, when 
the guardians of Epiphanes placed then: infant ward 
under the protection of the senate, as his only refuge 
against the designs of the Macedonian and Syrian 
monarchs. (Justin, xxx. 2.) M. Aemilius Lepidns 
was appointed guardian to the youqg Ptolemy, and 
the legend " Tuior Regis" upon the Aemilian coins 
commemorates this trust. (E)ckhel, vol. v. p. 123.) 
In B. c. 163 the Romans adjudicated between the 
brothers Ptolemy Philometor and Energetes. The 
latter received Cyrene; the former retained Alex- 
andreia and Egypt In b. c. 145, Scipio Africanus 
the younger was appointed to settle the distractions 
which ensued upon the murder of Eupator. (Justin, 
xxxviii. 8 ; Cic. Acad. Q. iv. 2, Off. iii. 2 ; Diod. 
Leffoi. 32; Gell. N.A. xviii. 9.) An inscription, 
of about this date, recorded at Delos the existence of 
amity between Alexandreia and Rome. (Letronne, 
Jnscr, vol.i. p. 102.) In B.C. 97, Ptolemy Apion de- 
vised by will the province of Cyrene to the Roman se- 
nate (Liv. Ixx. JSpU.)^ and his example was followed, 
in B. c. 80, by Ptolemy Alexander, who bequeathed 
to them Alexandreia and his kingdoms The bequest, 
however, was not immediately enforced, as the re- 
public was occupied with civil convulsions at home. 
Twenty years later Ptolemy Auletes mortgaged his 
revenues to a wealthy Roman senator, Rabirius Pos- 
tumus (Cic. FragTn. xvii. Orelli, p. 458), and in 
B. c. 55 Alexandreia was drawn into the immediate 
vortex of the Roman revolution, and from this praiod, 
until its submission to Augustus in b. c. 30, it fol- 
lowed the fortunes alternately of Pompey, Gabinius, 
Caesar, Cassius the liberator, and M. Antonius. 

The wealth of Alexandreia in the last century b.c. 
may be inferred from the fact, that, in b.c. 63, 6250 
talents, or a million sterling, were paid to the trea- 
sury as port dues alone. (Diod. xvii. 52; Strab. 
p. 832.) Under the emperors, the history of Alex- 
andreia exhibits little variety. It was, upon the 
whole, leniently governed, for it was the interest of 
the Caesars to be generally popular in a city which 
commanded one of the granaries of Rome. Augustus, 
indeed, marked hb displeasure at the support given 
to M. Antonius, by building Nicopolis about three 
miles to the east of the Canobic gate as its rival, and 
by depriving the Greeks of Alexandreia of the only 
political distinction which the Ptolemies had left them 
— the judicial functions of the senate. The city, 
however, shared in the general prosperity of Egypt 
under Roman rule. The portion of its population 
that came most frequently in collision with the 
executive was that of the Jewish Quarter. Some- 
times empercurs, like Caligula, demanded that the 
imperial effigies or military standards should be 
set up in their temple, at others the Greeks ridi- 
culed or outraged Uie Hebrew ceremonies. Both 
these causes were attended with sanguinary results, 
and even with general pillage and burning of the 
city. Alexandreia was favoured by Claudius, who 
added a wing to the Museum j was threatened with 


a ^t from Nero, who coveted the skilful applause 
of its claqueur* in the theatre (Sueton. JVier. 20); 
was the head-quarter, for some months, of Vespasian 
(Tac. ffisi, iii. 48, iv. 82) during the civil wan 
which preceded his accession; was subjected to mili- 
tary lawlessness under Domitian (Juv. Sat. xri.); 
was governed mildly by Trajan, who even supplied 
the city, during a dearth, with com (Plm. Panegyr. 
31. § 23); and was visited by Hadrian in a. d. 122, 
who has left a graphic picture of the popolatiun. 
(Vopisc Saium. 8.) The fust important change 
in Uieir polity was that introduced by the emperor 
Severus in a. d. 196. The Alexandrian Greeb 
were no longer formidable, and Severus accordingly 
restored their senate and munidpal govenunent. 
He also ornamented the city with a temple of Bbea, 
and with a public bath — Thermae Septuiwmae. 

Alexandreia, however, suffered more from a single 
visit of Caracalla than from the tyranny or caprice 
of any of his predecessors. That emperor had been 
ridiculed by its satirical populace for affecting to be 
the Achilles and Alexander of his time. The ru- 
mours or caricatures which reached him in Italy were 
not forgotten on his tour through the provinces; and 
although he was greeted with hecatombs on his arri- 
val at Alexandreia in a. D. 211 (Herodian. iv. 9), 
he did not omit to repay the insult by a general mas- 
sacre of the youth of military age. (Dion Cass. 
Ixxvii. 22 ; Spartian. CaraeaU. 6.) Caracalla also 
introduced some important changes in the civil rela- 
tions of the Alexandrians. To mark his displeasure 
with the Greeks, he admitted the chief men of th« 
quarter Rhacdtis — i. e. native Egyptians — into 
the Roman senate (Dion Cass. li. 17; Spartian. 
CaracaU. 9); he patronised a temple of Isis at 
Rome ; and he punished the citizens of the Brucheiaii 
by retrmching their public games and their allow- 
ance of com. The Gredc quarter was charged witk 
the miuntenanoe of an additional Roman garrison, 
and its inner walls were repaired and lined with 

From the works of Aretaeus (de Morb. Acut. 
L) we learn that Alexandreia was viidted by a pes- 
tilence in the reign of Gallus, a. d. 253. In 265, 
the prefect Aemilianus was proclaimed Caesar 
by his soldiers. (Trebell. Pol. Ti-ig. Tyrarm. 22, 
Gallien. 4.) In 270, the name of Zenobia^ queen 
of Palmyra, appears on the Alexandrian coinage; 
and the city had its full share of the evils con- 
sequent upon the frequent revolutions of the Ro- 
man empire. (Vopisc. Awrelian, 32.) After this 
period, A. D. 271, Alexandria lost much of its pre- 
dominance in Egypt, since the native population, 
hardened by repeated wars, and reinforced by Arsr 
bian immigrants, had become a martial and turbulmt 
race. In a. d. 297 (Eutrop. ix. 22), Diocletian be- 
si^ed and regained Alexandreia, which had declared 
itself in &vour of the usurper Achilleus. The em- 
peror, however, made a lenient use of his victory, 
and purchased the favour of the populace by an 
increased largess of com. The column, now well 
known as Pompey's Pillar, once supported a statue 
of this emperor, and still bears on its base the in- 
scription, " To the most honoured emperor, the de- 
liverer of Alexandreia, the invincible Diocletian.*' 

Alexandreia had its fuU share of the persecutions 
of this reign. The Jewish rabbinism and Greek 
philosophy of the city had paved the way for Chris- 
tianity, and the serious temper of the Egyptian 
population sympathised with the earnestness of the 
new faith. The Christian population of Alexaa- 


drea vis iceorfnglj namercRis when the imperia] 

tJktt vtre pat in force. Nor were martyrs wanting. 

Tbc dty vas abtadj an episcopal see ; and its bishop 

Vttft, with the presbjters Fanstos, Dins, and Am- 

BKaios, were among the first victims of Diocletian^s 

nxripL The Christian annals of Alezandreia have 

ID Ettk that is peculiar to the city, that it will 

aJke to refer the reader to the general historj of 


It is more interesting to torn from the Aiian and 
AthsosMsn fends, whidi sometimes deluged the 
ftitets of the dtj with blood, and sometimes made 
Mtesaajj the intervention of the Prefect, to the 
tsfett which Alexandria presented to the Arabs, in 
A. D. 640, tfker so manj revolations, civil and re- 
VipBOi. The Pharos and Heptastadium were still 
amojared : the Sdiaste or Caesarium, the Soma, and 
the Quarter Rhac6tis, retained almost thdr original 
pudeor. But the Hippodrome at the Canobic 
Gate ms a ruin, and a new Muaenm had replaced 
in the Egyptian Region the more ample structure of 
the Ptcdemies in the Bmcheinm. The Greek quar- 
ter vis bdeed nearij deserted: the B(^o Judaeorum 
VIS oeeupKd bj a few miserable tenants, who pur- 
dosed limn the Alexandrian patriarch the right to 
iSaw their national law. The Serapeion had heea 
oonrerted into a Cathedral; and some of the more 
oan^acuoos buildings of the Hellenic city had be- 
coae the Christian Churches of SL Mark, St. John, 
St. Xsiy, &C. Yet Anirou reported to his master 
the Khalif Omar that Alezandreia was a city con- 
taimi^ four thousand palaces, four thousand public 
hiioj fimr hundred theatres, forty thousand Jews 
vho paid tribute, and twelve thousand persons who 
nM heibs. (Eutjch. AtmaL a. d. 640.) The 
icsoh of Arabian desolation was, that the dty, which 
bd dwindled into the Egyptian Quarter, shrunk 
into the limits of the Heptastadium, and, after the 
year 1497, whoi tlie Portuguese, by discovering the 
IBGs^e round the Cape cf Good Hope, changed tlie 
vkJe cnnent of Indian trade, it degenerated still 
ficther into an obscure town, mth a population of 
tbont 6000, inferior probably to that of the original 

Rtum of Aleseandrtia. These may be divided 
mio two classes: (1) indistinguishable mounds of 
Basonzy; and (2) fragments of buildings which 
nay, h some d^ree, be identified with and^t sites 
or stractores. 

'*Tfae (Hd Town" is surrounded by a double 
vaD, with kfty towers, and five gates. The Bosetta 
Gate b the eastern entrance into this circuit; but it 
docsDot eorrespond with the old Canobic Gate, which 
was half a mile farther to the east. The space in- 
daed is about 10,000 feet in length, and in its 
keadth varies from 3200 to 1600 feet. It contams 
gaetally shapeless masses of ruins, consisting of 
shattered columns and capitals, cist^ns choked with 
rahbiah, and fiagments of pottery and glass. Some 
af the mounds are covered by the villas aod gardens of 
the wealthier inhabitants of Alexandreia. Nearly in 
the oeotre of the inclosuTe,and probably in the High 
Stnei brtween the Canobic and Necropolitan Gates, 
tfood a few years anoe three granite columns. They 
were oeariy opposite the Mosque of St. Athanaaius, 
■ad were periiaps the last remnants of the colonnade 
vUdi fiiwd the High Street (From this mosque 
vaa taken, in 1801, the sarcophagus of green 
httcda which is now in the British Museum.) 
l>^itil December, 1841, there was also on the road 
ladjzig to the Bosetta Gate the base nf another 



similar column. But these, as well as other rem-' 
nants of the capital of the Ptolemies, have disap~ 
peared; although, twenty years ago, the intersection 
of its two main streets was distinctly viable, at a 
point near the Frank Square, and not very for from 
the Catholic convent. Excavations in the Old 
Town occasionally, indeed, bring to light parts of 
statues, large columns, and fragments of masonry: 
but the ground-plan of Alexandreia is now pro- 
bably lost irretrievably, as the ruins have been con- 
verted into building materials, without note being 
taken at the time of the site or character of the 
remnants removed. Vestiges of baths and other 
buildings may be traced along the inner and outer 
bay; and numerous tanks are still in use which 
formed part of the dstems that supplied tlie city 
with Nile-water. They were dften of considerablo 
size; were built under the houses; and, being arched 
and coated itith a thick red plaster, have in many 
cases ranained perfect to this day. One set of 
these reservoirs runs parallel to the eastern issue of 
the Mahmoodeh Canal, which nearly represents the 
old Canobic Canal; others are found in the convents 
which occupy part of the site of the Old Town; 
and others again are met with below the mound of 
Pompey's Pillar. The descent into these chambers 
is either by steps in the side or by an opoiing in the 
roof, through which tlie water is drawn up by 
ropes and buckets. 

The most striking remains of ancient Alexandreia 
are the Obelisks and Pompey*s Pillar. The former 
are universally known by the inappropriate name of 
" Cleopatra's Needles." The fame of Cleopatra has 
preserved her memory among the illiterate Arabs, 
who regard her as a kind of enchantress, and ascribe 
to her many of the great works of her capital, — the 
Pharos and Heptastadium included. Meselleh is, 
moreover, the Arabic word for " a packing Needle," 
and is given generally to obelisks. The two columns, 
however, which bear this appellation, are red granite 
obelisks which were brought by one of the Caesars 
from Heliopolis, and, according to Pliny (xxxvi. 9), 
were set up in firont of the Sebaste or Caesarium. 
They are about 57 paces apart from each other: one 
is still vertical, the other has been thrown down. 
They stood each on two steps of white limestone. 
The vertical obelisk is 73 feet high, the diameter at 
its base is 7 feet and 7 inches; the fallen obelisk 
has been mutilated, and, with the same diameter, is 
shorter. The latter was presented by Mohammed 
Ali to the English government : and the propriety of 
its removal to England has been discussed during 
the present year. Pliny (JL c.) ascribes them to an 
Egyptian king named Mesphres: nor is he altogether 
wrong. The Pharaoh whose oval they exhibit was 
the third Thothmes, and in Manetho's list tJie first 
and second Thothme8( 18th Dynasty : Kenrick, vol. ii. 
p. 199) are written as Mesphra-Thotlimosis. Ba^ 
meses III. and Osirei II., his third successor, have 
also their oval? upon these obelisks. 

Pompey's Pillar, as it is erroneously termed, is de- 
nominated by the Arabs Amood e towari; sari or «o- 
wari beuig applied by them to any lofty monument 
wliich suggests the image of a " mast" It might 
more properly lie termed Diocletian's Pillar, since a 
statue of that emperor once occupied its summit, com- 
memorating the capture of Alexandreia m a. d. 297, 
after an obstinate siege of eight months. The totAl 
height of this column is 98 feet 9 inches, the shaft 
is 73 feet, the circumference 29 fleet 8 inches, and 
the diameter at the top of the capital is 16 feet 6 

H 3 



inches. The shaft, capital, and pedestal are ap- 
parently of different ages; the latter are of very in- 
ferior workmanship to the shaft. The substnictions 
of the colomn are fragments of older monuments, and 
the name of Psammedchus with a few hieroglyphics 
is inscribed upon them. 

The origin of the name Pompey's PilUr is very 
doubtful. It has been derived firoin UoftvoMSj " con- 
ducting," since the column served for a land-mark. 
In the inscription copied by Sir Gardner Wilkinson 
and Mr. l^t, it is stated that " Publius, the Eparch 
of Egypt," erected it in honour of Diocletian. For 
Pnblius it has been proposed to read " Pompeius." 
The Pillar originally stood in the centre of a paved 
area beneath ^e level of the ground, like so many 
of the later Roman memcnial columns. The pave- 
ment, however, has long been broken up and carried 
away. If Arabian traditions may be trusted, this 
now solitary Pillar once stood in a Stoa with 400 
others, and formed part of the peristyle of the an- 
cient Serapeion. 

Next in interest are the Catacombs or remains of 
tJie ancient Necropolis beyond the Western Gate. 
The approach to this cemetery was through vmeyards 
and gardens, which both Athenaens and Strabo cele- 
brate. The extent of the Catacombs is remarkable: 
they are cut partly in a ridge of sandy calcareous 
stone, and partly in the calcareous rock that faces 
the sea. They all communicate with the sea by 
narrow vaults, and the most spacious of them is 
about 3830 yds. SW. of Pompcy's PUlar. Their 
style of decoration is purely Greek, and in one of 
the chambers are a Doric entablature and mould- 
ings, which evince no decline in art at the period of 
their erection. Several tombs in that direction, at 
the water's edge, and some even below its level, are 
entitled " Boffni di Cleopatra" 

A more particular account of the Ruins of Alex- 
andreia will be found in Sir Gardner Wilkinson's 
Topography of Thebes^ p. 380, seq., and his Hand- 
Bookfor Traveilers inEgypty pp. 7 1 — 1 00, Murray, 
1847. Besides the references already given for 
Alexandreia, its topography and history, the follow- 
ing writers may be consulted : — Strab. 'p. 79 1, seq. ; 
Ptol. iv. 5. § 9, vii. 5. §§ 13, 14, &c. &c; Died, 
xvii. 52; Pausan. v. 21, viii. 33; Arrian, Ej^. 
Akx, iii. 1. § 5, seq.; Q.Curtius, iv. 8. §2, x. 10. 
§20; Plut. Alex, 26; Mela, i. 9. §9; Plin. v. 10, 
11; Amm. Marc. xxii. 16; It Anton, pp. 57, 70; 
Joseph. B. J. ii. 28 ; Polyb. xxxix. 14 ; Caesar, B. C. 
iiL 112.^1.'/ -* >^> ■'iJ29/'SrM''*^W, B. D.] 

ALEXANDREIA (ii 'AAc((£v8peia). Besides the 
celebrated Alexandreia mentioned above, there were 
several other towns of this name, founded by Alex- 
ander or his successors. 

1. In ARACHoaiA, also called Alexandropolis, on 
the river Arachotus; its site is unknown. (Amm. 
Marc xxiii. 6.) 

2. In Ariaka (ji 4tf 'Apiois^ or Alexandreia Arion 
as Pliny, vi. 17, names it), the chief city of the 
country, now Herat^ the capital of Khoraesany a 
town which has a considerable trade. The tradition 
is that Alexander the Great founded this Alexandreia, 
but like othere of the name it was probably only so 
called in honour of him. (Strab. pp. 514, 516, 723; 
Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6.) 

3. In Bactbxana, a town in Bactriana, near 
Bactra (Steph. Byz.). 

4. In Carmania, the capital of the country, now 
Kerman. (Amm. Marc xxiii. 6.) 

5. Ad Issum (rj tcaf "Icffov. Alexandreumj 


Ishendenm), a town on the east side of the Gulf of 
Issns, and probably on or close to the site of the 
Myriandrus of Xenophon (^Anab. L 4), and Arrian 
(Anab. ii. 6). It se^ns probable that the place re- 
ceived a new name in honour of Alexander. Ste- 
phanus mentions both Myriandrus and Alexandrda of 
CiUcia, by which he means tliis place; but this does 
not prove that there were two towns in his time. 
Both Stephanus and Strabo (p. 676) place this Alex- 
andreia inCilida [Auakus]. A place called Jacob's 
Well, in the neighbouriiood of /«bsiMfenm, has been 
supposed to be the site of Myriandrus (^London Geog. 
Joum. vol. vii. p. 414); but no proof is given of this 
assertion. Iskenderun is about 6 miles SSW. of the 
Pylae Ciliciae direct distance. [Amanus.] The 
place is unhealthy in summer, uid oontamed only 
sixty or seventy mean houses when Niebuhr visited 
it; but in recent times it is said to have improved. 
(Niebuhr, ReitAetchre&nmg, voL iii. p* 19 ; London 
Geog. Joum, vol. x. p. 511.) i 



8. Troas ('AAc((iy8pc(a ^ T/Mvas), sometimes 
called simply Alexandreia, and sometimes Troas( Acts 
Apost. xvL 8), now Esld Stambul or Old SUmbul, 
was situated on tlie coast of Troas, opposite to the 
south-eastern point of the island of Tenedos, and 
north of Assus. It was founded by Antigonos, one 
of the most able of Alexander's successora, under the 
name of Antigoneia Troas, and peopled with settlers 
from Scepsis and other neighbouring towns. It was 
improved by Lysimachus king of Thrace, and named 
Alexandreia Troas ; but both names, Antigoneia, and 
Alexandreia, appear on some coins. It was a fioa- 
riahing place under the Roman empire, and had re- 
ceived a Roman colony when Strabo wrote (p. 593), 
which was sent in the time of Augustas, as the 

name Col. Avo. Troas on a coin shows. In 
the time of Hadrian an aqueduct several miles in 
length was constructed, partly at the expense of 
Herodes Atticus, to bring water to the dty fixxn Ida. 
Many of the supports of the aqueduct still remain, 
but all the arches are broken. The ruins of this 
city cover a large surface. Chandler says that the 
walls, the laipst part of which remain, are several 
miles in circumference. The remains of the Thermae 
or baths are very considerable, and doubtless belong 
to the Roman period. There is little marble (m the 
site of the city, for the materials have been carried 
off to build houses and public edifices at Constanti- 
nople. The place is now nearly deserted. 

There is a story, perhaps not worth much, tiiat the 
dictator Caesar thought of transferring the seat of 
empire to tins Alexandreia or to Ilium (Suet. Caee. 
79); and eame writera have conjectural that Au- 
gustus had a like design, as may be inferred from 
the words of Horace ( Carm. iii. 3. 37, &c.). It may 
be true that Constantine thought of Alexandreia 
(Zosim. ii. 30) for his new capital, but in the end 
he made a better selection. 

9. Ulti&ia ('AAc^eUSpfia i^xdrri, or 'AXc^oy- 
SpcVxara, Appian, Sgr. 57), a dty founded among 
the Scythians, according to Appian. It was founded 
by Alexander upon the Jaxartes, which the Greeks 
called the Tanais, as a bulwark against the eastern 
barbarians The colonists were Hellenic mercenaries, 
Macedonians who were past service, and some of tho 
adjacent barbarians : tiie dty was 60 stadia in drcuit. 
(Arrian, Anab. iv. 1. 3; Curtius, viL 6.) There is 
no e\idcncc to determine the exact site, which may 
be that of Kkodjend^ as some suppose. [G. L.j 



^AktdMfM /hiyiot). It was a well-known costom 

of tfar ttciMt oonqaerore from Seaostris downwards 

to auk tber progress, and espectally its fiirthest 

finatir br moDiunentB; and thus, in Cential Asia, 

Dnr the river Jasoutes {Sihouny, there were shown 

shin df Hercnles sod Bacchns, Cyras, Seminunis 

and Akzauder. (Plin. vi 16. s. 18; Solin. 49.) 

FfisT adds that Alexander's soldiers supposed the 

Jsxutes to be the Taiutjb, and Ptolemy (ill. 5. § 36) 

sctasllr plans al«ars of Alexander un the tme 

Taasic (AmX ^^uch Anunianna Msrcellinas 

(xzii. 6), canying the oonfiisian a step further, 

tanftn to the Borystbenes. (Ukert, vol. iii. pt. 2, 

pfw 38, 40, 71, 191, 196.) Respecting Alexander's 

shait in India, see Htphasis. [P. S.] 

AXGIDUS ("AA^iSor), a moontam of Latiom, 
ftrauBj; part of the Tok»nic group of the Alban 
Ifilh, tlMKigh detached from the central sommit, the 
Jioos Alhanoa or Monte Cavo^ and separated, as 
«dl from that as frxim the Tnsculan hills, by an 
dratod Tdley of ooDsiderable breadth. The extent 
ia vhich the name was applied is not certain, bat it 
mam to hare been a general appellatioo for the 
Doth-casteni portian of the Alban group, rather than 
that sf a particular mountain sommit. It is cele- 
Inted by Hocaoe for its black woods of holm-oaks 
{mgm firaei /rondit ta AIgido)y and for its cold 
sad flwvy climate (nnwi/t AlgidOj Carm, L 21. 6, 
in. S3. 9, IT. 4. 58): but its lower slopes became 
ifierwds ranch frequented by the Roman nobles 
as a phee of summer retirement, whence ^os Itali- 
OB giTCB it the epithet of amoena Algida (Sil. 
ItaL xn. 536; Ifaxtial, x. 30. 6). It has now veiy 
Dodi le sa me d ita ancient aspect, and is covered with 
dease fvests, which are frequently the haunts of 

At an eariier period it plays an important part in 
the bistory of Bcnne, being the theatre of nomberless 
eoafikti between the Romans and Aequians. It is 
not deaririiether it was — as supposed by Dionysins 
(x. 21), who is followed by Niebuhr (vol. u. p. 258) 
— ever iadnded in the proper territories of the 
A(v{nus: the expressions of Livy would certainly 
iad to a oontrary conclusion: but it was continaally 
oenqied by them as an advanced post, which at once 
■KQted their own oommunicatlons with theVolsdans, 
and intereepted thoQe of the Romans and Latins with 
their allies the Hemlcans. The elevated plain 
«bkh sqarated it from the Tuscukn hills thus 
beenne tbdr habitual field of battle. (Liv. ill. 2, 
S3, S5.&C; Dion. HaL x. 21, xL 3, 23, &c.; Ovid, 
/cut TL 721.) Of the expldts of which it was the 
sGcae, the most celebrated are the victory of Cindn- 
ntas over the Aequians under Cloelius Gracchus, 
ia B^C. 458, and that of Postumius I'tibertus, in 
a. c 428, over the combined forces of the Aequians 
sad V'okdans. The last occasbn on which we find 
ibe fianner people encamping on Mt. Algidus, was in 
B. c. 415. 

Ia Ktcnd passages IMonysius speaks of a town 
■aiaed Algidus, but Livy nowhere alludes to the 
m4nicf of such a place, nor does his narrative 
admit of the supposition: and it is probable that 
DioByeina has nii«taken the language of the an- 
aafirts, and rendered *< in Algido " by iv v6Xti 'AA- 
Tflr. (Diooys. X. 21, xi. 3; Steph. B. *. r. "AX^- 
<•*, probaUy copies Dionysius.) In Strabo*s time, 
howrrer, it is certain that there was a small town 
(vaAj'xrMr) of tlie name (Strab. p. 237): but if 
ae can construe his wonls strictly, tliis must have 



been lower down, on the southern slope of the hill ; 
and was probably a growth of later times. It was 
situated on the Via Latina; and the gorge w narrow 
pass through which that road emerged from the hills 
is still called la Cava deW Aglio^ the latter word 
being evidently a corruption of Algidus. (Nibby, 
DitUomi di Boma^ vol. i. p. 123.) 

We find mention in veiy early times of a temple 
of Fortune on Mt. Algidus (Liv. xxi. 62), and we 
learn also that the mountain itself was sacred to 
Diana, who appears to have had there a temple of 
ancient celebrity. (Hor. Coirm, Saec. 69.) Exist- 
ing remains on the summit of one of the ycaiks of the 
ridge are referred, with much probability, to this 
temple, which appears to have stood on an elevated 
platform, supported by terraces and walls of a very 
massive construction, giving to the whole much of 
the character of a fortress, in the same tnanner as 
in the case of the Capitol at Rome. These remains 
— which are not easy of access, on account of the 
dense woods with which they are surrounded, and 
hence appear to have been unknown to earlier writers 
— are described by Gell {Topography of Rome^ p. 
42) and Nibby {Dwtomi di Roma^ vol, i. p. 121), 
but more fully and accurately by Abeken {Mittel' 
ItaUen, p. 215> [E. H. B.] 

ALINDA ("AAiyJa: E(h.*AXuv9^is), a city of 
Caria, which was surrendered to Alexander by Ada, 
queen of Caria. It was one of the strongest places 
in Caria (Arrian. Anab. i. 23; Strab. p. 657). Its 
position seems to be properly fixed by Fellows {IHs- 
coveriea tn Lycia^ p. 58) at Demmeergee-derasifj 
between Arab Hlssa and Karpuslee, on a steep 
rock. He found no inscriptions, but out of twenty 
copper coins obtained here five had the epigraph 
Alinda. [G. L.] 

ALIPHEIIA (*AAf<^pa, Paus.; Aliphera, Liv. ; 
'AX^^cipo, Polyb. : Eth. ^AXuprjptvSf *A\uf>ripa2ttSy on 
coins AAI^EIPEON, Aliphiraeus, Plin. iv. 6. s. 10. 
§ 22), a town of Arcadia, in the district Cynuria, 
said to have been built by Alipherus, a son of Lycaon, 
was situated upon a steep and lofty bill, 40 stadia S. 
of the Alpheius and near the frtoitiers of Elis. A 
large number of its inhabitants removed to Mega- 
lopolis upon the foundation of the latter city in 
B.C. 371; but it still continued to be a place of 
some importance. It was ceded to the Eleans by 
Lydiades, when tyrant of M^alopolls; but it was 
taken from them by Philip in the Social War, b. c. 
219, and restored to Megalopolis. It contained 
temples of Asclepius and Athena, and a celebrated 
bronze statue by Hypatodorus of the latter goddess, 
who was said to have been bom here. There are 
still considerable remains of this town on the hill of 
NerdvUzay which has a tabular summit about 300 
yards long in the direction of £. and W., 100 yards 
broad, and surrounded by remains of Hellenic walls. 
At the south-eastern angle, a part rather higher 
than the rest formed an acropolis: it was about 
70 yards long and half as much broad. The walls 
are built of polygonal and regular masonry inter- 
mixed. (Paus. viu. 3. § 4, 26. § 5, 27. §§ 4, 7; 
Polyb. iv. 77, 78 ; Liv. xxviii. 8 ; Steph. B. s, v. ; 
Leake, MorecLy vol. ii. p. 72, seq. ; Ro6s, Reuen im 
PelapormeSy vol. i. p. 102 ; Curtius, Peloponne30Sy 
vol. i. p. 361, seq.) 

ALPSO or ALI'SUM CEKlawv/AXwov. per- 
haps EUeUj near Paderborn), a strong fortress in 
Germany, built by Drusus in b. c. 11, for the pur- 
pose of E^ccuring the advantages which had been 
gained, and to have a safe place in \Yhich the liomaus 

II 4 

104 ALIUU. 

in[ght muDtaiu tluimBelTeB against iLe CheniBci and 
Sigamhri. it waa mtuotcd st the pcnnt when the 
EIlso cniptiH itself into tha Lspia (_Lippe, Dion 
CiaL hv. 33.) Then csn be no doubt that Iho 
phtce thus described b; Dion CwisiDi xinder the noma 
EAlirair, ia the same as the Aliio mentioned by 
Velldua (ii. 130) Mid Tadtiu (Aon. u, 7), and 
whieh ui A. D. 9, aiter Uieddeat of Varus, waa taken 
bf the Gemuuis. In a.d. 19 it waa reconquered bj 
the RonMBs; but bmg, the year after, besieged by 
the Geimans, iC waa relieved bj Gernoanicua. So 
long nj the Romans were inrolved in wars with the 
Germans in their own country, Aliso wai a place of 
the highest importance, and a military road with 
strong furtificationa Jcept up * 

The n; 

probably lakon from the Uttlc liier Eliso, on whoao 
bank it aloml. The 'AAfisev (in Plolemy ii. 1 1) is 
probably only another form of the name of thiafbrtrcas. 
Mni'h baa been written m niadeni times njnn [he 
aila of the ancient Aliso, and difiercnC results hare 
been arrived at ; but fmn the accurate description of 
IHon Cassins, then can be htlla doubt that the vil- 
lage of ^bm, about two miles Irom Paderbom, situ- 
ated at the confluence of the Abae(IXio) and Lippe 
(Lupia), ia the rite of the andcnt Aliw. (Lodebur, 
Dai Land a. Valh der Brucltrtr, p. 309, fiJI.; 
W. E. Gicfeis, Da Atiione CaiUllo CoBimeMatio, 
Ciefcld, 1844, 8™.)J(. [L.S.] 


ALLA'RIA('AAAa»ii=: Eth. 'k\\afii.rni),t.a\j 
of Cnls of uncertain site, of ivhich cnine ate eitiot, 
bearing on the ubveiso the head of Pallaa, and on 
Uie rcvcise a figure of Heraclci standing. (Polyb. 
ap. Strph. B. *. r.) 

A'LLIA « A'LIA* (i 'AAtat, Plot) a small 
river which Sows uito the Tiber, on ita left bank, 
about 1 1 miles N. of Rome. It was on ita buika 
that the Romans suatamed the memorable defeat by 
the Ganls nnder Breimns in D. c. 390, which hid to 
the capture and destruction of the dtj by the bar- 
barians. On this account the day on which the 
batthi waa fonght, the 16th of July (iv. Kal. Sei- 
tiles), called the Dia AUimnt, was ever after n- 
gsrded aa disastrous, and it waa Ibrbidden to trana- 
act any public bnsiness on it. (Liv. -n. 1 , 3S j 
Virj[.^e».Yii.717;T»c.iru(.ii,9i; Varr.ifeL.L. 
vi. §33; Lucan.Tii.408: Cic Ep. ad AU. \i. 5; 
Kal. Amitem. ap. Ordl Tnicr. vol. ii. p, 394.) 
A fbw yean later, B.C. 377, the Praenestines and 
Iheir allies, during a war with Borne, took up a 
position on the Allia. trusting that it would prove 
of evil omen lo then- adTcrsartes ; but their bnpes 

• According to Niebnhr (vol. ii. p. 533, not 
tlie correct form ia Ali*, hot the ordinaiy for 
AluaIs supported by manygoodMS&,andretainr 
by (iie n»at recent editor of Livy. The note 
Servina (ad Ata. vii. 717) is certahily founded . 

were deeeired, and they were totally deftaled by 
the dictator Cincinnatos. (Uv. vL 3S; Enln^ It. 
2.) The sitnation of this edebnted, but uiagnifi- 
cant, stream is marked with tmosual pndsioa by 
Livy: " Aegre (hottibas) ad undtdranm IspidHi 
occuDinni est, qua dumen Aliia Cnutominis niouU' 
bus praealtn deflneni alveo, hand mnllum infra riim 
Tiberino amni miatetnr ," (v. 37,) The Ganli wen 
advancing upon Rome hy the left hank of the Tib«, 
ao that there can be no doubt that the " via* ben 
mentioned is Che Via Solaria, and the (rarectnes 
of the distance is confirmed by PlntarehCCimiaiS), 
who reckons it at 90 stadia, and by Eatropna (L SO), 
while Vibius Sequester, wlio places it at 14 miki 
from Rome (p. 3), is an authority tf no valne ra 
such a pnnt. Notwithstanding this accnnte de- 
scription, the identification cf the river designited 
bos been the subject of much doubt and discnssiai, 
principally arising ^m the drctunstance that then 
is no stream wbich actnalty crosses tha VU galiris 
at the required distance from Home. Indeed the 
only two streams which can in any degree iaene 
Ibe title of riven, that flow into this part of Ihe 
Tiber, are the Rio del Motto, which crosses the 
modern mad at Ihe Otieria del CriHo ibaat ISmila 
tram Borne, and the Fo$io di Conca, which ri»t il 
a place called Conca i;near the sila of Ficnki), 
about 13 miles from Rome, bnt flows in a aoutbeily 
dircelion and eroases the Via Solaria st Malpaao, 
not quite 7 milea from the city. The fornitr of 
these, though soppoeed by Cluverius to be the Allia, 
is not only mach loo distant from Rome, bnt does 
not correspond with the description of Livy, as it 
flows through a nearly flit oonntry, nnd ita bsoki 
an low and defencelesa. The Foao di Coaca on 
the contrary is too near to Borne, where it crosses 
the road and enters the Tiber; cm which account 
Nibby and Gell have supposed the battle to ban 
been fought higher up its course, above Tom di 
S- Giovanni. But the eipresoons of Livy above 
dted and his whole narrative clearly prove that be 
conceived the hattb to have been fougbt dc« to 
the Tiber, so that the Romans rested their left wing 
on that river, and Ibeir right on the Cmstumian 
hills, protected by the nserve force which was 
posted on (Hie of those hills, and against which 
Brennna directed hia first attack, fiolh Iheee two 
rivers must theiefon be njectedj but between them 
are two smaller streams whidi, tbougb little man 
than ditches in appearance, flow through deep and 
narrow ravines, where they issue from the hills; 
the frst of these, which rises not far from the Foho 
di Coaca, crosses tlie road about a inilo beyond 
La JUareigliaaa, and nther more than 9 fhra 
Rome; the seconi!, called the Scolo del CataU, about 
3 miles further on, at a spot named the Fimla 
diPapa, which is just more than 12 miles from 
Borne. The choice must lie between these two, nt 
which Ibe former has been adopted by Holstcnius 
and Weslphal, but the btler has on the whole the 
best claim to be teganled as tlie true Allia- It 
coincides in all rc-ipects with Livy'g description, 
except that the distance i> a niile tao great; but the 
difference in the other case is greater, and the cor' 
respondence in no olher respect more ialisfacloij. 
If it be objected that the Utile brook at Fonte di 
I'apa is too trifling a stream to have earned auch 



vnfiflft «C Hie river AUia occur at a later period 
oC Bonu Ittstawy. (CluTer. ItaL p. 709; ilolsten. 
J^ot p. 127; Westphal, Bomucke Kampagne, 
p. 117; tidl*s Top. of Rome, p. 44 — 48; Kibbj, 
i>Nlom di i2oMa, tqL i p. 125; Beichard, The- 
am, Topo^.) [£. H. B.] 

ALLITAE CAAXi^at, Stmb., Diod.; "AAAi^ 
FfeaL, £tt. AB^KDns: Alife)^ a city of Sanrninm, 
citsiied in the Tallej of the Vultumiu, at the foot of 
t^ lofty wiMintMn group now called the MonU 
Mdtmt. It waa doae to the frontiers of Campania, 
aad is eBomented amoog the Campanian cities by 
FGoy (iiL 5. 9), and bj Silioa Itallcns (viiL 537); 
bat Stnbo cxprasly caUs it a Samnite city (p. 288). 
Tint it waa so at an eariier period is certain, as we 
£nd it Rpeatedly mentioned in the wars of the Bo- 
bos with that people. Thos, at the breaking out 
flf tha Second Samnite War, in b. a 826, it was one 
cf the fiist pLacea which fell into the hands of the 
Komans: who, howevor, subsequently lost it, and it 
was retaken by C. Hstfcios iUxtilus in b. c. 310. 
.Agaio, in B. GL 307, a decidye victory over the 
^•**"^*— was gained by the proconsnl Fabins be- 
neath ita walls. (Lir. TiiL 25, ix. 38, 42; Diod. 
X3L 35.) Doring the Seoood Punic War its teni- 
tozy was alternately trayersed or occupied by the 
Sorasos and by Hannibal (lir. xziL 13, 17, 18, 
xxri. 9X hot no mention is made of the town itself. 
Stnbo speaks of it as one of the few cities of the 
SsiQiiittt whidi had survived the calamities of the 
Sudai War: and we learn from Cicero that it pos- 
seaed an extensive and fertile territory in the vidley 
of the Vnltnmus, which appears to have a4Joined 
that of Venafrnm. {Pro Plane, 9, de Leg. Agr, 
n. 25.) Aecording to the Liber Coloniarum 
(pi 231), a ooiony was atablished there by the 
triamvizs, and its colonial rank, though not men- 
tiooed by Pliny, is confirmed by the evidence of 
iBscriptians. These also attest that it continued to 
be a place of importance under the empire: and was 
adeaed with many new public buildings under the 
nifa of Hadrian. (Zmnpt, de Cdomitf p. 335; 
OrH /user. 140, 3887 ; Bomanelli, vol. iL pp. 451 
—456.) It is placed by the Itineraries on the 
dneet mad from Borne to Beneventum by the Via 
Latim, at the distance of 17 miles from Teanum, 
sni 43 from Beneventum; but the latter number is 
ceitahily too huge. (Itin. Ant. pp. 122, .304.) 
The modem Altfe is a poor and decayed place, 
thflogh it still retains an episcopal see and the title 
«f a dty: it occupies the ancient site, and has pre- 
served great part of its ancient walls and gates, as 
w«U as numerous other vestiges of antiquity, in- 
da&g the lemains of a theatre and amphitheatre, 
and eonsiiiexahle ruins of Theimae, which appear to 
hane been oonstmeted on a most extensive and 
•yfpiMJid scale. (Bomanelli, L c; Craven, AhruBsi^ 
vd.Lp.21.> [E. H.B.] 

ALLCTBBOGES ('AAA^prytr, 'AAA^/wycf^and 
'AAA^C^oycr. as the Greeks write the name), a 
GaOk people, whose territory lay on the east side of 
the Bbooe, sad chiefly between the Bhone and the 
lam (/aore). On the west they were bounded by 
the Scpwiani (Caes. B. G. L 10). In Caesar's time 
(& G. i 6) the Bhodanus, near its outlet from the 
kke litnuamtts, or the lake of Geneva, was the 
boondaiy between the Allobroges and the Uelvetii; 
asd the furthest town of the Allobroges on the Hel- 
vetk border was Geneva, at which place there was 
a raad over the Bhone into the Helvetic territoiy by 
abridge The Seijuani were the narthem neigh- 



bonre of the Allobroges, who seem to hav€ had some 
territoiy on the north side of the Bhone above the 
junction of the Bhone with the Arar {Saone). To 
the south of the Allobroges were the Vocontii. The 
limits of their territory may be generally defined in 
one direction, by a line drawn fixmi Vienna ( Fifenfie) 
on the Bhone, which was their chief dty, to Geneva 
on the Leman lake. Their land was a wine country. 

The Allobroges are first mentioned in history as 
having joined Hannibsl B.C. 218 in his invasion of 
Italy (Liv. zxi. 31). The Aedoi, who were the 
first allies of Bome north of the Alps, having com- 
plained of the incursions of the Allobroges into their 
territory, the Allobroges were attacked and defeated 
near the junction of the Bhone and the Saone by 
Q. Fabius Maximus (b. g. 121), who from his vic- 
tory derived the cognomen AQobrogicns. Under 
B(«ian dominion they became a more agricultural 
people, as Strabo describes them (p. 185): most of 
them lived in small towns or villages, and their 
chief place was Vienna. The Allobroges were 
looked on with suspicion by their conquerors, for 
though conquered they retained their old animosity; 
and their dislike of Boman dominion will explain 
the attempt made by the conspirators with Catiline 
to gain over the Allobroges through some ambas- 
sadors of the nation who were then in Bome (b. a 
63). The ambassadors, however, through fear or 
some other motive, betrayed the conspirators (Sail. 
Cat, 41). When Caesar was governor of Gallia, 
the Allobn^ges north of the Bhone fied to him for 
protection against the Helvetii, who were then 
marching through their country, b. g. 58 {B. G. i. 
11). The Allobroges had a senate, or some body 
that in a manner correspondod to the Boman senate 
(Cic. Cai, ilL 5). In the division of Gallia under 
Augustus, the Allobroges were included in Karbo- 
nensis, the Provinda of Caesar {B. G. i. 10) ; and 
in the late division of Gallia, they formed the Vien- 
nensis. [G.L.] 

ALMA, ALMUS C^A/^. Ition Cass. Iv. 80; 
Aurel. Vict. EpiUm, 38, Probus ; Eutiop. ix. 17; 
Vopiscus, Pti^mt, 18), a mountain in Lower Pan- 
nonia, near Sinniom. The two robber-chieftams 
Bato made this mountain their stronghdd during 
the Dalmatian insurrection in a. d. 6 — 7. {Diet, of 
Biogr. art BaU).) It was planted with vines by 
the emperor Probus about a. d. 280 — 81, the spot 
being probably recommended to him by its contiguity 
to hk native town of Sirmium. [W. B. D.] 

ALMO, a small river flowing into the Tiber on 
its left bank, just below the walls of Bome. Ovid 
calls it " cursu brevissimus Almo** {Met xiv. 829), 
from which it is probable that be regarded the 
stream that rises frxnn a copious source under an 
artifidal grotto at a spot called Za CaffareUa as the 
true Alma This stream is, however, joined by 
others that ftimish a much larger supply of water, 
one of the most considerable ^ which, called the 
Marrana degli Oriiy flows fipom the source near 
Marino that was the ancient Aqua Ferentina, 
another is commonly known as the Acqua Santa» 
The grotto and source already mentioned were long 
regarded, but certainly without foundation, as those 
of Egeria, and the Vallis Egeriae was supposed to 
be the VaUe della CaffareHa^ through which th 
Almo flows. The grotto itself appears to have been 
constructed in imperial times: it contains a marble 
figure, much mutilated, which is probably that of 
the tutelary ddty of the stream, or the god Almo. 
(Nardini, B4>ma AnticOf vol. i. pp. 157—161, with 



Nibby*8 notes ; Nibbj, DitUomi di Roma^ vol. i. 
p. 130; Gell, Top, of Rome, p. 48; Bai^ess, An- 
tiquities of Rojm, vol. L p. 107.) From Uiis 
spot, which is about half a mile from the church of 
S. SebastkmOf and two miles finom the gates of 
Borne, the Almo has a course of between 3 and 
4 miles to its confluence with the Tiber, crossing on 
the way both the Via Appia and the Via Ostiensis. 
It was at the spot where it joins the Tiber that the 
celebrated statue of Cybele was landed, when it was 
brought from Pessinus in Phrygia to Rome in b. c. 
204; and in memory of this circumstance the sin- 
gular ceremony was observed of washing the image 
of the goddess herself, as well as her sacred imple- 
ments, in the waters of the Almo, on a certain day 
(6 Kal. Apr., or the 27th of Mardi) in every year: 
a superstition which subdsted down to the final 
extinction of paganism. (Ov. Fcuft iv. 337 — 340 ; 
Lucan. i. 600; Martial, iii. 47. 2; Stat. SUv. v. 1. 
222 ; SL Ital. viii. 365 ; Amm. Marc, xxiii. 3. § 7.) 
The little stream appears to have retained the name 
of Almo as late as the seventh century: it is now 
commonly called the Acquatacciok, a name which is 
supposed by some to be a corruption of Acqua 
dAppia^ from its crossing the Via Appia. The spot 
where it is traversed by that rood was about 1^ mile 
from the ancient Porta Capena; but the first region 
of the city, according to the arrangement of Au- 
gustus, was extended to the very bank of the Almo. 
(Preller, JHe Regionen Ronu, p. 2.) [E. H. B.] 

ALMCyPIA ('AAMMT^a), a district in Macedonia 
inhabited by the Almofes (*AA/A«»rcs), is snid to 
have been one of the early conquests o{ the Aigive 
colony of the Temenidae. Leake supposes it to be 
the same country now called Moglena, which bor- 
dered upon the ancient £de5sa to the NE. Ptolemy 
assigns to the Almopes three towns, Horma (*Op/ua), 
Europus (E^fKtfiroT), and Apsalus (^ki^oXos), 
(Thuc. ii. 99; Stcph. B. ».r.; Lycophr. 1238; PtoL 
iii. 13. § 24 ; Leake, iSTorM^m Greece^ vol. iii. p. 4 44.) 

ALONTA {'k\6vrai Terek), one of the chief 
rivers of Sarmatia Asiatica, flowing into the W. side 
of tlie Caspian, S. of the Udon (O08«y, Kouma), 
which is S. of tJie Rha ( Volga). This order, given 
by Ptolemy (v. 9. § 12), seems sufiicient to identify 
the rivers; as the Rha is certainly the Volga, and 
the Kouma and Terdc are the only large ri\'crs that 
can answer to the other two. The Terek rises in 
M. Elbrouz, the highest summit of tlie Caucasus, 
and after a rapid course nearly due E. for 350 miles, 
falls into the Caspian by several mouths near 44*^ 
N. lat. [P. S.] 

A'LOPE CA\«Jin?: Eth. 'AKorlrnt, 'A\(nrt6s). 
1. A town of Phthiods in Thessaly, placed by St&- 
phanus between Larissa Cremaste and Ediinus. 
There was a dispute among the ancient critics 
whether this town was the same as the Alope in 
Homer(//.ii.682; Strab. pp.427, 432; Steph.B. «.«.). 

2. A town of the Opuntian Locrians on the coast 
between Daphnus and Cynus. Its ruins have been 
discovered by Gell on an insulated hill near the 
short). (Thuc ii. 26; Strab. p. 426; ScyL p. 23; 
Gell, lUner, p. 233.) 

3. A town of the Ozolian Locrians of uncertain 
Bite. (Strab. p. 427.) 

ALO'PECE. [Attica.] 

ALOPECONNE'SUS ('AAftnrfictJwi/iroO, a town 
on the western coast of the Thracian Chenionesns. 
It was an Aeolian colony, and was believed to have 
derived its name from the fiict tliat the settlers were 
directed by an oracle to establish the colony, where 


they should first meet a fox with its cob. (Steph: 
B. s. v.; Scymnus, 29; Liv. xxxi. 16; Pomp. MeU, 
ii. 2.) In the time of the Macedonian asf^ndancr, 
it was allied with, and imder the protection d 
Athens. (Dem. de Coron. p. 256, e. AriHoer. 
p. 675.) [L. S.] 

ALO'RUS (^AXMpos : EtL 'AA^pfrif Ot a town of 
Macedonia in the district Bottiaea, is placed by 
Stephanus in the innermost recess of the Tbermaic 
gulf. According to Scylax it was situated between 
the Ualiacmon and Lydias. Leake supposes it to 
have occupied the site of Palear-hkora, near Kap- 
tokkdri. The town is chiefly known on acooont of 
its being the birthplace of Ptolemy, who usurped 
the Macedonian thxxme after the murder of Alex- 
ander II., son of Amyntas, and who is usually called 
Ptolemaens Alorites. (Scyl. p. 26 ; Steph. B. «. v.; 
Strab. p. 330; Leake, NorUiem Greece, voL iL 
p. 435, seq.; Diet. ofBiogr. vol iii p. 568.) 

ALPE'NI ('AATni'o/, Hert)d. viL 176; 'AXwijrif 
woAi5, Herod. viL 216: Eth. 'AXviyrt^r), a town of 
the Epicnemidii Locri at the £. entrance of the pass 
of Thermopylae. For details, see Thebmopitlae. 

ALPES (oi "AAtcis ; sometimes also, but rarely 
T& 'AArc<y& 6fni and rci "AAiria Cpi?), was the name 
given in ancient as well as modem times to the gnat 
chain of mountains — the most extensive and loftiest 
in Europe, — which forms the northern boundary of 
Italy, separatmg that country from Gaul and Ger- 
many. They extend without interruption from Uie 
coast of the Mediterranean between Maasilla and 
Genua, to that of the Adriatic near Trieste, but their 
boundaries are imperfectly defined, it being almost 
impossible to fix on any point of demarcation between 
the Alps and the Apennines, while at the opposite 
extremity, the eastern ridges of the Alps, which 
separate the Adriatic from the Tallies of the Save 
and the Drove, are closely connected with the Dly- 
rian ranges of mountains, which continue almost 
without interruption to the Black Sea. Hence Pliny 
speaks of the ridges of the Alps as eoflemng as they 
descend into lUyricum (" mitesoentia Alpium joga 
per medium Dlyricum," iii. 25. s. 28), and Mela goes 
so far as to assert that the Alps extend into Thnioe 
(Mela, ii. 4). But though there is much pkusibility 
in this view considered as a question of geographical 
theory, it is not probable that the term was ever 
familiarly employed in so extensive a sense. On the 
other hand Strabo seems to consider the Jura and 
even the mountains of the Black Forest in Swabia, 
in which the Danube takes its rise, as mere offiiets 
of the Alps (p. 207). The name is probably de- 
rived from a Celtic word AW car Alp, signifying " a 
height:" though others derive it finxn an adjective 
AB) ^ white," which is cxinnected with the Latin 
Albus, and is the root of the name of Albion. (Strab. 
p. 202 ; and see Armstrong's Goalie Dictionary.) 

It was not till a late period that the Greeks appear 
to have obtained any distinct knowledge of the Alps, 
which were probably in early times r^arded as a 
part of the Rhipaean mountains, a general appella- 
tion for the great mountain chain, which formed the 
extreme limit of their get^raphical knowledge to the 
north. Lycophron is the earliest extant author who 
has mention^ their name, which he however erro- 
neously writes ScCAtio (^Alex. 1361): and the ac- 
count given by Apollonins Bhodius (iv. 630, foL), of 
the sources of the Rhodanus and the Eridanus proves 
his entire ignorance of the geography of these regions. 
The conquest of Cisalpine Ganl by the Romans, and 
6till more the fMissage of Hannibal over the Al]i» 


finC di«w pnsal attradoo to the xnoantains in 
ywtinn. asd Poijiiiiis, who had himadf risited the 
portiaa of tha Aifane chain between Italy and Gao], 
was the first to p:f9 an accnrate descripdon of them. 
8d]] fey feagimphieal knowledge of their coarse and 
rxtait vaa rery imperfect: he juadj describes them 
as czteadii^ fnok the neighbourhood of Mawrilia to 
tbe head cf the Adriatic gitlf, bat places the sources 
«f the BhHM in the ndghboorhood of the latter, and 
wtaien the Alps and that river as running parallel 
nidi SKh other from NE. to SW. (Polj^ il 14, 
15,ii.47.) Stxabo more conecUy desoibes the 
Alps as tiraiinfc a great cnrve like a bow, the con- 
csfe sUe of which was turned towards the plains of 
Itak; the apex of the curve being the territory of 
the Sakan, while both extremities make a bend 
isiad, the one to the Ligurian shore near Genoa, the 
«(ber to the head of the Adriatic. (Strab. pp. 128, 
Sia) He jnstlj adds that throughout this whole 
cxfieat thej IbniMBd a oontinQoas diain or ridge, so 
tkat ibgj might be ahnoet regarded as one moun- 
tva: but that to the east and north they sent out 
Tsrioas fldbfaoots and minor ranges in different direc- 
tkns. (Id. IT. pu 207.) Already previous to the 
taw of Strabo the complete subjugation of the Alpine 
tiftei by Aognstna, and the oonatraction of several 
U^ nads acroas the principal passes of the chains 
as wefl as tha increased commercial intercourse with 
the natiaBS on the other side, had begun to render 
the A^ comparatively familiar to the Romans. But 
Stnbo himself remarks (p. 71) that their ge<^gra- 
jbial poeitkn waa still imperfectly known, and the 
ernes of detail of which he is guilty in describing 
Ibeni fnQy confirm the statement. Ptolemy, though 
viitisg at a later period, seems to have been still 
nan imperfectly acquainted with them, as he re- 
pieeeats the Mons Aduk (the St, Gothard or Splu- 
fn) as the point where the chain takes its great 
Wad fim a northern to an easterly direction, while 
Hnibo ooereccly- aasigns the territory of the Salassi 
as tbe point where this change takes phu». 

As the Bomana became better acquainted with 
the Alpa, they began to distinguish the different 
yortiona of the chi^ by various appellations, which 
enftinQed in nse under the empire, and are still ge- 
aeraOy adopted by geographers. These distinctive 
•pdietB are as feUows: 

1. Alpcs Mabiiimas f AXwcif vap«(Xioi, or wo- 
fi^hJuScnm), thelfaritime Alps, was the name given, 
prabafaiy fimn an eariy period, to that portion of the 
wUdi ahota immediately upon the Tyrrhenian 
between IfarMines and Genoa. Their limit was 
by aome writers at the Portus Monoed or Mo- 
ely above which rises a lofty headland 
stood the trophy erected by Augustus to 
the aubjugation of the Alpine tribes. 
Auouern.] Strabo however more 
jadicininly regards the whole range along the coast 
«f ligBria aa far aa Yada Sahbata {Vado), as be- 
lacing to the Uaritime Alpe: and this appears to 
bate been in accordance wi^ the common usage of 
later time*, aa we find both the Intemelii and In- 
pmi generally reckoned among the Alpine tribes. 
(Snah. ppw 201, 202; Liv. zxviii. 46; Tac. HisL 
a. 12; Vopiae. ProeuL 12.) From this point aa far 
as the river Varna (For) the mountains descend 
qailB to the aea-ehore: but from the mouth of the 
^wnt they trend to the north, and this continues to 
be the direction of the main chain as far as the com- 
i wr em ait of the Pennine Alps. The only moun> 
taiBS in this part of the range of which the ancient 



names have been preserved to us are the Mokb Cema, 
in which the Varus had its source (Plin. iii. 4. s. 5), 
now called la CaUlok; and the Mons Vesulus, now 
Monte VitOf fixMU which the Padus takes its rise. 
(Plin. xii. 16. s. 20; Mela, ii.4; Senr.adAen, x.708.) 
Pliny calls this the most lofty summit of the Alps, 
which is far from beiz^ correct, but its isolated cha> 
racter, and proximity to t^e plains of Italy, combined 
with its really great elevation of 1 1,200 feet above 
the sea, would readily convey this impression to an 
unscientific observer. 

At a later period of the empire we find the Alpes 
Maritimae constituting a separate provincey with its 
own Procurator (Qrell. Inscr, 2214, 3331, 5040), 
but the district thus designated was much more ex- 
tensive than the limits just stated, as the capital of 
the jnovinoe was Ebrcidunum (Embrun) in Gaul. 
(Booking, ad iVofit Dign, pp. 473, 488.) 

2. Au>Es CoTTTAE, or CoTTiAKAK, the Cottiau 
Alps, included the next portion of the chain, from 
the Mons Vesalus northward, extending apparently 
to the neighbourhood of the Mont CeniSj though 
their limit is not clearly defined. They derived their 
napae from Cottius, an Alpine chieftain, who having 
condliatod the favour and friendship of Augustus, 
was left by him in possession of this pcnrtion of the 
Alps, with the tide of Praefect. His territory, which 
comprised twelve petty tribes, appears to have ex- 
tended from Ebrodonnm or Embrun in Gaul, as fiu* 
as Segusio or Susa in Italy, and indudod the pass of ^ 
the Mont Gtnjvre, one of the most frequented and 
important lines of communication between the two 
countries. (Strab. pp. 179, 204 ; Plin. iiL 20. s. 24 ; 
Tac. HitL i. 61, iv. 68; Amm. Marc. zv. 10.) The 
territory of Cottius was united by Nero to the Roman 
empire, and constituted a separate province under 
the name of Alpes Cottiae. But after the time of 
Constantino this appellation was extended so as to 
comprise the whole of the province or r^on of Italy 
previously known as Liguria. [Liouria.] (Orell. 
Inacr, 2156, 3601 ; NotiL Dign. ii. p. 66, and 
Hocking, ad loc.; P. Diac. ii. 17.) llie principal 
rivers which have their sources in this part of the 
Alps are the DRinsNTiA (Durance) on the W. 
and the Dubia {Dora Riparia) on the £., which 
is confeunded by Strabo (p. 203) with the river of 
the same name (now called Dora Battea) that flows 
through the country of the SalassL 

3. Alpbs Graiae ( AXweif Tptuaiy Ptol.) called 
also Mons Graiub (Tac. Hist, iv. 68), was the name 
given to the Alps through which lay the pass now 
known as the Little SL Bernard, The precise ex- 
tent in which the term was employed cannot be fixed, 
and probably waa never de&ied by the andents 
themselves ; but modem geographers generally regard 
it as comprising the portion of the chain which ex- 
tends fi^om the Mont Cema to Mont Blanc, The 
real origin of the appellation is unknown; it is pro- 
bably derived from some Celtic word, but the Bomans , 
in later times interpreted it as meaning Grecianf and 
connected it with the fabulous passage of the Alpa 
by Hercules on his return fimn Spain. In confirm- 
ation of this it appears that some ancient altars 
(probably Celtic monuments) were regarded as 
having been erected by him upon this occasion, and 
the mountains themselves are called by some writers 
Alpes Graegae. (Plin. iii. 20. s. 24 ; Amm. Marc 
zv. 10. § 9 ; Petron. de B. C, 144—151 ; Nep. Hann, 
3.) Livy appears to apply the name of " Cremonis ju- 
gum**to this part of the Alps (xxi.38), a name which 
has been supposed to be retained by the CratnofU^ a 



mountain near SLiHdier. Plinj (zi. 42. s. 97) tenns 
them Alpes Centronicab fhrni the Gaulish tribe 
of the Centrones, who occupied their western s]q)es. 

4. Alpes Pennxmae, or Pobninae, the Pennine 
Alpe, was the appellation by which the Bomans de- 
signated the loftiest and most central part of the 
chain, extending firom the Mont Blanc on the W., to 
the MotUe Rosa on the £. The first form of the 
name is evidently the msst correct, and was derived 
from the Celtic " Pen" or " Ben" a height or sum- 
mit; but the opinion having gained ground that the 
pass of the Great SL Bema^ over these mountains 
was the rouie pursued by Hannibal, the name was 
considered to be connected with that of the Carthar- 
ginians (Poeni), and hence the form Pomnae is 
frequently adopted by later writers. Livy himself 
points out the error, and adds that the name was 
really derived, according to the testimony of the in- 
habitants, from a deity to whom an altar was conse- 
crated on the summit of the pass, probably the same 
who was afterwards worshipped by the Bomans 
thraaselves as Jupiter Penninus. (Liv. xxL 38 ; Ptin. 
ill. 17. s. 21 ; Strab. p. 205; Tac. Hist i. 61, 87; 
Amm. Marc xv. 10; Serv. ad Virg. Aen, x. 13; 
OrelL Inscr, vol. i. p. 104.) The limits of the 
Pennine Alps are nowhere very clearly designated; 
but it seems that the whole upper valley of the 
Rhone, the modem Valais, was called Vallis Poenina 
(see Orell. Inscr. 211), and Ammianus expressly 
places the sources of the Rhone in iha Pennine Alps 
(xv. 11. § 16), so that the term must have been 
frequently applied to the whole extent of the moxm- 
taln chain from the Mont Blanc eastward as far as 
the SL Gothard. The name of Alpes Leponttab 
from the Gaulish tribe of the Lepontii, is frequently 
applied by modem geographers to the part of the 
range inhabited by them between the Monte Rosa 
and the Mont St, Gothardj but there is no ancient 
autliority for the nunc The *^ Alpes Graiae et 
Poenmae," during the later periods of the Roman 
empire, constituted a separate province, which was 
united with Transalpine Gaul. Its chief towns were 
Darantasia and Octudurus. (Amm. Marc. xv. 11, 
§ 12; Orell. Inscr. 3888; Not, Dign. ii. p. 72; 
Booking, <id he. p. 472.) Connected with these 
we find mentioned the Alpes Atractianae or Atrecti- 
anae, a name otherwise wholly unknown. 

5. T&e Alpes Rhaeticae, or Rhaetian Alps,may 
bo considered as adjoining the Pennine Alps on the 
east, and including the greater part of the countries 
now called the Grtsons and the TyroL Under this 
more general appellation appears to have been com- 
prised the mountain mass called Mons Adula, in 
which both Strabo and Ptolemy place the sources of 
the Rhine [Adula Mons], while Tacitus expressly 
tells us that that river rises in one of the most inac- 
cessible and lofly mountains of the Rhaetian Alps. 
{Germ. 1.) The more eastern portion of the Rliae- 
tian Alps, in which the Athesis and Atagis have 
their sources, is called by Pliny and by various other 
writers the Alpes TKioENTiNAE,from the important 
city of Tridentum in the Southern Tyrol. (Plin. iii. 
16. s. 20; Dion Cass. liv. 22; Flor. iii. 4.) 

6. The eastern portion of the Alps from the valley 
of the Athesis and the pass of the Brenner to the 
plains of Pannonia and the sources of the Save appear 
to have been known by various appellations, of which 
it is not easy to detemiine the precise extent or ap- 
plication. The northern arm of the chain, which 
extends through Noricum to the neighbourhood of 
Vienna, was known as the Alfks Noricae (Flor. 

^ '^ / y^ y v /*■- 

* « 




ill. 4; Plin. iii. 25. s. 28), while the more aonthent 
range, which bounds the plains of Venetia, and corrcs 
round the modem FriotU to the neighbourhood of 
Trieste^ was variously known as the Alpes Cak- 
NiCAE and JuLiAE. The former designation, on- 
ployed by Pliny (/. c), they derived from tiie Carai 
who inhabited their mountain fiistnesses: the latter, 
which appears to have become customary in later 
times (Tac. ffisL iiL 8 ; Amm. Marc. xxi. 9, xxxl 
16; Itin. Hier. p. 560; Sex. Ruf. Breoiar. 7), 
from Julius Caesar, who first reduced the Cam to 
subjection, and founded in their territory the toninis 
of Julium Camicum and Forum Julii, of which the 
latter has given to the province its modem name of 
the Frioul, We find also thb part oi the Alps some- 
times termed Alpes Venetae (Amm. Marc. xxxL 
16. § 7) from their bordering on the pnnince of 
Venetia. The mountain ridge immediately above 
Trieste, which separates the watera of the Adriatic 
from the valley of the Save, and connects the Alps, 
properly so called, with the mountains of Dahnatia 
and Dlyricum, was known to the Romans as Moss 
OcBA (Oirpa, Strab. p. 207; Ptol. iii. 1. §1^ 
from whence one of the petty tribes in the neigh- 
bourhood of Teigeste was called the SubooinL (Plin. 
iii. 20. s. 24.) Strabo justly observes that this is the 
lowest part of the whde Alpine range : in consequence 
of which it was from a very early period traversed 
by a much firequented pass, that became the mediom 
of active commercial intercourse from the Roman 
colony of Aquileia with the valleys of the Saee and 
Drove, and by means of those rivers with the plains 
on the banks of the Danube 

7. We also find, as already mentSoncd, the name 
of the Alps sometimes extended to the moontam 
ranges of Illyricum and Dalmatia: thus Pliny (si. 
42. 8. 97) speaks of the Alpes Dalmaticae, and 
Tacitus of the Alpes Pannonicae {Hist. ii. 98, 
iii. 1), by which however he perhaps means httle 
more than the Julian Alps. But this extensive use 
of the term does not seem to have ever been generally 

The physical charactera of the Alps, and those 
natural phenomena which, though not peculiar to 
them, they yet exhibit on a greater scale than any 
other mountains of Europe, must have early attracted 
the attention of travellers and geographera: and thfr 
difficulties and dangera of the passes over them were, 
as was natural, greatly exaggerated. Polybius was 
the first to give a rati(mal account of them, and has 
described their characteristic features on occasion 
of the passage of Hannibal in a manner of which the 
accuracy has been attested by all modem writers. 
Strabo also gives a very good account of them, noticing 
particularly the danger arising from the awUandies 
or sudden falls of snow and ice, which detached 
themselves from the vast frozen masses above, and 
hurried the traveller over the side of the precipice 
(p. 204). Few attempts appear to have been 
made to estimate their actual height; but Polybius 
remarks that it greatly exceeds that of the highest 
mountainsof Greece and Thrace,OIympus,Ossa,Athos, 
&c : for that almost any of these mountains might 
be ascended by an active walker in a single day, 
while he would scarcely ascend the Alps in five: a 
statement greatly exaggerated. (Polyb. ap. SfnA. 
p. 209.) Strabo on the contrary tells us, that the 
direct ascent of the highest summits of the mountains 
in the territory of the Medulli, did not exceed 
100 stadia, and the same distance for the descent on 
tho other aide mto Italy (p. 203), while PUny 



(u. 65) ippeus to estimate the perpendicular heaght 

of MDie i the kftiest snmniits at not less ihanjijtif 

mUes! The la^;th of the whole range is estim^Ued 

hj PdlflitH si onlj 2200 stadia, while Cadiiu An- 

tii«ts(<iii0tedhjPUn7iiL 18.8.22) stated it as 

net less than 1000 miles, reckooing along the foot of 

the moostains firem sea to sea. Plinj himself esti- 

BBtes ths same distance calculated from the river 

Vans to the Axsia at 745 miles, a fair approzima- 

tiiB to the troth. He also jnstlj remarks that the 

JtTj Afierent estimates of the breadth of the Alps 

pTVB br diflerent aaUiors were fomided on the fact 

ef its gnat inequality: the eastern portion of the 

nase bet n e e u CSermanT and Italj being not leas than 

100 ndles across, while the other portions did not 

«xcnd7a (P]in.iii. 19. 8. 23.) Strabo tells ns that 

vbik the more lol^ sommits o{ the Alps were either 

esrand with perpetoal snow, or so bare and rugged 

as to be ahogether uninhabitable, the sides were 

dithsd widi cxtensiTe forests, and the lower slopes 

and taffies were cultivated and well peopled. There 

«as bu w e ie i always a scarcity of com, which the 

JTihalMtantw procured fimm those of the plains in ex- 

chsage far the productions of their mountains, the 

dmf of wfaich were resm, pitch, pine wood for torches, 

wax, hflBMy, and dieese. Previous to the time of 

Augustus, the Alpdne tribes bad been given to pre- 

^isloiy habits, and were continually plundering their 

mors vedtfay neighbouxs, but after they had been 

cBopletdy sotbdoed and roads made through their 

t atiUft ies they devoted themselves more to the arts 

«f pesoe and husbandry. (Strsb. pp. 206, 207.) 

\ar wexe the Alps wanting in more valuable pro- 

dactieDs. Gold mines or rather washing were 

wsked m them in various places, especially in the 

tBTitocy of the Salasst (the Vol dAo^a), where 

tiKftcmsas derived a consadersble revenue frwa them; 

sad in the Noiic Alps, near Aquileia, where gold was 

fnrad in lamps as big as a bean after digging only a 

iew leet below the sux&ce (Strsb. pp. 205, 208). 

Tbe inn mines of the None Alps were also well 

kaovn to the Bomana, and highly esteemed for the 

eiceSent qiiality of the metal furnished by them, 

vkich nas peculiarly well adapted for swords. (Plin. 

xxziv.l4.B.41;Hor.Carm.l. 16.9,£;)0<izvii.71.) 

Ths rwk. crystal so abundant in the Alps was much 

viked by the Bomans, and diligently sought for in 

cBBaequoMe by the natives. (Plin.xxxvii.2.8.9,10.) 

Semal hinds of animslw are also noticed by ancient 
vritefs as peculiar to the Alps; among these are the 
Cbaoms (tbe rvpieapra of PHny), the Ibex, and the 
llsrmot. Pliny dso mentions white hares and white 
pnose or Ptannigan. (Plin. viii. 79. s. 81, x. 68. 
S.85; Varr. delLILm. 12.) Polybius described a 
]ar«e sxumal of the deer kind, but with a neck like a 
wBA boar, evidently the Elk(Cervus Aloes) now found 
«dyiB the north of Europe. (¥fAjh,ap.Strab. p. 208.) 

It would be impossible here to enumerate in detail 
sO the petty trib« which inhabited the vallies and 
dnpes of the Alps. The inscription on the trophy 
of Augustus already mentioned, gives the names of 
vtt len than iorty-fbor '* Gentes Alpinae devictae," 
ftisy of which are otherwise wholly unknown (Plin. 
bL 30. a. 24). The inscription on the arch at Sma 
i&attifQBs fourteen tribes that were subject to Cottius, 
«f which the greater part are equally obscure. 
(OivB. Jn§er, 626; Miltin, Vcy. en PiemorUj vol. L 
f. 106.) Those tribes, whose locality can be deter- 
Baoai with tolerable certainty, or whose names ap- 
pear in histdcy, will be found nnder their respective 
Btieks: for an examinatioD of the whole list tbe 



reader may consult Walckenaer, Geographie deg 
Oauks vol. ii. pp. 43 — 66. 

The eternal snows and glaciers of the Alps are the 
sources from which flow several of the largest rivers 
of Europe: the Bhone, the Bhlne, and the Po, as well 
as the great tributaries of the Danube, the Inn, the 
Drave and the Save. It would be useless here to 
enter into a geographical or detailed enumeration of 
the countless minor streams which derive their 
sources from the Alps, and which will be found mider 
the countries to which th^ severally belong. 

Pastet of the Alps. 

Many of the passes across the great central chain 
of the Alps are so clearly indicated by the course of 
the rivers which rise in them, and the vallies through 
which these flow, that they must probably have been 
known to the neighbouring tribes from a very early 
period. Long bdfore the passage of the western 
AJpe by Hannibal, we know that these mountains 
were crossed by successive swarms of Gaulish in- 
vaders (Polyb. iii. 48 ; Liv. v. 33), and there is every 
reason to suppose that the more easily accessible passes 
of the Bhaetian and Julian Alps had afforded a way 
for the migrations of nations in still earlier ages. 
The particular route taken by Hannibal is still a 
subject of controversy.* But it is clear from the whole 
narrative of Polybius, that it was one already pre- 
viously known and firequented by the mountaineers 
that guided him; and a few years Utter his brother 
Hasdirubal appears to have crossed the same pass 
with comparatively little difficulty. Polybius, ac- 
cording to Strabo, was acquainted with only four 
passes, viz. : I . that through Lignria by the Maritime 
Alps; 2. that through the Taurini, which was the 
one traversed by Hannibal; 3. that through the Sa- 
hissi; and 4. that through the Bhaetians. (Polyb. 
ap. Strab. p. 209.) At a later period Pampey, on 
Ids march into Spain (b. c. 77), opened out a pas- 
sage lor his army, which he describes as " diflerent 
from that of Hannibal, but more convenient for the 
Bomans." (Pompeii JEpist, ap, SaUmt. EisL iii. 
p. 230, ed. Gerlach.) Shortly after this time VaiTo 
(in a passage in which there appears to be much 
confusion) speaks ^ jive passes across the Alps 
(without including the more easterly ones), which 
be enumerates as follows : " Una, quae est jnzta 
mare per Liguras; altera qua Hannibal tnmsiit; 
tertia qua Pompeius ad Sspaniense helium pro- 
fectus est: quarta qua Hasdrubal de Gallia in 
Italiam venit: quinta, quae quondam a Graecis 
possessa est, quae exinde Alpes Graeciae appcl- 
hintur." (Varr. ap, Serv, ad Am, x. 13.) From 
the time of the r^uction of the Transalpine Gauls 
by J. Caesar, and that of the Alpine tribes by Au- 
gustus, the passes over the Alps came to be well 
known, and were traversed by high roads, several of 
which, however, on account of the natural difficulties 
of the mountuns, were not practicable for carriages. 
These passes were the following: — 

1. '* Per Alpes Mabitikas," along the coast 
of Liguria, at the foot of the Maritime Alps from 
Genua to the mouth of the Varus. Though the 
line of sea-coast must always have offered a natural 
means of communication, it could hardly have been 
frequented by the Bomans until the ^-Ud tribes of 
the Ligurians had been efiectually subdued ; and it 
appears certain that no regular road was constructed 

* See the article HAinfiBAL,in the Diet. ofBiogr. 
vol. ii. p. 333, and the works there refen-ed to. 



along it till the time of Augostns. The momunent 
which thatemperorerectedoTer the highest part of the 
pass (just above the Portus Monoed), to oommemo- 
xate the roductbn of the Alpine tribes, is still ex- 
tant, and the Roman road may be distinctly traced 
for soTeral miles on each side of it. [Tropaea 
AuouBn.] It did not follow the same line as the 
modem road, but, after ascending fitnn near Jlfen- 
tone to the smnmit of the pass at Turhia^ descended 
a side valley to Gemenelion {Cvmiie£)^ and proceeded 
from thence direct to the month of theVams, leaving 
Nicaea on the left. The stations along this road 
from Vada Sabbata {Vodii) to AntipoliB are thus 

given in the Itin. Ant. p. 296 : — 

M.P. M.P. 

- zii. Lumone - - z. 
AlpeSumma(7\ir6M) vi. 

Cemenelo (.Cmimcs) - viii. 

Vanun flomen - vL 

Antipolis (iliitt6e«) - z. 

- vm. 

- XV. 

- XVL 


Luco Bormani 
Costa Balenae 
Albintimilio ( Ftn- 
tiTniglia) - xvi. 

This line of road is given in the Itinenuy as a part 
of the Via Aorelia, of which it was nndonbtedly a 
continnation; but we learn from the inscriptions of 
the mile-stooes discovered near Turbia that it was 
properly called the Via Jnlia. 

2. ** Pes Alpes Gottias," by the pass now 
called the AfotU Cfenevre, from Augusta Taurinorum 
to Brigantio (^Briangon) and Ebrodnnum (^Embrvn) 
in Gaul. This was the most direct Hue of communi- 
cation from the north of Italy to Transalpine Gaul : 
it is evidently that followed by Caesar when he 
hastened to oppose the Uelvetii, " qua proxunum 
iter in ulteriorem Galliam per Alpes erat " {B. G. L 
10), and is probably the same already mentioned as 
having been first explored by Pompey. It was after- 
wards one of the passes most frequented by the Ro- 
mans, and is termed by Ammianus (xv. 10) ** via 
media et oompendiaiia." That writer has given a 
detailed account of the pass, the highest ridge of 
which was known by the name of Matbonab Mo278, 
a name retained in the middle ages, and found in 
the Itin. HierosoL p. 556. Just at its foot, on the 
Italian side, was the station Ad Martis, probably 
near the modem village of Ouix. The distances 
given in the Itin. Ant. (p. 341) are, from Taurini 
(Augusta Taurinorum) to S<>gu«>io {Stud) 51 M. P. 
(a great overstatement: the correct distiuiGe would 
be 36); thence — 

Ad Mortis - xvL Ramae - xviiL 
Brigantio - xviiL Eburodono xviii. 
Though now little frequented, this pass is one of tlie 
lowest and easdcst of those over the main chain. 

3. " Per Alpes Graias," by the LittU St. Ber- 
nard. Thid route, which led from Milan and the 
pUtins of the Po by the valley of the Sulassi to Au- 
gusta Pmetoria (vlo«ta), and from thence across the 
mountain pass into the valley of the Isara (Isk^), 
and through the TareaUute to Vienna and Lug- 

. dunum, is supposed by many writers to have been 
: that followed by Hannibal. It was certainly crossed 
1 by D. Brutus with his army afler the battle of Mu- 
tina, B. c. 43. But though it presents much less 
natural difficulties than its neighbour the Great St. 
Bernard^ it appears to have been little frequented, 
on account of the predatory habits of the Salassians, 
until Augustus, afler havuig completely subdued 
that people, constructed a carriage road over the 
Graian Alps, which thenceforward became one of 
the most important and frequented lines uf oommuni- 


cation between Italy and GauL (Strab. p. 208; 
Tac. Hitt. u. 66, iv. 68.) 

The stations on this route are thus given in tht 
Itinerary, beginning fixxm Eporedia, at the eotnmce 
of the VcUd'Aosta:— 


Vitricium ( Verrez) - - - xxi. 

Augusta Praetoria {Aostd) - xxv. 

Arebrigium (& Didier) - - xxv. 

Rergintrum {Bourg. S. Maurice') xxiv. 

Darantasia {AfousUert) - - xviil 

Obilinum .... xiii. 

Ad Publicanos (Cofi/Caiif) - iiL 

From thence there branched off two lines of rood, 
the one by Lemincum {Chamber^/) and Augosti 
Allobrogum to Vienna, the other northwards to Ge> 
neva and the Lacos Lemannns. 

4. " Per Alpes Pxmcnf as," by the Great Sl 
Bernard. This route, which branched off from tha 
former at Augusta Praetoria, and led direct acroM 
the mountain, from thence to Octodurus {Martignff) 
in the valley of the Rhone, and the head of the L^ 
Lemannns, appears to have been known and fie* 
qnented from voy early times, though it was nerer 
rendered practicable for cazriages. Caesar speaks of 
it as being used to a consLderable extent by mer- 
chants and traders, notwithstanding the exactions to 
which they were subjected by the wild tribes tfait 
then occupied this part of the Alps. (B. G. iii. 1.) 
The numerous inscriptions and votive tablets tbat 
have been discovered sufficiently attest how mndi 
this pass was frequented in later times: and it ww 
repeatedly traveraed by Roman armies. (OrelL 
Jn$er. vol. L p. 104; Tac. Hitt i. 61, iv. 68.) The 
distances by this road are thus given in the Itineruy. 
From Augusta Praetoria to the summit of the pass, 
Summo Pennino, where stood a temple of Jupiter — 
M. P. XXV.; thence to Octodoms {MarHgng) xxv.; 
and from thence to Vi\'iscum {Vevay) 34 miks, 
passing two obscure stations, the names of which tan 
probably corrapt 

5. The next pass, for which we find no appro- 
priate name, led from the head of the Lacus IJuriu 
to Brigantia {Bregenz), on the Lake of Ccnskmce, 
We find no mention of this route in early times; bat 
it must have been that taken by Stilicho, in the depth 
of winter, when he jNroceeded from MedioUinam 
through the Rhaetian Alps to summon the Vinde- 
lidans and' Noricans to the relief of Honorius. (Clan- 
dian. B. Get. v. 320 — 360.) The Itineraries give 
two routes across this part of the Alps; the one 
apparentiy following the line of the modem "pax of 
the Splugen, by Clavenna (CAuirefnia) and Tar- 
vesscdo (?) to Curia ( Coire) : the other crossing tlie 
pass of the Septimer^ by Mums and Tinnetio {Ti%- 
zen) to Curia, where it rejoined the preceding route. 

6. " Per Alpes Rhabticas or Tridentinas,'' 
through the modem Tyrol, which, from the natural 
&ciUties it presents, must always have been one of 
the most obvious means of communication between 
Italy and the countries on the S. of the Danube. 
The high road led from Verona to Tridentom (where 
it was joined by a cross road from Opiterginm through 
the Val Sugana)f and thence up the valley of the 
Athesis as far as Botzen, from which point it fak- 
lowed the Atagis or Eieach to its source, and crossed 
the pass of the Brenner to Vcldidana ( Wiidai^ near 
Insbruck)y and from thence across another mountain 
pass to Augusta Vindelicomm. [Rhaetxa.] 

7. A road led from Aquilda to Jnlium Camicum 
{ZwfUo), and from thence across the Julian Alps to 

- zzm. 
. zzziii. 


LanctniD m tbe Tilkjr of the Gait, and by Uutt valley 
and tbe fiuter TkaL to join the preceding road at 
MpitenoiB, near the foot of the Bretmer, The sta- 
tioia (kw of which can be detennined with any 
ccrtaiotr) an thus given (Itin. Ant. p. 379): — 

From Aqoileia Ad Tricesimnm - zzz. 

Jolinm Carnicnm xxx. 

Loncio - • xxii. 

Agtuito • - zviii. 

Littamo - - xsiii. 


Vlpiteno - 

S. Another high road led fitnn Aqoileia eastward 
tp dn valley of the Wippaek^ and from thence 
Mfw the banen mountainooa txact of compaiutively 
■mO eieratioa (the Moos Ocia), which sepazmtes it 
frm tbe Talley of the Savna, to Aemona in Pan- 
UMUL There can be no doabt that this pass, which 
pcants DO ocnsidenible natural difficulties, was from 
tbft fliriiest agea the highway of natl«His fhnn the 
bab of the Danabe into Italy, as it again became 
aSta the M of the Roman empire. (P. Diac ii. 10.) 
The dtatftoce from Aqoileia to Aemona is given by 
tke Itin. AnL at 76 Roman miles, which cannot be 
bt from the troth ; bat the intermediate stations are 
T«7 UKertun. [K H. fi.] 

ALPHETCS CAA^i^s: Su/ea, Mt^ or Bqfidj 
aad &per of KariiBmm)j the chief river of Pelo- 
fmoans^ rises in the S£. of Arcadia on the fron- 
liefB of Laeooia, flowa in a westerly directiQCi throngh 
Arcadia and EJis, and after passing Olympia falls 
iito the lomaa Sea. The Alpheios, like several 
4iCker liven and lakes in Arcadia, disappears more 
tktt Qoce in the limestone mountains of the country, 
mi tkn em eige a again, after flowing some distance 
lodaigroand. Faosanias (viii 54. § 1, eeq., 44. 
{ 4) lebtes that tbe anorce of the Alpheius is at 
/vS. IV^ft M the frantiers of Arcadia and Laconia; 
nd Alt, after receiving a stream rising from many 
aidl Ibastains, at a place called Symboh^ it floiK's 
isto the temtotj of Tegea, where it sinks under- 
imnd. It rises again at the distance of 5 stadia 
frao Ases, doee to the fountain of the Eurotas. 
The two rivers then mix their waterB, and after 
flowing in a commoa channel for the distance of 
Bovfy 20 stadia, they again sink undeiground, and 
VKpfmr, — the Eoiotaa in Laoonia, the Alpheius 
it F^egae, the Fountains, in the territoiy of Mega- 
bpofis m Arcadia. Stiabo (p. 343) also states that 
IIm Alpheius and Eorotas rise from two fountains 
Bear Asea, and that, after flowing several stadia 
•KfeTnond, the Eurotas reappears in the Blemi- 
aais ia Laconia, and the Alpheius in Arcadia. In 
tadther psseage (p. 275) Strabo relates, that it was 
a CBDUBon heUef that if two cfaaplets dedicated to 
tbr Alpheina and the Enrotas were thrown into the 
itiesm near Asea, each would reappear at the sources 
tf the river to which it was destined. This story 
aceanb with tha statement of Paasanias as to the 
saoB of the vraten from the two fountains, and 
tfcar eouae in a common channeL The account of 
ftesanias ia oonfirmed in many particulars by the 
Awintkaii of Colooel Leake and others. The 
linr, in the first part of its course, is now called 
^Sar^MdOj which rises at Ktya Vrysiy the ancient 
HTboe, and which receives, a little below Krya 
rrpR, a stream formed of several small mountain 
toncots, by which the ancient Symbols is recog- 
■iial On entering tha Tegeatic plain, the Sardnda 
tarn flo«s to the KE.; bat there are strong reasons 



for believing that it anciently flowed to the NW., 
and disappeared in the Katav6thra of the marsh of 
Taki.* (Leake, Peioponnesiaca, p. 112, seq.) 
The two reputed sources of the AJpheins and Eu- 
rotas are fbnmd near the remains of Asea, at the 
copious source of vrater called Frangovryti; but 
whether the aource of the Alpheius be really the 
vent of the lake of Takif cannot be decided with 
certainty. These two fountains unite their waters, 
as Pausanias describes, and again sink into tlie 
earth. After passing under a mountain called Tzim^ 
bona, the Alpheius reappears at Marmara, probably 
P^ae. (Leake, Morea, vuL ilL p. 37, seq.) 

Below Pegae, the Alpheius receives the Heusson 
('EAiO'O'e&y : Jiiver ofDctvid), on which Megalopolis 
was situated, 30 stadia from the confluence. Below 
this, and near the town of Brenthe (^Karitend), the 
Alf^eius flows through a defile in the mountains, 
called tbe pass of Lavdhet, This pass is the only 
opening in the mountains, by which the waters of 
central Arcadia And their way to the western sea. 
It divides the upper phiin of the Alpheius, of which 
Megalopolis was the chief place, from the lower 
plahi, in which Heraea was situated. (Leake, 
MortOy voL ii. p. 19, seq.) Below Heraea, the 
Alpheius receives the Ladok (A(i3«i'), which rises 
near Cleitor, and is celebrated in mythology as the 
fifither (^ Daphne. The Ladon is now called Rufeay 
RufcL or Rofid, by which name the Alpheius is 
called below its junction wiUi the Ladon. In the 
upper part of its course the Alpheius is usually 
called the River of Karitena. Bdow the Ladon, 
at the distance of 20 stadia, the Alpheius receives 
the Ertmanthus (lEpi^/uovOos), rising in the 
mountain of the same name, and forming the boun- 
dary between Ells and the tenitories of Heraea in 
Arcadia. After entering Elis, it flows past Olym- 
pia, forming the boundary between Pisatis and 
Triphylia, and fiUls into the Cyparissian gulf in tbe 
Ionian sea. At the mouth of Uie river was a tomple 
and grot% of Artemis Alpheionia. From the pass of 
Lavdha to the sea, the Alpheius is wide and shal- 
low : in summer it is divided into several torrents, 
flowing between islands or sandbanks over a wide 
gravelly bed, while in winter it is full, rapid, and 
turbid. Its banks produce a great number of large 
plane-trees. (Leake, J/brea, vol. ii. p. 67, Pelo- 
potmesiacaf p. 8.) 

Alphdus appears as a celebrated river-god in 
mythology; and it was apparently the subterranean 
passage of the river in the upper part of its course 
which gave rise to the fable that the Alpheius flowed 
beneath the sea, and attempted to mingle its waters 
with the fountain of Arethusa in the island of Or- 
tygia in Syracuse. {Diet. ofBiogr. art. Alphfiiu.) 
Hence Ovid calls the nymph Arethusa, AlphHas. 
(Met. V. 487.) \lrgil {Aen. x. 179) gives the epi- 
thet oiAlpheae to the Etruscan city of Pisae, because 
the latter was said to have been founded by colonists 
from Pisa in Elis, near which the Alpheius flowed. 

ALSA, a small river of Venetia (Plin. iii. 18. s. 22) 
still called the^ttsa, which flows into the lagunes of 
MaranOy a few miles W. of Aquileia. A battle 
was fought on its banks in a. d. 340, between the 
younger Constantino and the generals of his brother 
Constaiis, in which Constantine himself was slain, 
and his body thrown into the river Alsa. (Victor, 
Epit. 41. § 21; Hieron. Chron. ad aim. 2356.) 

* The preceding account will be made clearer by 
I referring to the map under MAirmfEiA. 



ALSIETFNUS LACUS, a smaU lake in Etmria, 
aboat 2 miles distant from the Lacos Sabatinos, 
between it and the basin or crater of Baccano, now 
called the Zro^o di Mart^nano, Its ancient name 
is preserved to us only by Frontinos, from whom we 
learn that Aognstus conveyed the water from thence 
to Rome bj an aqueduct, named the Aqua Alsietina, 
more than 22 miles in length. The water was, 
however, of inferior quality, and served only to 
supply a Naumachia, and for purposes of irrigation. 
It was joined at Cabeias, a station on the Via 
Claudia, 15 miles from Borne, by another branch 
bringing water from the Lacus Sabatinus. (Frontin. 
de Aqwaad. §§ 11, 71.) The channel of the aque- 
dact is still in good preservation, where it issues 
from the lake, and may be traced for many miles 
of its course. (Nibby, Diatomic voL i. pp. 133 
—137.) [E.H.B.] 

A'LSIUM (I^AXffiW. Eih. Alsiensis: Palo), a city 
on the coast of Etmria, between Pyigi and Fregenae, 
at the distance of 18 miles from the Partus August! 
{Porto) at the mouth of the Tiber. (Itin. Ant. 
p. 30 1 .) Its name is mentioned by Dionysius (L 20) 
among the cities which were founded by the Pe- 
lasgians in connection with the aborigines, and 
afterwards wrested from them by the Tyrrhenians 
(Etruscans). But no mention of it occurs in his- 
tory as an Etruscan dty, or during the wars of that 
people with Borne. In b. c. 245 a Roman colony 
was established there, which was placed on the same 
footing with the other '* ooloniae maritimae;" and in 
(xnnmon with these claimed exemption from all 
militaiy service, a claim which was, however, over- 
ruled during the exigencies of the Second Punic 
War. (VelL Pat i 14; Liv. xxviL 88.) No sub- 
sequent notice of it occurs in history, but its name 
is mentioned by Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, and we 
learn from an inscription of the time of Caracalla 
that it still retained its colonial rank, and correspond- 
ing municipal organisation. (Strab. pp. 225, 226 ; 
Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; PtoL iii. 1. § 4; Gmter, Inter. 
p. 271. 3.) It appears to have early become a 
favourite resort with the wealthy Branans as a pkco 
of retirement and pleasure ('* maritimiu ei voUtp' 
tarhu locus :^ Fronto, £p. p. 207, ed. Bom.); thus 
we find that Pompey the Great hod a villa there, 
and Caesar also, where he landed on his return fnxn 
Africa, and at which all the nobles of Borne hastened 
to greet him. (Cic. pro Milon, 20, <id Fam. ix. 6, 
ad Att. xiii. 50.) Mother is mentioned as belong- 
ing to Verginius Bufiis, the guardian of Pliny, and 
we learn from Fronto that the emperor M. Aurelius 
had a villa there, to which several of his epistles are 
addressed. (F]m.Ep. vi.lO; Fronto, Ep. p. 205 — 
215.) At a later period the town itself had fallen 
into utter decay, but the site was still occupied by 
villas, as well as that of the neighbouring Pyigi. 
(Kutil. Itm. i. 223.) 

The site of Alsium is clearly fixed by the distance 
firom PortOf at the modem village of Paloj a poor 
place with a fort and mole of the 17th century, in 
the construction of which many ancient materials 
have been used. Besides these, the whole shore to 
the £. of the village, fur the space of more than a 
mile, is occupied by the remains of buildings which 
appear to have belonged to a Boman villa of im- 
perial date, and of the most magnificent scale and 
style of construction. These rains are described 
in detail by NIbby (^Dintomi di Roma^ vol. iii. 
pp. 527, 528). [E. H. B.] 

ALTHAEA ('AA^ofa: Etk 'AXOmos), the cliief 


city of the Olcades in Spun, not far from Cartht^o 
Nova. Its capture was Hannibal's first ezpknt in 
Spain. (Pdyb. iiL 13; Steph. Byz. s. v.) Its poatim 
is unknown. Livy calls it Carteia (xxi. 5). [P. S.] 

ALTrNU^ ("AXTiwy; AlHao), a dtyof Ve- 
netia situated on the border of the lagunes, and on 
the right bank of the little river Shs (SeU) near 
its mouth. We learn from the Itineraries that it 
was distant 32 Boman miles from Pataviun, md 
31 from Concordia. (Itin. Ant. pp. 128, 281.) 
Strabo describes it as situated in a maish or lagone, 
like Bavenna, and we learn that travellers were in 
the habit of proceeding by water along the lagunes 
from Bavenna to Altinmn. Tacitus also speaks of 
it as open to attack by sea ; but at the present 
day it is distant about 2 miles from the laguues. 
(Strab. p. 214 ; Vitrav. L 4. § 11 ; Itin. Ant. 
p. 126 ; Tac ffisL iii. 6.) The first historical 
mention of Altinum is fi>und in Velldns Patercnlus 
(ii. 76) during the wars of the Second Triomriiate, 
and it appears to have been then, as it cootiuued 
under the Bonum Empire, one of the most coo* 
siderable places in thb part of Italy. Pliny aligns 
it only the rank of a munidpium ; but we learn 
from inscriptions that it subsequently became a 
colony, probably in the time of Trajan. (Plin. iii. 
18. 8. 22 ; Orell. Ifucr, 4082 ; Zumpt de Cohn. 
p. 402.) Besides its municipal importance, the 
shores of the adjoining lagunes became a fitvoorite 
residence of the wealthy Bomans. and were gradually 
lined with villas which are described by Maztial 
(iv. 25) as rivalling those of Baiae. The adjoining 
plains were celebrated for the excellence of their 
wool, while the lagunes abounded in fish of all 
kinds, especially sheU-fish. (Mart. xiv. 155; Pfin. 
xxxii. 11. 8. 53; Cassiod. Ep. Varr. xii. 22.) It 
was here that the emperrar L. Verus died of apo- 
plexy in A. D. 169. (Eutrop. viii. 10; Jul. Capt. 
Ver. 9; Vict, de Caet. 15.) The modem village 
of AUino is a very poor place; the period of the 
decay or destruction of the ancient dty is unknown, 
but its inhabitants are supposed to have fled for 
refuge from the invasions of the barbarians to 7or- 
cello, an island in the lagunes about 4 miles distant, 
to which the episcopal see was transferred in A. d. 
635. [E.H.B.] 

ALTIS. [Oltmpia.] 

Ptol.; 'AAo^ioi', Dion. Hal.: Eth. 'AAoin-Ivos, Ha- 
luntinus), a city on the N. coast of Sicily, between 
Tyndaris and Calacta. Its foundation was ascribed 
by some authors to a portion of the companiiKis d 
Aeneas, who remained bdiind in Sicily under a 
leader named Patron (Dionys. i. 51); but it pro- 
bably was, in reality, a Sicelian town. No mention 
of it is found in Diodorus, nor is it noticed in his- 
tory prior to the Boman conquest of Sicily. Bnt in 
the time of Cicero it appears to have been a place of 
some importance. He mentions it as having suf- 
fered severely from the exactions of Verres, who, 
not content with ruinous extortions of com, com- 
pelled the inhabitants to give up all their omam^tal 
pUte. (Cic. Kerr. iii. 43, iv. 28.) W^e learn from 
inscriptions that it retained the rank of a munid- 
pium, and was a flourishing town at least as late as 
the reign of Augustus. 

Its site has been a matter cf much dispute, but 
there are very strong ai^uments to prove that it 
occupied the same situati<Ni as the modem town of 
San Marco, which rises on a lofty hill of steep and 
difficult ascent, about 3 miles from the Tyrrhenian 




na. (&i7thVSK%,p.97.) This poation exactly 
aoearis t^ that described by Cioero, who telle ns 
t^ Tcnes inmld not teke the trouble to Tisit the 
tDNvn baradf *' quod exat difficili ascensu atqne 
iidna,* but ranuned on the beach bdoir while he 
ant Airhagathns to execute his behests (!▼. 23). 
Vaiwifl inacriptioos also are preserred at S. MarcOt 
er hife been Re c o vered thov, one of which begins 
vkh the wovds r6 MourordrcoF rSv ^AKnrrUnty, 
(CmiOL Inter. SieiL ^ 55; BSckh, C.L Ko.5608.) 
Kotwitfastanding these arguments, Gluverius, M- 
hmff FazcUo, placed Alnntinm at a spot near 
& FUadef/b, whcare the ruins of an ancient city 
Vfre theu visible, and regarded S,Mareo as the site 
cf AgathjfiuL It must be admitted that t^ ar- 
lageoMnt avada some difficulties [Aoathtbna] ; 
tat the abore proofr in fitTour of the oontnry hj- 
pertwiB seem almost ooodusive. (GluTer. SicU. 
^»4;Faaen.deJee6.^.ix.4.p.384.} [KH.B.] 

oocr OF ALcirnuv. 

ALTDDA CAAvKa), a town of Phrygia men- 
tiaaediBthePentingerTablou Arundell (I>wcooerie* 
« A$ia Mmor, L p^ 105) giTes his reasons for sup- 
pan^ that it may h«Te been at or near Utkak, on 
tfe road between Sort and Afimn Karahutar^ and 
ifat it was afterwards called Flaviopohs. He found 
irmal Greek inscriptions there, but none that con- 
tamed the name of the place. [6.L.] 

AirZIA CAA»{Ia, Thucvii.Sl, et alii; 'AX^tia, 
Staph. B. S.9.Z JStL *AAi<c^, 'AAv{a<of, 'AA^C«<»f, 
ip. Boekh. Corpm InteripL No. 1793: KandU*), 
a tcpm «n the west coast of Acamania. According 
t» Slidbo it was distant 15 stadia from the sea, on 
vUeh it pMBeased a harbour and a sanctuary, both 
^iwKratw i to Herades. In this sanctuaiy were some 
wki of art by Lysippus, representing the labours 
rf Hcndea, which a Boman general caused to be 
KBo«<ed to Borne on account A the deserted state 
cf the (daee. The remains of Alyzia are still visible 
■ dM laOey of KtmdSU. The ^stance of the bay 
of KaDdiU from the rains of Leucas corresponds 
wkh the 120 stadia which Cicero assigns for the 
ifasiui. between Alyzia and Leucas. (Strab. pp. 
450,459; Oc odFam. xn. 2; Plin. iv. 2; Ptolem. 
5- 14.) Alyzia is said to have derived its name 
fan Alyxens, a son of Icarus. (Strab. p. 452 ; 
Si^h. Byz. «. V.) It is first mentioned by Thucy- 
dides. In B. c. 374, a naval battle was fought in 
te ndirhboorhood of Alyzia between the Athenians 
Timotheus and the Lacedaemonians under 


Nicolochus. The Athenians, says Xenophon, erected 
their trophy at Alyzia, and Uie Lacedaemonians in 
the nearest islands. We learn from Scylax that the 
island immediately opposite Alyzia was (»lled Camus, 
the modem Kalamo, (Thuc. vii. 31; Xen. HeU. 
V. 4. §§65,66; Scylax, p. 13; Leake, JVorMertt 
Greece f vol. iv. p. 14, seq.) 

AMA'DOCI ('A/ii8o«oi), a people of Sarmatia 
Europaea, mentioned by Hellanicus (Steph. B. s. v.) 
Their country was (»]led Amadocium. Ptolemy 
(iiL 5) mentions the Amadod Montes, E. of the 
Borysthenes (Dnieper^j as an E. prolongation of M. 
Pence, and in theee mountains the Amadod, with a 
dty Amodoca and a lake of the same name, the 
source of a river falling into the Borysthenes. The 
positions are probably in the S. Bussian province of 
JehaterinodaVf at in Khenon. [P. S.] 

AMALEKFTAE ('A/ioAiiicmu, Joseph. Ant iiL 
2; in LXX. 'A/ioA^ic), the descendants of Amalek 
the grandson of Esau. ((Ten. zxzvL 9 — 12.) This 
tribe of Edomite Arabs extended as far south as the 
peninsula of Mount Sinai, where ** th^ fought with 
Israd in Bephidim " (Exod, xvii. 8, &c.) They 
occupied the southem borders of the Promised Land, 
between the Canaanites (Philistines) of the west 
coast, and the Amorites, whose country lay to the 
SW. of the Dead Sea. (Compare Gm. xiv. 7 with 
iVumfterf xiii. 29, xiv. 25, 43— 45.) They dispos. 
sessed the Ishmadito Bedouins, and occupied their 
countiy " from Havilah unto Shur, that is before 
Egypt." (Compare Gen. xxv. 18 and 1 Sam. xv. 7.) 
They were nearly exterminated by Saul and David 
(1 Sam. XV., xxvii. 8, 9, xxx.); and the remnant 
were destroyed by the Simeonites in the days of 
Hezekiah. (1 Chron. iv. 42, 43.) They are the 
Edomites whom David smote in the Valley of Salt 
(2 Sam. viii. 12, 13 ; title to Psalm Ix.), doubtless 
identical with Wady Maleih, about seven hours 
south of Hebron (Beland's Palettmej pp. 78 — 82: 
Winer's Bib. Real s. v. ; Williams's Holif City, vol. i. 
appendix i. pp. 463, 464.) [G. W.] 

AMA'NIDES PYLAE C^^^^* ^ *A/uiyijral 
UvKou)y or Amanicae Pylae (Curtius, iiL 18), orPor- 
tae Amani Montis (Plin. v. 27. s.22). "There are," 
says Cicero {ad Fam. xv. 4), " two passes from Syria 
into CUicia, each of which can be held with a small 
force owing to thdr narrowness." These are the 
passes in the Amanus or mountain range which runs 
northward from JRdt el Khdmir, which proinontoiy 
is at the southem entrance of the ^ic^Ishepdertm 
(gulf of Issus). This range of Amanus runs along 
the bay of Iskenderun, and joins the great mass of 
Taurus, forming a wall between Syria and Cilicia. 
" There is nothing," says Cicero, speaking of this 
range of Amanus, *' which is better protected against 
Syria than Cilicia." Of the two passes meant by 
Cicero, Uie southern seems to be thq pass of Beiian, 
by which a man can go from Iskenderun to Antioch; 
this may be called the lower Amanian pass. The 
other pass, to which Cicero refers, appears to be NNE. 
of Issus, in the same range of mountains (Amanus), 
over which there is still a road from Bayat on tlie 
east side of the bay of Issus, ioMarath : this northern 
pass seems to be the Amanides Pylae of Arrian and 
Curtius. It was by the Amanides Pyhie (Arrian. 
Anab. ii. 7) that Darius crossed the mount^ns into 
Cilida and came upon Issus, which Alexander had 
left shortly before. Darius was tlius In the rear of 
Alexander, who had advanced as far as Myriandrus, 
the site of which is near Jskenderiui. Alexander 
I turned back and met the Persian kiiig at the river 





Pinarns, betweeo Issqb and MTmndrns, where was 
fbnght the battie called the battle of Issos. The 
narrative of Arrian maj be compared with the oom- 
mentaiy of Poljbins (xii. 17, 19). 

Strabo*s descriptioii of the Anuuiides (p. 676) is 
this: " after Mallns is A^gaeae, which has a small 
fort; then the Amanides Pjlae, having an anchorage 
for ^pe, at which (pylse) terminate the Amanns 
mountains, extending down from the Tanms — and 
after Aegaeae is Issus, a small fort having an an- 
chorage, and the river Finams." Strabo therefore 
places the Amanides Pylae between Aegae and Issns, 
and near the coast; and the Stadiasmos and Pto- 
lemy give the same poation to the Amanides. This 
pass is represented by a place now called KamKapu 
on the road between MaUos on the Pynunns ( JeAon) 
and Issns. fiat there was another pass ** which " 
(as Major Benndl observes, and Leake agrees with 
him) " crossing Monnt Amanns fitom the eastward, 
descended upon the centre of the head of the gnlf, 
near Issue, fiy this pass it was that Darius maiched 
from Sochus, and took up his posidon on the banks 
of the Pinarus ; by which movement Alexander, who 
had just before marched from Msllus to Myriandrus, 
through the two maritime pylae, was placed betwem 
the Persians and Syria." (Leake, JournoJ of a Tovr 
in Ana Minora p. 210.) This is the pass which 
has been assumed to be the Amanides of Airian and 
Curtius, about NNE. of Issus. It foUows from this 
that the Amanicae Pylae of Anian (^Anab, ii. 7) are 
not the Amanides of Strabo. Q. Curtius speaks of 
a pass which Alexander had to go through in marching 
from the Pyramus to Issus, and this pass must be 
Kara Kapu. Kara Kapu is not on Uie coast, but 
it is not fisir from it. If Strabo called this the 
Amanides Pylae, as he seems to have done, he cer- 
tainly gave ^e name to a different pass from that by 
which Darius descended on Issus. There is another 
passage of Strabo (p. 751) in which he says: " ad> 
jacent to Gindarus is Pagrae in the territoiy of 
Antioch, a strong post lying in the line of the pass 
over the Amanus, I mean that pass which leads from 
the Amanides Pylae into Syria.** Leake is clearly 
right in not adopting M%}or Rennell's supposition 
that Strabo by this pass means the Amanides. He 
evidently means another pass, that of BeUatif which 
leads from Iskenderun to Bakr<u or Pagratj which 
is the modem name of Pagrae; and Strabo is so for 
consistent that he describes this pass of Pagrae as 
leading from the pass which ho has called Amanicae. 
Leake shows that the Amanides Pylae of Strabo are 
between Aegaeae and Issns, but he has not sufficiently 
noticed the differonce between Strabo and Arrian, as 
Cramer observes (^Asia Minora vol. ii. p. 359). The 
map which illustrates Mr. Ainsworth's paper on the 
Ciiician and Syrian Gates {London Gtog. Journal^ 
vol. viii. p. 185), and which is copied on the op- 
posite page, enables us to form a moro correct judg- 
ment of the text of the ancient writers; and we 
may now consider it certain that the Amanicae Pylae 
of the historians of Alexander is the pass NNE. of 
Issus, and that Strabo has given the name Amanides 
to a different pass. [G. L.] 

AMA'NTLA. ('A/iarr/o: Eth. 'A^okticiJs, Steph. 
fi. t. 0.; ^kiuaniv6s, Ptol. ii. 16. § 3; Amantinus, 
Plin. iv. 10. s. 17. § 35; Amantianus, Caes. B. C. 
iiL 12 ; 'A/ioyrc;, Etym. M. s. v. ; Amantes, Plin. iii. 
23. s. 26. § 45), a town and district in Greek II- 
lyria. It is said to have been founded by the Abantes 
of Euboca, who, according to tradition, settled near 
the Ceraunian mountains, and founded Amantia and 


Thranium. From hence the original name of Aman- 
tia is said to have been Abantia, and the anixoanding 
country to have been called Abantis. (Steph. B. 
9.V. ^ASayrlSj 'A/iorrla; Etym. M. s.v. "Afutrrts; 
Pans. V. 22. § 3.) Amantia probably stood at some 
distance from the coast, S. of the river Aons, and on 
a tributary of the latter, named Polyanthes. (Ly^ 
cophr. 1043.) It is placed by Leake at NMtta, 
where there are the remains of Hellenic walls. This 
site agrees with the distances afforded by Scylax and 
the Tabular Itinerary, the former of which plaoea 
Amantia at 320 stadia, and the latter at 30 Bomaa 
miles from ApdUonia. Ptolemy speaks of an Aman- 
tia on the coast, and another town of the same name 
inlan4i whence we may perhaps infer that the Utter 
had a port of the same name, more especially as the 
language of Caesar (A C. iiL 40) would imply that 
Amantia was situated on the coast Am^wri* was 
a place of some importance in the dril wars between 
Caesar and Pompey; and it continued to be men- 
tioned in the time oi the Byzantine anperora. (Ci 
B, a iiL 12, 40; CicPhiL zL 11; Leake, 
Cfftecef vol. L p. 375, seq.) 

AMAmJS (d 'Atuaf6tj rh 'Afuiy6y), is described 
by Strabo as a detached put (&ird<nraur/ta) of Taurus, 
and as fonning the southern boundary of the plain 
of Cataonia. He supposes this range to branch off 
fn»n the Taurus in CUida, at the same place where 
the Antitanrus bnmches off and takes a more north- 
erly direction, fonning the northern boundary of 
Cataonia. (Strab. p. 535.) He considers the Ama- 
nus to extend eastward to the Eujdirates and Meli- 
tene, where Commagene borders on Cappadocia. 
Hero the range is interrupted by the Euphrates, 
but it reconunences on the east side of the river, in 
a larger mass, more elevated, and more irregular in 
form. (Strab. p. 521.) He further adds : " the 
mountain range of Amanus extends (p. 535) to Ci- 
hcia and the Syrian sea to the west from Cataonia 
and to the south ; and by such a division (Jitaarrdir^t) 
it includes the whole gulf of Issus and the inter^ 
mediate Ciiician valleys towards the Taurus." This 
seems to be the meaning of the description of the 
Amanus in Strebo. Groskurd, in his German ver- 
sion (vol. ii. p. 448) translates StcurrdLrci simply bj 
"extent" (ottsdeAiNMi^); but by attending to Stiabo's 
words and the order q£ them, we seem to deduce the 
meaning that the double direction of the mountain 
includes the gulf of Issus. And this agrees with 
what Strabo says dsewhere, when he makes ih9 
Amanus descend to the gulf of Issns between Aegae 
and Issus. [Axanxdbs Pyiab.] 

The term Amanus in Strabo tnen appears to be 
applied to the high ground which descends frx>m the 
mass of Taurus to the gulf of Issus, and bounds the 
cast side of it, and also to the highland which ex- 
tends in the direction already indicated to the 
Euphrates, which it strikes north of Samosata (So- 
mmadt'). The Jdwur Dagh appears to be the mo- 
dem name of at least a part of the north-eastern 
course of the Amanus. The branch of the Amanus 
which descends to the Mediterranean on the east side 
of the gulf of Issus is said to attain an average ele- 
vation of 5000 feet, and it terminates abruptly in 
Jebel Kheserik and Jtdt-el-Khdnzir, This cape 
seems to be Bhosus, or the Rhosicus Scopulus of 
Ptolemy. There was near it a town Rhosus, which 
Stephanus(s. v. 'Pcmtos) places in Cilicia. Rhosus is 
now Arsua. There is another short range which is 
connected with Amanus, and advances right to the 
borders of the sea, between R&M-t^Khdwur and the 


Bochru P*». 


10. Itniniorrisiui? 


Demir Kapn, or Eu> Kapn. 












mouth of the Onmtes : this appears to be the Pieria 
of Strabo (p. 751). On the south-west base of this 
range, called Pieria, was Seleucm, which Strabo (p. 
676) considers to be the first city in Syria after 
leaving Cilicia. . Accordingly, he considers the moun- 
tain range of Ainanus, which terminates on the east 
side of the gulf of Issus, to mark the boundary be- 
tween Cilicia and Syria; and this is a correct view 
of the physical geography of the country. 

Cicero (^ad Fam, ii. 10), who was governor of 
Cilicia, describes the Amanns as common to him and 
Bibulos, who was governor of Syria; and he caUs it 
the water-ehed of the streams, by which description 
he means the range which bounds the east side of 
the gulf of Issus. His description in another pas- 
sage also (^ad Fam, zv. 4) shows that his Amanus 
is the range which has its termination in Ras-el- 
Khamir. Cicero carried on a campaign against 
the mountaineers of this range during hjs govern- 
ment of CiUda (b. c. 51), and took and destroyed 
several of their hill forts. He enumerates among 
them Erana (as the name stands in our present 
texts), which was the chief town of the Amanus, 
Sepyra, and Commorcs. He also took Pindenissus, 
a town of the Eleatherocilices, which was on a high 
point, and a place of great strength. The passes in 
the Amanus have been already enumerated. On the 
bay, between Ishendenm and BaycUj the Baiae of 
Strabo and the Itineraries, is the small river Merkez^ 
supposed to be the Earsns or Kersus of Xenophon 
(^Anab, L 4). On the south side of this small stream 
is a stone wall, which crosses the narrow plain be- 
tween the Amanus and the sea, and terminates on 
the coast in a tower. There are also ruins on the 
north side of the Kersus; and nearer to the moun- 
tain there are traces of " a double wall between 
which the river flowed." (Ainsworth, London Gtog, 
Joumaly vol. viii.) At the head of the river Kersus 
is the steep pass of Boghraa BeU^ one of the passes 
of the Amanus. This description seems to agree 
with that of the Cilidan and Syrian gates of Xeno- 
phon. The Cilician pass was a gateway in a waU 
which descended from the mountains to the sea north 
of the Kersus ; and the Syrian pass was a gateway 
in the wall which extended in the same direction to 
the south of the river. Cyrus marched from the 
Syrian pass five parasangs to Myriandms, which 
may be near the site of Iskenderun, We need not 
suppose that the present walls near the Merkez are 
as old as the time of Cyrus (b. c. 401); but it 
seems probable that this spot, having once been 
chosen as a strong frontier position, would be main- 
tained as such. If the Kersus is properly identified 
with the MerheZf we must also consider it as the 
gates through which Alexander marched from Mallus 
to Myriandms, and through which he returned from 
Myriandrus to give battle to Darins, who had de- 
scended upon Issus, and thus put himself in the rear 
of the Greeks. (Arrian. Anab. ii. 6, 8.) From 
these gates Alexander retraced his march to the 
river Pinarns {Deli Chat), near which was fought 
the battle of Issus (b. c. 333). If the exact po- 
sition of Issus were ascertained, we might feel more 
certain as to the interpretations of Arnan and Cur- 
tius. Niebuhr (Reisen durch Syrien, &c., 1837, 
Anhanffy p. 151), who followed the road from Is- 
kenderun along the east coast of the bay of Issus on 
his road to Constantinople, observes that Xenophon 
makes the march of Cyrus 15 parasangs from the 
Pyramus to Issus ; and he observes that it is 15 hours 
by the road from £ay<u to the Pyramus. Cyras 


roaxxihed 5 parasangs from Issus to the Cilician and 
Syrian gates ; and Ishendenm is 5 hours from JBoyoi. 
But still he thinks that Myriandms is at Iskende- 
run, and that the Cilidan and Syrian pass is at 
Merkez ; but he adds, we must ^en remove Issus 
to Demir Kapu ; and this makes a new difficulty, 
for it is certainly not 15 parasangs from Demir Kc^ 
to the Pyramus. Besides, the position of Issns at 
Demir Kapu will not agree with the march of Alex- 
ander as described by Curtius; for Alexander made 
two days' march from Mallus, that is, from the Py- 
ramus, to Castabalum; and one day's march from 
CastiU)alum to Issus. Castabalum, then, may be 
represented by Demir Kapu, undoubtedly the rfr- 
nuuns of a town, and Issus is somewhere east of 
it. The Peutinger Table places Issus next to Cas- 
tabalum, and then comes Alexandreia (ad Issum). 
Consequently wo should look for Issus somewhere 
on the road between Demir Kapu and Itbend&ioL 
Now Issus, or Issi, as Xenophon calls it, was on or 
near the coast (Xen. Andb. i. 4; Strab. p. 676); 
and Darius marched from Issus to the Piiuuus to 
meet Alexander; and Alexander returned from Myri- 
andrus, through the Pylae, to meet Darius. It seems 
that as the plain about the Pinarus corresponds to 
Arrian's description, this river must have heea. that 
where the two armies met, and that we must look 
for Issns a littie north of the Pinarus, and near the 
head of the bay of Issus. Those who have ex- 
amined this district do not, however, seem to have 
exhausted the subject; nor has it been treated by 
the latest writers with sufBdent exactness. 

Stephanus (s.v/ltrtros) says that Issns was call&} 
Nioopolis in consequence of Alexander's victory. 
Strabo makes Nicopolis a different place; bat his 
description of the spots on the bay ojf Issus is con- 
fused. Cicoro, in the description of his Cilician 
campiugn, says that he encamped at the Ante Alex- 
andri, near the base of the mountains. He gives no 
other indication of the site; but we may be sure 
that it was north of the Cilician Pylae, and probably 
it was near Issos. [G. L.] 

AMARDI, or MABDI ('A/iopSof, MapioC), a 
warlike Asiatic tribe. Stephanus (s. r. 'Afiaphot), 
following Strabo, places the Amardi near the Hyr- 
cani; and adds " there are also Persian Mardi with- 
out the a." Strabo (p. 514) says, " in a circle round 
the Caspian sea after the Hyrcani are the Amardi, 
&C." Under Mardi, Stephanus (quoting Apollodorus) 
speaks of them as an Hyrcanian tribe, who were 
robbers and iu*chers. Curtius (vL 5) describes them 
as bordering on Hyrcania, and inhabiting mountains 
which were covered with forests. They occupied 
therefore part of the mountain tract which forms the 
southern boundary of the basin of the Caspian. 

The name Mardi or Amardi, which we may assume 
to be the same, was widely spread, for we find Mardi 
mentioned as being in Hyrcania, and Margiana, also 
as a nomadic Persian tribe (Herod. L 125; Strab. 
p. 524), and as bemg in Armenia (Tadt Ann. xir. 
23), uid in other places. This wide dUstribution of the 
name may be partiy attributed to the ignorance of 
the Greek and Roman writers of the geography of 
Asia, but not entirely. [G. L.] 

AMARDUS, or MARDUS QAfuipioSy Mc^or, 
Dionys, Perieg. v. 734), a river of Media, mentioned 
byAmmianus Marcellinus in his confused descrip- 
tion of the Persian provinces (xxiii. 6). Ptolemy 
(vi. 2. § 2) places it in Media, and if we take his 
numbers as correct, its source is in the Zagrus. The 
river flows north, and enters the southern coast of 


H» CasfOZL It appean to be the Sejiilrvdj or 
Kml Ositm as it is otherwise called. As Ptolemy 
places the Amardi touimI the south coast of the 
Caspian and extending into the interior, wo maj 
suppose that tbej were ooce at least situated on and 
•boot thb river. [G. L.] 

AMAia LACUS (oi waepai Xlfivai, Strab. zvii. 
])k804; Phn. Ti. 29. s. 33), were a cluster of salt- 
b^TCKitt east of the Delta, between the city of He- 
m^nhs mnd thedeeertof Etham — the modemScheib. 
Tht Bitter Lakes had a slight inclination from N. to 
E^ and their genend outline resembled the leaf of 
the sjcamore. Until the reign of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphos (b^ a 285 — 247), they were the termination 
cf the royal canal, by which the native mtmarchs 
and the Penian kings attempted, but inefiectually, 
to join the Pelosiac branch of the KHe with the 
Sed Sea. Philadelphus carried the canal through 
these lagoons to the city of ArsinoS. The mineral 
quaStaes of these lakes woe nearly destroyed by the 
iatrodoctiaD of the Nile-water. A temple of Se- 
npis stood ca the northern extremity of the Bitter 
Lakes. [W. B. D.] 

AMABYNTHUS CAfjutpvpSos : Eth. 'Afiapwetos, 
*Attap^aws% a town upon the coast of Euboea, only 
7 stadia from Eretria, to which it belonged. It pos- 
sessed a celebrated temple of Artemis, who was 
hence called Amarynthia or Amarysia, and in whose 
boooar there was a festival of this name celebrated, 
both in Enhoea and Attica. (Strab. p. 448 ; Paus. 
L31. § 5 ; Lir. xxxv. 38 ; StepLB. «.9.; JHcLof 
AmL arL AwuaryiUkicL) 

AMASE'NUS, a small river of Latium, still called 
the Awtfoseno^ which rises in the Volsdan mountains 
above Privernum, and descends from thence to the 
Pontine manhes, through which it finds its way to 
the sea, between Tanadna and the Circeian pro- 
moBtofy. Before its course was artificially regdated 
it was, together with its omfluent the Ufens, one of 
the chief agents in the Ibnnatian of those marshes. 
Its name is not found in Pliny or Strabo, but is re- 
peatedly mentioned by Virgil (Aen. vii. 684, xi547). 
^errioB, in his note (m the former passage, errone- 
oQsiy places it near Anagnia, evidently misled by the 
expreasioiK of Virgil. Vibius Sequester (p. 3) cor- 
rectly says " Anuuenus Privernatium." [E. H. B.] 
AMA'SIA ('A/ioacia, 'Afuuria : £th. 'Afuurws: 
AmaMj Amaiiak, or Amdnjfah% a town of Pon- 
toa, on the river Iris, or YetAU Ermak. The 
or^in of the city is unknown. It was at one time 
the residence of the princes of Pontus, and after- 
words mppean to have been a free dty under the 
n^wnmnm till thc timo of Domitian. It is said that 
aO the c«ins to the time of IkHnitian have only the 
epigTBph Amaseia or Amasia, but that from this 
time they bear the effigy and the name of a Boman 
emperor. The coins from the tune of Trajan bear 
the titie Metropolis, and it appears to have been the 
daef dty of Pontos. 

Amasia was the birthplace of the geographer 
Stnbo, who describes it in the following words (p. 
561): "■ our dty lies in a deep and extensive gorge, 
thraogh which the river Iris flows; and it is wonder- 
&0y constructed both by art and by nature, being 
n^pfiri to serve the purpose both of a dty and 
of a fiarL For there is a lofty rock, steep on all 
■des, and descending abruptly to the river; diis rock 
has ita wall in one direction on the brink of the 
rrrer, at that part where the city is connected with 
it; and in the other direction, the wall runs up the 
hHk OQ each side to the hdghts; and the heights 



{Kopwpat) are two, naturally connected with one 
another, very strongly fortified by towers ; and within 
this enclosure are the palace and the tombs of the 
kings; but the heights have a very narrow neck, 
the ascent to which is an altitude of 5 or 6 stadia 
on each side as one goes up from the bank of the 
river and the suburbs; and from the neck to the 
hdghts there remains another ascent of a stadium, 
steep and capable of resisting any attack; the rock 
also contains (fx*^ i^ot intC) within it water-cis- 
terns (^Nipfia) which an enemy cannot get possession 
of (iycupaiptrttj the true reading, not &ya4>«peTcu), 
there being two galleries cut, one leading to the 
river, and the other to the neck ; there are bridges 
over the river, one from the dty to the suburb, and 
another from the suburb to the neighbouring country, 
for at the point where this bridge is the mountain 
terminates, which lies above the rock." This ex- 
tract presents several difikulties. Groskurd, in his 
(rerman version, mistakes the sense of two passages 
(ii. p. 499). 

Amasia has been often visited by Europeans, but 
the best description is by Hamilton (^Reiearchts in 
Asia Minor, ^. voL L p. 366), who gives a view 
of the place. He expliuns the remark of Strabo 
about the 5 or 6 stadia to mean ''the length of the 
road by which alone the summit can be reached," for 
owing to the steepness of the Acropolis it is necessary 
to ascend by a circuitous route. And this is clearly 
the meaning of Strabo, if we keep closely to his text. 
Hamilton errmeously follows Cramer (Asia Minor, 
voL L p. 302) in giving the version, " the summits 
have on each side a very narrow necJc of land f for 
the words " on each side ^ refer to the ascent to the 
" neck," as Groskurd correctly understands it. Ha- 
milton found two '* Hellenic towers of beautiful con- 
struction " on the hdghts, which he considers to be 
the Kopv^ of Strabo. But the greater part of the 
walls now standing are Byzantine or Turkish. In- 
deed we leam from Procopius (jde Aedif. iii. 7), 
that Justinian repaired this place. Hamilton ob- 
serves: " the Kopwfxxl were not, as I at first ima- 
gined, two distinct points connected by a narrow 
intermediate ridge, but one only, from which two 
narrow ridges extend, one to the north, and the other 
to the east, which last terminates abruptly close to the 
river." But Strabo dearly means two Kopvipai, and 
he adds that they are naturally united (avfjupvtis). 
It is true that he does not say that the neck unites 
them. This neck is eridently a narrow ridge of 
steep ascent along which a man must pass to reach 
the Kopv^ai, 

The Mpcta were cisterns to which there was ac- 
cess by galleries {avprfyts). Hamilton explored a 
passage, cut in the rock, down which he descended 
about 300 feet, and found a " small pool of clear 
cold water." The wall round this pool, which ap- 
peared to have been originally much deeper, was of 
Hellenic masonry, which he also observed in soma 
parts of the descent. This appears to be one of the 
galleries mentioned by Strabo. The other gallery 
was cut to the neck, says Strabo, but he does not 
fAy from where. We may ocmclude, however, tliat 
it was cut from the Kopvifiai to the ridge, and that 
the other was a continuation which led down to the 
well. Hamilton says : " there seem to have been 
two of these covered passages or galleries at Amasia, 
one of which led from the KopwfHxi or stinunits in an 
easterly direction to the ridge, and the other from 
the ri^go into the rocky hill in a northerly direction. 
The fonncr, however, is not excavated in the rock, 

I 3 


like Uh ]MtT, bat ia built of mawmrj ibora gnmid, 

jet eqmill; well cdiicciIhL'' 

Tbe tombs of the kings in beloir the dtadel to 
the Knlh, five in nainber, tbree tolhe mat, uid two 
to the cut. Tho Neep ftce rf the rock hu b«a 
■Hifidallf imaathed. " Under the tfaiee niuUn 
lambs .... we cmsidenble nmains of the old 
Greek walla, ind ■ iqnue lows bnilt in the beet 
Helleuii; rtjls.'' These willi am (bo be traced 
np the hill towirdi the west, and an etidentl; thoee 
descnbed hj Strabo, ai fomung; the peribolns or en- 
cloanre within which wen the rofal tomba. (Ha- 
milton.) The front wall of an old medresaeh at 

chitrarea, and on Ibne long sttraes which funn the 
sides and aidiiCraTe of the entrance there an frag- 
nwots of Greek inuriptioiis deep cnt in large ietteis. 
Hamilton does not mention a temple which is apokea 
of bj one IraTeller of little credit. 

llie ttoTltorj of Amaaia was well wooded, and 
adapted for breeding hrvsee and other apimali ; uid 
the whole of it wae well etuted for the haintation 
of man. A yaHey eitends from the river, not tetj 
wide at firat, bnt it (fterwaida grows irider, and 
Sdnat the plain which Stnin («I1a Chiliocomoo, and 
this was sooeeeded by the districts of Diacopene and 
FimoHsene, all of wluch is fertile as far as the HalTS. 
Theee were the Dortbem parts of the tenitorf , and 
extended 500 atadin in length. The sonthem por- 
tiQQ was much larger, and extended to Baboiice:Doa 
and Xlmene, whirh district also lesched to the 
Hatjs. Its width from north to sooth reached to 
Zelitis and tbeOreat Cappwlocia as liiriu the TrocmL 
In yimiMiii rock salt was dug. Harailtan procured 
at Ama»a a mob of Pimolisa, a place from which the 
district Puodtisene look its name, in a beantifal 
state of pnoDTVation. 

The modeiu town stands on both odesof theriier; 
it has 3970 houses, all mean; it prodnces eiKne silk. 
{London Gtog. Jour. vol. tp.M!.) [G.L.] 

AMASTRA. [Amevtratus.] 

AMASTHIS CAij/unpa : EA. 'AiiaaTpiarii, 
Amaslrianos: Amatra, or Amaiterah'), a atj of 
Paphlagcini&, on a small river of the aame name. 
Amastris oc<:nfded a peninsula, and co otch side of 
the isthmus was a harbeor (Strab. p. 544): it was 
SO stadia east of the river Parthenins. The ariginal 
citj seems to have been called Sesamus or Sesamum, 
and it is mentioned by Homer (II. ii. 853) in con- 
jimcIiDn with Cjtoms. Stephuias (i. v.'Aiiainpii') 
sajs that it wu origiuallj called Cramns; bnt in 
another plaoe (i. «. Kpittra), when he repeats the 
Etatement, ha adds, " as it is sud ; bnt vane say 
that Cromna is a small place id Ihe territory of 
Ama.itria," which is the troe account The place 
derived its name Amastris from Amaitria, ths niece 
of the last Persian Idn^ Darina, who was the wife of 
Dionjsins, tyrant of Heracleia, and after his death 
the wife of Lysimachus. Four places, Sesamus, 
Cytoms, Cromna, also mentioned in the Iliad (u. 
855), and Teion or Tioa, were combined by Amas- 
tris, afler her sejmration from Lysimachus (Hemnon, 
op. Phot. Cod, ccxxiv.), to form the new commnnity 
ofAmaatiis. Tdon, says Etrabo, soon detached itself 
fttm the conrnioniti', but the rest kept together, and 
Sesamus was the acnpolia of Amastris, From this 
it appears tbat Amastris was really a confedeiation 
or nnion ot three places, and that Sesamns was the 
name of the city on the peninsula. This may ex- 
plain the lact that Mela (i. 19) mentions Sesamns 
and Cnxnna u dcies of I^iphlagonia, and does not 

mentio)] Amastris. (Camp. Ptm. vi. S.) Thn 
is a cdn with the epigraph Sesamum. Tfa« of 
Amaslria have the epgraph AriaaT|Hanir. 

The tenitoi7 of Ajnaatris prodnced a great psii- 
tity of boxwood, which grew on Iloont Cytonn. 
The town was taken by L. LncuDos in Ihe Wthri- 
dalic war. (Appiaa. Ifibbrid. BS.) The yoonga 
PHny, when he was goventor of Bithysia aiid Pon- 
los, deseribei Amastris, in a letter to Tnjao (i.Cj'.f^ 
99), as a handsome city, with a reiy long opal 'i 
place (plates), co OM nde of which extended ihst 
was called a river, bnt in £ict was a filthy, pettilail, 
open disin. Pliny obtuied Ibe eiiipenr's permiism 
to cover over this sewer. On a coin of tlie time i^ 
Trajan, Amastris has the title Metropc^ 

ATlATHXra ("A^urfoSt, 
am: Adj. Amathnsiacns, Ov. Mtt. x. 227.: nr. OU 
Uimaot), an andeut town on the S- o«st of Cy- 
prus, celebnted Tor its worship of Aphrodite — 
who was hence called AjnaOnuia — and tf Kiaai. 
(Scylax, p. 41; Stnb. p. 683; Psua. ix. 41. 
§ S; Stepb. B. :t.; Tsc. Am. iii. 62; CatulL 
Ivili. 51; Or. Am. iii. 15. 15.) It was ori^usUy 
a settlement of the Phoenicians, uid was jio- 
bably the most andent ef the Phoenician cdouits 
ia the island, Stephanns oils Amatbns the most 
andent dty in the island, and Scylax doscribes its 
inhalntante as antochthonee. Its name is of Pboe- 
nidan origin, for we find a town rf the same nsmi 
in Palcatine, (See below.) Amathna appears to 
have procrved its Oriental customs and character, 
long after the other Phoenician dtiea in Cypnis had 
become helleniied. Hen the Tyrian god Melkart, 
whom the Greeks identified with Heracln, was wor- 
shipped under his Tyrian name. (Heeych. t. e. 
Hd\iH, T^ 'HpolXfn, 'A/mftn^iw.) The Phw- 
nidaii priesthood of the Cinyradae appears to \am 
long contlnned to eieidse its autliority at AnaUhm. 
Hence we find that AmMhna, ae an Oriental town, 
remained Arm to the Persians in the tune cf Da- 
rius I., while all the other towns in Cyprus n- 
volted. (Hemd. v. 104, seq.) The territfflj of 
Amathns was celebrated for its wheat (HippKttx, 
ap. SOnh. p. 340), and also for Ita mineni pio- 
dnctiona (Jtcmdan AmaOumta melaUi, Or. MH. 
I. aao, comp. 531.) 

Amathos appcnn to have conidsted of two distinct 
parts : one upon the o«at, where Old ImatfJ now 
(faods, and the other upon a hili inland, abont 1) 
mile from Old imoaol, at the rillago of .4ji»o» 7y 
cAoiKW, where Hammer discovered the ruins rf the 
temple of Aphrodite. (Hammer, £ate, p. 129; En- 
gei, Ktfprot^ vd. i. p. 109, seq.; Moven, Dia J^li- 
naifr, vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. gBl, 240, esq.) 

A'HATUUS CAfiaBoZi or Ti>^iaM},astniigly 
fortified city on the east of Ihe Jordan, ia Lower 
Penda, SI Koman milts south of Pella. (Ensebii 
OmmaiL) It was destroyed by Alexander Jannaens 


(Jote^ AuL xiJL 13. § 3), and after hs restonUan 
VM CBS cf die fire cities in which the Sanhedrim 
Mt: the othexs icere Jernsalem, Jericho, Gadara 
nd Seppboris (Ik xiv. 10). Barkhaidt passed 
** tbt niiBs of an ancient city standing on the de- 
dhitT of the naountain** called AnuUOj near the 
Jdnian, and a little to the north of the Zerka 
(Jabbok). He was told " that sevenl colnmns 
raoBm standing, and alio some burge hoildings." 
(TiBTeb, pt 346.) [G. W.] 

AMA'ZONES (^AMaC6if€s), a mythical race of 
mfike *F«**^**, of irhom an aoooont is giTsn in the 
Lktiomtmy of Biography and Mytkohgy. 

AMBABRI, a Gallic people, whom Caesar (J9. G. 
1 11) calb dose allies and kinsmen cf the AednL 
If the reading ^ Acdni Ambarri " in the passage xe- 
fcnted to is comet, the Ambarri were Aedni. They 
are not mendooed among the " cHentes ** of the 
AedoL (A G. vii. 75.) They occupied a tract in 
the Talky of the Bhone, probably in the angle be- 
tveen the SaSne and the Bhone; and their ndgh- 
beuis oa the E. were the ABobroges. They are 
WBtinnfd by livy (r. 34) with the Aedni among 
thuse Galli who were said to have crossed the Alps 
into Italy in the time of Tarquinins Prisens. J[G.L.] 

AMBIA'NI, a Belgic people, who were said to tie 
able to master 10,000 armed men in b. c. 57, the 
year of Caesax's Belgic campaign. They submitted 
to Caesar. (B. G. ii. 4, 15.) Their country lay in 
the valley of the Samara {Somme); and their chief 
temu SamainbriTa, afterwards odled Ambiani and 
GritSB Ambianensimn, is supposed to be represented 
by ilsirnir They were among the people who took 
pait in the great insurrection against the Romans, 
is described in the seventh book of the Gallic 
(JL G, Tii. 75.) [G. L.] 

tiie tree reading is said to be (Soeton. CaKff. 8), a 
place in tbe eu unti ^ of the Trariri above Conduentes 
iCoUattzy, where the emperor Caligula was bora. 
Its precise positioo cannot be ascertained. [G. L.] 

AMBIBABI, one of the people or states of Ar- 
Bttka. (Caea.J3.<?.Tu.75.) Their position does 
Ml appear to be detennined. [G. L.] 

AMBILIATI, a people mentioned by Caesar 
(it G. m. 9) with the Nannetes, Morini, and others ; 
lot nothing can be inferred from this passage as to 
their preciae r^*i«' Some of the best MSS. have 
XB titts passage the leading " Ambisnos " instead of 




[G. L.] 

AMBISONTES or BISONTES, one of the many 
etherwise unknown tribes in the interior of Noricum, 
abovt the sonroes of the rivets Ivarus and Anisus, 
in the xtfii^boariiood of the modem city of Salz- 
baqr. (Plin. iiL 24; PtoL ii. 13. § 3.) [L. S.] 

AMBIVA'BETI, axe mentioned by Caesar (B. G. 
vfi. 75) aa ** dientes " of the Aedni ; and they are 
tmmm*immmA agaiji (viL 90). As dependents of the 
Acdni, they mnst have lived scanewhers near them, 
boi then is no evidence for their exact position. 
The Ambivanti mentkoed by Caeear (J9. G, iv. 9) 
were a people near the Mosa {MaoB). As the two 
■aaacB are evidently the same, it is probable that 
there is some error in one of the names; for these 
peofJe OQ the Hosa could hardly be dientes of the 
Aedal As to the various readings in the passage 
(£.G.iv.9),BeeSefaneider's edition of Caesar. [G.L.] 

AUBLADA fA/i^AaSa: Eih, 'Am^Ao^ci/x), a 
rity of Pisidia, which Strabo (p. 570) pteces near 
the bonndsriea of Phxygia and Caria. It produced 
thit was used tat medicinal poxposes. Thexe 

are copper coins of Amblada of the period of the 
Antonini and their successors, with the epigraph 
A/($Aa5cc0i'. The site is unknown. [G. L.] 

AMBRA'CIA Qhtmepwda, Thnc; 'AM«p<ur(a, 
Xen. and later writers: Eth, 'A/twpoirtc^f, Herod, 
viii. 45, Thuc. ii. 80; lonio ^Kiiitfnuuirrns^ Herod. 
iz. 28; 'AfAepoKubrris, Xen. Anab, i. 7. § 18, et 
ahi; 'AfigpoKuifs, Apoll Rhod. iv. 1228; 'AtiJSpl. 
KtoSf 'AftkpoKiitoSj Steph. B. s, v. : Ambiadensis, 
liv. zzzviii. 43; Ambradota, Cic rtisc. i. 34: 
Arta)j an important dty to the north of the Am- 
bradot gulf, which derived its name from this place. 
It was situated on the eastern bank of the river 
Aiachthns or Arethon, at the distance of 80 stadia 
from the gulf, according to andent authorities, or 7 
English imles, according to a modem traveller. It 
stood on the western side of a rugged hill called 
PerranUies, and the acropolis occupied one of the 
smnmits of this hill towards the east. It was rather 
more thui three miles in circumference, and, in ad- 
dition to its strong walls, it was well protected by 
the river and the heights which surrounded it It 
is generally described as a town of Eparus, of wlilch 
it was the capital under Pyrrhus and the subsequent 
monarchs; but in eartier tunes it was an independent 
state, with a oonsidersble territory, which extended 
along the coast for 120 stadia. How far the terri- 
tory extended northward we are not informed ; but 
that portion of it between the dty itself and the 
coast was an extremely fertile plain, traversed by 
the Arachthus, and producing excellent com in 
abundance. Ambncia is called by Dicaearchus and 
Scylax the first town in Hellas proper. (Strsb. p. 
325; Dicaearch. 31, p. 460, ed. Fuhr; Scyl. p. 12; 
Polyb. xxii. 9; Liv. xxxviii. 4.) 

According to tradition, Ambntcia was originally a 
Thesprotian town, founded by Ambrax, son ai Thes- 
protus, or by Ambrada, daughter of Aogeas; but it 
was made a Greek city by a colony of Corinthians, 
iriio settled here in the time of Cypselus, about b. c. 
635. The colony is said to have been led by Gor- 
gus (also called Toi^s or Tolgus), the son or 
brother of Cypsdus. Gorgns was succeeded in the 
tyranny by hiB son Pcriander, who was deposed by 
the people, probably after the death oi the Corinthian 
tyrant of tiie same name. (Strab. pp. 325, 452; 
Scymn.454; Anton. Lib. 4; Aristot. Pol v. 3. § 6, 
v. 8. § 9; Ael. K. ff, xii. 35; Diog. Lagrt. i. 98.) 
Ambncia soon became a flourishing dty, and the 
most important of all the Corinthian colonies on the 
Ambniciot gulf. It contributed seven ships to tho 
Greek navy in the vrar against Xenes, b. c. 480, 
and twenty-seven to the Corinthians in their war 
against Corcyra, b. c. 432. (Herod, viii. 45 ; Thnc. 
i. 46.) The .^bradots, as colonists and allies of 
Ccnrinth, espoused the Lacedaemonian cause in the 
Pdoponnesian war. It was about this time that they 
reached the maximum of their power. They had 
extended their dominions over the whole of Amphi- 
lochia, and had taken possession of the important 
town of Argos in this district, from which they had 
driven out the original inhabitants. The expelled 
Amphilochians, supported by the Acaraanians, applied 
for aid to Athens. The Athenians accordingly sent 
a force under Phormion, who took Argos, sold the 
Ambraciots as slaves, and restored the town to the 
Amphilochians and Acamanians, b. c. 432. Anxious 
to recover the lost town, the Ambraciots, two years 
afterwards (430), marched against Argos, but were 
unable to take it, and retired after laying waste its 
territoiy. Not disheartened by this repulse, they 

I 4 



oonoerted a plan in the Mowing year (429), wiih 
the Peloponnesians, for the complete subjugation of 
Acarnania. They had extensive relatiouB ^th the 
Chaonians and other tribes in the interior of Epiros, 
and were thus enabled to collect a formidable armj 
of Epirots, with which diej joined the Lacedaie- 
monian oommanderi Cnemns. The united forces 
advanced into Acarnania as &r as Stratus, but under 
the walls of this city the Epirots were defeated by 
the Acamanians, and the expedition came to an end. 
Kotwithstanding this second misfortuiM, the Am- 
bradots marchdl against Argos again in b. c. 426. 
The history of this expedition, and of their two 
terrible defeats by Demosthenes and the Acamanians, 
is reUted elsewhere. [Abgos Ajcphilochicuh.] 
It appears that nearly the whole adult military po- 
pulation of the city was destroyed, and Thucydides 
considers their calamity to have been the greatest 
that befel any Grecian city during the earlier part 
of the war. Demosthenes was anxious to inarch 
straightway against Ambracia, which would have 
surrendered witiiout a blow; but the Acamanians 
refused to undertake the entarprize, fearing that the 
Athenians at Ambracia would be more troublesome 
neighbours to them than the Ambraciots. The 
Acamanians and Amphilochians now concluded a 
peace and allianoe with the Ambraciots for 100 
years. Ambracia had become so helpless that the 
Corinthians shortly afterwards sent 300 hoplites to 
the city fat its defence. (Jhuc. iL 68, 80, iii. 105 

The severe blow which Ambracia had reodved 
prevented it from taking any active part in tiie re- 
mainder of the war. It sent, however, some troops 
to the assLstance of Syracuse, when besieged by the 
Athenians. (Thuc. vii. 58.) Ambracia was sub- 
sequently conquered by Philip II., king of Macedcmia. 
On the accession of Alexander the Great (b. c. 336) 
it expelled the Macedonian garrison, but soon after- 
wards submitted to Alexander. (Diod. xvii. 3, 4.) 
At a later time it became subject to P)Trhu8, who 
made it the capital of his dominions, and bis usual 
place of residence, and who also adorned it with 
numerous works of art. (PoL xxii. 13; Liv. xxxviii. 
9; Strab. p. 325.) Pyrrhus built here a strongly 
fortified palace, which was called after him Pyr- 
rhSum (Xl^tiov). (Pol. xxii. 10; Liv. xxxviii. 5.) 
Ambracia aftennurds fell into the hands of the Aeto- 
lians, and the possession of this powerful city was 
one of the diief sources of the Aetolian power in 
this part of Greece. When the Romans declared 
war against the Aetolians, Ambracia was besieged 
by the Roman consul M. Fulvius Nobilior, B.C. 189. 
This siege is one of the most memorable in ancient 
warfare for the bravery displayed in the defence of 
the town. In the course of the si^ the Aetolians 
concluded a peace with Fulvius, whereupon Am- 
bracia opened its gates to the besiegers. The consul, 
however, stripped it of its valuable works of art, 
and removed them to Rome. (Pol. xxii. 9 — 13; 
Liv. xxxviii. 3 — 9.) From this time Ambracia ra- 
pidly declined, and its min was completed by Augus- 
tus, who removed its inhabitants to Nicopolis, which 
he founded in commemoration of his victory at 
Actium. (Strab. p. 325; Pans. v. 23. § 3.) 

There is no longer any doubt that Arta is the 
site of Ambracia, the position of which was for a 
long time a subject of dispute. Tho remains of the 
walls of Ambracia confinn the statements of the 
ancient writers respecting the strength of its fortifi- 
cations. The walls were built of immimiw quadran- 


gular blocks of stone. Lieut Wolfe mesBnred one 
18 ft. by 5. The foundations of the acropolis msy 
still be traced, but there are no other remains k 
Hellenic date. The general form of the city is ^vca 
in the following plan taken from Leake. 


1. The Acropolis. 

2. Mt Perranthes. 

3. Bridge over the Arachthns. 

[The dotted line shows the ancient walls, whers 
the foundations only remain. The entire hne, where 
the remains are more ooosidarable.] 

How long Ambracia continued deserted after the 
removal of its inhabitants to Nicopolis, we do not know; 
but it was re-occupied under the Byzantine Empire, 
and became again a place of importance. Its modern 
name of Arta is evidenUy a corruption of the river 
Arachthns, upon which it stood; and we find this 
name in the Byzantine writers as early as the 
eleventh century. In the fourteenth century Arta 
was reckoned the chief town in Acarnania, whence 
it was frequently called by the name oi Acamama 
simply. Cyriacus calls it sometimes Arechthea 
Aoamana. (Bockh, Corpus Ifucr, No. 1797.) 
It is still the principal town in this part of Greece, 
and, like the ancient city, has given its name to the 
neighbouring gulf. The population of Artams 
reckoned to be about 7000 m the year 1830. 
(Leake, Northern Greece^ vol. i. p. 206, seq. ; Wolfe, 
Journal of Geographical Society, vol. iii. p. 82, seq.) 

There were three other places in the territoiy of 
Ambracia mentioned by ancient writers: 1. Am- 
bracus. 2. The port of Ambracia. S. Craneia. 

Ambracus {"AfiSpaxos) is described by Polybius 
as a place well fortified by ramparts and outworks, 
and as surrounded by roanhes, through which there 
was only one narrow causeway leading to the place. 
It was taken by Philip V., king of Macedonia, in B.C. 
219, as a preliminary to an attack upon Ambracia 
(Pol. iv. 61, 63.) Scyhix probably alludes to this 
place, when he says (p. 12) that Ambracia had a 
fortress near its harbour; for near the western shore 
of the old mouth of the river Arachthns {Arta) 
some ruins have been discovered, whose topographical 
sitration accords with the description of Polyluns. 
They are situated on a swampy island, in a nuushy 
lake near the sea. They inclosed an area of about 
a quarter of a mile in extent, and appeared to be 


wrdf a iniElJffT' post, which was an that the swimp7 
lutore of the i^nmnd would admit of. (Wolfe, Ibid, 
f, S4.) This fortress oommanded ^e harbour, 
wfaich is described by S^lax and Dicaearchns (JL 
eci) as a xKittrrhs Ajfi^, or a port with a nanrow 
entniice, iHudi xmght be shat with a chaiD. The 
huboor Biiist hsTe been an artificial one; for the 
pRsmt month of the Aita b so obstructed by swamps 
ud thoals as acandy to be accessible even to boats. 
Ib aadent times its navigation was abo esteemed 
dsDgaaas, whence Lncan (▼. 651) speaks of " onie 
aaj^rna^ Ambradaie portus." 

Cimneia (Kpdat^ta) was a small rilbige sitoated 
flo a mMmtain of the same name, which Leake snp- 
poHs to have been the high monntahi now called 
XeAerMi, whidi rises from the right bank of the 
rnvjlrto, immediately opposite to tibe town. 

Between the territory of Ambracia and Amphi- 
hdatLf Dicaeazchns (45) mentions a people cidlod 
Otritae (*Op«crau), who appear to haTo been in- 
ha t ai au t s of die moontains named Jfolrtaoro, be- 
fioiing at the NW. comer of the Ambtadot gnlf. 




AMBRA'CIUS SINUS (6 'Afirpwcuchs KiKm, 
Tbae.L55; t 'A/tSptucuAs artUwos, PoL iv. 63, 
Stnb. pu 325, et al.; i? ^dXeuraa ^ 'Apurpcueueiij 
DioD CaesL L IS : Sinns Ambradns, Liy. xxxriii. 
4; lid. iL 3: GulfofArta\ an arm of the Ionian 
BBS, hring b e t w e e n Epims and Acamania, so called 
horn the town of Ambracia. Polybins (I. c.) de- 
scribes the bay as 300 stadia in length, and 100 
sCMlia in breadth: Strabo (/. e.) gives 300 stadia as 
its dreomference, which is absurdly too small. Its 
leal lo^ is 25 miles, and its breadth 10. The 
cBtnaoB of the gnlf^ one side of which was fonned 
W the prnmnntofy of Actinm, is described under 
Acnm. In amsequenoe of the victory which 
Augustus gained over Antony at the entrance to 
tins gulf, Sxtins (^SUo, iL 2. 8) giTes the name of 
Awkbradae fromdea to the crowns of laurel bestowed 
Vfen the Tictors in the Actian games. The Am- 
bcadns Sinns is also frequently mentioned in Greek 
hHtary. On it were the towns of Aigos Amphi- 
Inrliiaim, snd Anactoirinm, and the sea-port of Am- 
bfada. The rirers Chandra and Anchthus flowed 
vto it from the N. It was celebrated in antiquity 
its excellent fish, and particularly for a species 
rfspof. (Ath. vL p. 92, d., vii. pp. 305, e., 
31 1, a., 326, d.) The modem gulf still maintains its 
chaadcr in this respect The red and grey mullet 
an aoKt abondant, and there are also plenty of soles 
aadeels. (YiiASe,Ob9ervati(m$<m1k^GvifofArta, 
la Jamrmal of Geographical Societg, toL iiL) 

Sbah.; ^Afiifmraos, Pans.; "Afitpfntoos, Steph. B. 
S.V.: Etk. *A/u6p^ioSf *AfjLSpvot6s, and in Inscr. 
*AmifmW€if: DUttomo), a town of Phods, was 
■Cnrted 60 stadia from Stiris, N£. of Anticyn, at 
the sBBtfam foot of Mt. CirpUs (not at the foot of 
Patimsww, as Pansanias states), and in a fertile 
taikyf producing abundance of wine and the coocw, 
er kennn-beny, used to dye scarlet. It was de- 
slnyed by order of the Amphictyous, but was rebuilt 

and fortified by the Thebans with a double wall, in 
their war against Philip. Its fortifications were 
considered by Pausanias the strongest in Greece, 
next to those of Messene. (Paus. x. 3. § 2, x. 36. 
§ I, seq., iv. 31. § 5; Strab. p. 423.) It was taken 
by the Boraans in the Macedonian war, b. c. 198. 
(Lit. xxzii. 18.) The site of Ambiysus is fixed 
at the modem village of DMstomo^ by an inscripdon 
which Chandler found at the latter place. The 
remains of the ancient city are few and inconsider- 
able. (Dodwell, Tow through Greece^ vol. i. p. 196, 
seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii p. 535, seq.) 

AMENATaJS (JAfjLtvayoSj Stnb.: 'Afuyayds, 
Steph. Byz. where the MSS. have 'A/uAuiyiJs: 'A^^- 
yof, Pind.: Amenana flumina, Ovid. Fast, iv. 
467), a small river of Sicily which flows through 
the aty of Catania, now called the GiudiceUo, 
It is noticed by Strabo (p. 240) as remark- 
able for the vicissitudes to which it was subject, 
its waters sometimes foiling altogether for years, 
and then flowing again in abunduice. The same 
peculiarity is remarked by Ovid (Met, xv. 279), and 
is still observed with regard to the GnuUcetto. It 
is probably connected witib intemal changes of Etna, 
at the foot of which it rises. (Fazell. iii. 1. p. 138 ; 
Cluver. SicU. p. 120; IVOryille, Sicula, p. 218.) 
Pindar speaks of the newly founded city of Aetna 
(the name given by Hieron to Catana) as rituated 
by the waters of the Amenas, but the correctness of 
the form Amenanos, preserved by Strabo, is attested 
by coins of Catana, which bear on the obverse the 
head of the river deity, under the usual form of a 
youthful male head with horns on the forehead, and 
the name at full length AMENANOS. (CastelL 
SkiL Numism. pi. 20, fig. 8.) [E. H. B.] 

AMEIUA. [Cabiba.] 

AME'BIA CA^cp^ Strab. Ptol Plut. Mar, 17; 
^Afjiipiov, Steph. B. : Eth, Amerinus : Amelia), one of 
the most ancient and important dties of Umbria, 
situated about 15 m. S. of Tuder, and 7 W. of 
Namia, on a hill between the valley of the Tiber and 
that of the Nar, a few miles above their junction. 
Strab. p. 227; PUn. iu. 14. s. 19; Ptol. in. 1. 

54; Festos, ».v.) According to Cato (jap. Plin. 
L c) it was founded 964 years before the war with 
Perseus, or 1135 b. c: and although this date can- 
not be regarded as historical, it may be received as 
evidence of a belief in its remote antiquity. The 
still extant remains of its ancient waUs, constmcted 
in the polygonal style, prove it to have been a place 
of strength in early times: but it is remarkable that 
its name is not once mentioned during the wars of 
Bome with Uie Umbrians, nor does it occur in history 
previous to the time of Cicero. But the great 
srator, in his defence of Sex. Boscias, whowas anative 
of Ameria, repeatedly mentions it in a manner which 
proves that it must then have been a flourishing 
municipol town: its territory extended to the Tiber, 
and was fertile in oaers and fruit trees. (Cic. pro 
Sex, Rote, 7, 9,&c.; Virg. Georg. i265;Colum. iv. 
30, V. 10.) Its lands were psrtioned out by Augustus 
among his veterans; but it did not obtain the rank 
of a colony, as we find it both in Pliny and inscrip- 
tions of later date styled only a munidiaum. (Lib. 
Colon, p. 224; Zumpt. de Colon, p. 356; Inscr. ap. 
Grot. p. 485. 5, 1101. 2, 1104.) The modem town 
of Amelia retains the ancient site as well as con- 
siderable portions of the ancient walls : it is now a 
small place with only about 2000 inhabitants, though 
stQ] t^ see of a bii^op. 

The Tabula Peutingeriana gives a line of road 



which bzasches off from the Via Glodia at Baccanas 
{Baccano) and leada through Nepe and Faierii to 
Amelia and thenoe to Tnder: this can be no other 
than Uie Via Amerina mentioned in an inscription 
of the time of Hadrian (Orell. 3306). The dis- 
taoces, as given in the Table, make Ameria distant 
67 M. P. from Home by this roate, which agrees 
vexy doselj with a casual statement of Cicero (jpro 
Sex. Ro9c. 7. § 18) that it was 56 miles from the 
DOB to the other. The Castellnm Amerinum placed 
bj the Table at 9 M. P. from Ameria on the road to 
Faierii is otherwise nnknovin. [£. H. B.] 

AMEBI'OLA, a city of ancient Latiom, mentioned 
by Livy among those rednoed by foroe of arms by 
the elder Tarqoin (i. 38). It is here ennmerated 
among the " Prisci Latini " and doubtless at this 
period was one oil the thirty dties of the league : but 
its name is not found in the later list given by 
Dionysius (v. 61), nor does it again occur in lustoiy; 
and it is only noticed by Pliny (iiL 5. s. 9) among 
the extinct cities of LatiuuL From the names with 
which it is associated in Livy we may probably infer 
that it was situated in the neighbouriiood of the 
Comiculan Hills: and it has been conjectured by 
Gell and Nibby that some mins still visible on the 
northernmost of the three hills, about a mile north 
of MU S. Angelo, may be those of Amerida. They 
consist of some remnants of walls, of irregular poly- 
gonal ooDstruction, running round a defensible 
eminence, and indicating the site of a small town. 
But the distance from Mte S. Angdo (on the summit 
of which there was certainly an ancient city, whether 
Comiculum or Medullia) is however so small as to 
render it improbable that another independent town 
should have existed so close to it. (Gell, Top. of 
Borne, p. 52 ; Nibby, Dintorm cU iZomo, vol. i. p. 138 ; 
Abeken, MiUel-Italien, p. 78.) [£. H. B.] 

AME'SELUM (rh 'AmVcAov) a town of Sidly, 
mentioned only by Diodorus(xxii. Exc Hoesch.p.499), 
from whom we learn that it was situated between 
Centuripi and Agyrium, in a position of great natural 
strength. It was taken, in b. g. 269, by Hieron long 
of Syracuse, who destroyed the dty and fortress, 
and cUvided its territory between its two neighbours 
the Centuripini and Agyrians. Its exact site is 
unknown. [E. H. B.3 

AME'STRATUS {'Afifiorparos, Steph. B.: Eth, 
Amestratinus: MistrettaX a dty of Sicily, noticed 
only by Cicero and Steph. B. From the drcnmstance 
mentioned by the former, that Verres compelled the 
inhabitants of Calacte to deliver thdr tithes of com 
at Amestmtus instead of at Calacte itself, it is clear 
that it was not very far from that dty: and this 
fact, coupled with the resemblance of the name, 
enables us to fix its site at Misirettay now a con- 
siderable town, situated on a hill about 5 miles from 
the N. coast of Sicily near Sto. St^ano, and 10 from 
Carojiia (Calacte). According to Fazello, consider- 
able remains of antiquity were still visible there in 
his time; but the place is not described by any recent 
travdler. We learn from Cicero that it was a small 
and poor town, though enjoying munidpal privi- 
l^;es. (Cic in Verr. iii. 39, 43, 74 ; Steph. B. s. v. ; 
Fazell. de Reb, Sicul. x. p. 415; Cluver. SiciL 
p. 383.) 

It is probably the same place as the Amastra of 
Sihus Italicus (xiv. 267), but there is no foundation 
for identifying it (as has been done by Cluverins 
and most subsequent geographers) with the Mytis- 
tratns of Polybius and 'Pliny: both names being 
perfectly well authenticated. [Mytistbatub.] 


That of Amestiiitus, in addition to the testinunj of 
Cicero and Stephanus, is fully sapportcd by die 
evidence of its coins, which have the name at foil 
AMHXTPATINnN. (Castdl SicU, Vet. Num. 
pL 16 ; Eckhel, voL i. p. 197.) [E. H. B.] 

A'MIDA ("A/ufia: Eth. 'AfuhiwAs, Amideoai: 
Diyar-Bekr). The modem town is on the rigbt 
bank of the Tigris. The waUs are lofty and sub- 
stantial, and constmcted of the ruins of andeut 
edifices. As the place is well adi^)ted for a com- 
mercial dty, it is probable that Amida, wbicfa 
occupied the site of JHjfar-Behry was a town of 
considerable antiquity. It was enlarged and stieogUi- 
ened by Constantins, in whose reign it was besiegd 
and taken by the Persian king Sapor, a. d. 359. 
The historian Ammianus MaroeUinus, who todc part 
in the defence of the town, has given us a minate 
account of the siege. (Anun. Marc xix. 1, aeq.) 
It was taken by the Persian king Cabades in tbe 
reign of Anastasius, a. d. 502 (Prooop. B. Pen. 
L 7, seq.); but it soon passed again into the hands 
of the Bomans, since we read that Justidaa re- 
paired its walls and fortifications. (Procop. d» 
Aedif. iii. 1.) Ammianus and Prooopius consider 
it a dty of Mesopotamia, but it nuiy be more properiT 
viewed as bdonging to Armenia Major. [G. L] 

AMILUS CAfuAof : Eth, 'A^uAios), a tillage of 
Arcadia in the territoiy of Orchomenns, and on the 
road fipom the latter to Stymphalos. (Pans. viiL 14. 
§5; Steph. B. «.v.) 

AMI'SIA, a place on the left bank of the river 
Amisia (Em$), in Germany. (Tacit. ^Mi.iL8.) 
This place, which is not mraitioiied by sny other an- 
dent author, is perhaps the same as the town of 
*A/ui(rcm noticed byPtdemy (ii. 11), and the^A/utrira 
mentioned by Stephanus Byzantinns as a town of 
Germany. (Comp. Ledebur, Land «. Volk der 
Brucierer, p. 180, foil.) [L. S.] 

AMI'SIA or AMI'SIUS CA/u2<riosor'Aftfur{a,the 
j^ffu), a river in northern Germany, rising in the 
hills of the Weserj and emptying itself into tlie Ger- 
man Ocean near the town of Emden. The river was 
well known to, and navigated by the Bomans. In 
B. c. 12, Dmsus fought on it a naval battle against 
the Bructeri. (Mela, iii 3; Plin. H.N. iv. 14, who 
calls the river Amuituf Tadt. Ann. i. 60, 63, 
70, iL 23, who calls it Amitiaf Strab. p. 290; 
Ptolem. iL 11; oomp. Ledebur, Land u. Voik der 
Bructerer, p. 180.) [L. S.] 

A'^nSUS (;AtiuT6s: Eth. 'Afuariv6sj^Afiiffun, 
Amisenus: Eski Saantun), a dty of Pontus in Asia 
Minor, situated on the west side of the bay called 
Amisenus, about 900 stadia from Sin<^ according 
to Strabo (p. 547). The ruins of Amisos are on a 
promontoiy about a mile and a half NNW. of the 
modem town. On the east side of the promontoiy 
was the old port, part of which is now filled up. 
The pier which def(^ed the andent harbour may 
still be traced for about 300 yards, but it is chiefly 
under water: it cansists of very large blocks of 
stone. On the summit of the hill where the acropo- 
lis stood there are many remains of walls <^ ruU>Ie 
and mortar, and the ground is strewed with frag- 
ments of Boman tiles and pottety. On the south 
end of the brow of the hill which overlooks the 
harbour there are traces of the real Hellenic walls. 
(Hamilton, Retearchee in Asia Minor ^ voL i. p. 290.) 

The origin of Amisns appears to be uncertain. 
Hecataeus (Strab. p. 553) supposed it to be the 
Enete of Homer (//. iL 852). Theopompas, quoted 
by Strabo, says that it was first founded by the 


tlwi wttfad byaCiqppiMioffMm king; ud 
tUidhr, by AthfmnpJfB and some Athenians, who 
duBgvd ill nuM to PeirMeos. But Scjnmiis a( 
ClMt(f>.T. 101) caDs it a ooknj of Pbocua, and 
ti prior dale to Henclda, which was probablj 
bnikd wbcai m. c. 559. Bsool-Rochette coodudBs, 
bsk kfaa« sMois do nMon for his oondosion, that 
tUi gtllHiwit by Phocaca was posterior to the Mi- 
Uu settlsBMBt. (iTiitotrs da Cohmet GrecqueSf 
tcLib. p. 334.) However this may be, Amisos 
heme Uw ooot flourishing Greek settlement on the 
north ooast of the Eoxine after Sinope. The time 

ndndes that, becsnse Amisns is not 
bj Harodotas or Xenophon, the date of 
the A***— *t«ti i rtt l finH i t is posterior to the time of 
the AnaJbatit ; a condosian which is by no means 
wrwry. Phitareh (UictdL 19) says that it was 
settled ij the Athsnians at the time of their great- 
at power, and when they were masters of the sea. 
lbs place loat the name of Peiiaeeos, and became 
a rii^ trading town nnder the kings of Pontos. 
Eupator made Amisos his residence 



altarnately with Sinope, and he added a part to the 
t0«n, whicii was called Eapatoria ( Apptsn. Mithrid, 
7%\ hot it was separated from the rest by a wall, 
and probably oontahied a difbrent popdation from 
that of old AnoisQs. Thb new quarter oontained 
the lesideDoe of the king. The strength of the 
piaee was prared by the resistance which it made to 
the Boman conmiander L. Lneollns (b. a 71) in the 
war. (Plot. Z^cofS. 15, &o.) The 
Tyrannio was one of those who fen into 
tiie hands of lAicoIlns when the place vnu captnied. 
Pbaniaees, the son of Mithridates, sobeeqoently 
ov<er to Amisos from BosporoSf and Anusos 
iken and cmelly dealt irith. (Dion 
zfiL4€.) The dictator Caesar defeated Pbar- 
ia a battle near Zeleia (Appian. B. C. ii. 91), 
sad restofcd the phwe to freedom. M. Antonios, 
sstfi Stnbo, **" gave it to kings ;" bat it was again 
leaened horn a tfnmt Strston, and made fi«e, after 
the battle of Actiom, by Angustos Caesar; and now, 
adds SaabO) it is wdl ordered. Strabo does not 
state the name of the king to whom Antonios gave 
It has been aasomed that it was Po- 
L, who had the kingdom of Pontos at least as 
la B.C. 96. It does not appear who Strston 
was. The fiMt of Amisos bemg a free dty onder 
the empire appears from the epigraph on a coin of 
the otT, and from a letter of the yoonger Pliny to 
Txajaa (z. 93), in which he calls it *" libera et 
ibrienta,*' and speaks of it as baring its own laws 
by the frTonr of Trajan. 

Aiaisiis, in Strabo's time, possessed a good terri- 
tey, wfakfa indnded Themiscna, the dwdJing-pkoe 
sftheABUSQnSyaadSideiis.4i^ [6. L.] 


AHITERNUH CAj«*T«f»w, Stiab.; ^AfiJ^^tpwOy 
DienxB.: Aqi^teminns), a dty of the Sabines of 

gnat antiquity. It was sitoated in the opper yalley 
of the liver Atemos, from which, according to 
Vairo (L. X. ▼. 28), it derived its name, and at tho 
foot of 1^ loftiest groap of the Apemiines, now 
known as the Qnm SoMto dJUUia, Its rains are 
stUl visible at 8cm ViUorino^ a village about 5 miles 
N. of AquHa, According to Cato and Varro (ap, 
Dionys. L 14, iL 49), this elevated and nigged 
moantain district was the original dweUing-pboe of 
the Sabines, fitxn whence they first b^;an to turn 
their srms against the Aborigines in the neighbour- 
hood of Bea^ Virgil also mentions Amitemnm 
among the most powufbl cities of the Sabines: and 
both Strabo and Pliny enumerate it among the cities 
still inhabited by that people. Ptolemy, on the 
contrary, assigns it to the Vestini, whose territory it 
most certainly have adjoined. (Virg. ^en. vii. 7 10 ; 
SiL Ital. viii. 416; Stisb. v. p. 228; Plin. iii. 12. 
8. 17; Ptol. iii. 1. § 59.) Livy speaks of Ami- 
temnm as captored by the Bomans in b. c. 293 
from the Samnites (x. 39), but it seems impossible 
that the Sabine dty can be the one meant; and 
either the name is oorrapt, or there most have been 
some obscure place of the same name in Samniom. 
Stnbo speaks of it as having sufiiared severely from 
the Social and Civil Wars, and being in his time 
much decayed; hot it was subseqoently reoolonised, 
probably in the time of Augustus (Lib. Colon, 
p. 228; Zompt, de Coiomisy p. 356. not.)^ and be- 
came a place of considerable importance under the 
Boman em]»re, as is proved by the existing ruins, 
among which those of the amphitheatre are th^ most 
conspicuous. These are situated in the broad and 
level valley of the Atemos, at the foot of the hill on 
which stands the village ofS. Vittorino ; but some 
remains of polygonal walls are said to exist on that 
hill, which probably belong to an earlier period, and 
to the ancient Sabine dty. It continued to be an 
episcopal see as bite as the eleventh century, but its 
complete decline dates from the feondation of the 
neighbouring dty of AquUa by tho emperor Frede< 
ric II., who remoived thither the inhaUtants of Ami- 
teraum, as well as several other neighbouring towns. 
(Bomanelli, vol iii. p. 330; GiusUniani, Diz. Geogr. 
vol. L p. 230; Craven, Abrmzl, voL i pp 217 
— ^219.) Numerous inscripticms have been dis- 
covered there, of which the most important is a 
fi-agment of an ancient calendar, whicL is one of the 
most valuable relics of the kind that have been pre- 
served to us. It has been repeatedly published; 
among others, by Fqggini (JFatt. Rom. Reliquiaef 
Bomae, 1779), and by Ordli (Inscr. vol. iL c. 22). 

Amiteraum was the birthplace of the historian 
Sallust (Hienm. Chron.) [E. H. B.] 

AMMONI'TAE CA^/iayrrai,LXX. and Joseph.), 
the descendants of Ben-ammi, the son of Lot by bis 
incestuous connection with his younger daughter 
((rea. xix. 38). They exterminated the Zamzum- 
mims and occupied their country (^DeuL ii. 20, 21), 
which lay to the north of Moab between the Araon 
{Moid)) and the Jabbok {Zerka)j the eastern part 
of the district now called Belka, [Amorites]. 
Their country was not possessed by the Israelites 
(^DeuL il 19), but was conterminous with the tribe 
of Gad. (Joahuaf xiiL 25, properly explained by 
Beland, Palaett, p. 105.) Their capital was Babbath 
or Babbah, afterwards called Philadelphia, now 
Ammdn. They were constantly engaged in con- 
federations with other Bedooin trib^ against the 
Israelites {Ps. Ixxxiii. 6 — 8), and were subdued by 
Jephthah (Jvdgu xL), Saul (1 5am. xL, xiv. 47), 


• • ^ 

I -• 



David (2 Sam. viii 12, z. zL 1. zil. 26, &c), Je- 
hoshapliat (2 Chron, xx.), Uzziah (ib. xicvi. 8), and 
Jotham (zxvii. 5), and subsequentlj by Nebuchad- 
nezzar. (Jlsreffk xzyiL 1, &c.) They renewed their 
opposition to the Jews after me captivity (^Nehem. 
iv. 3, 7, 8), and were again conquered by Jadas 
Macoibaeas. (1 Mace ▼. 6, &«.) Jnstin Martyr 
speaks of a great multitude of Ammonites existing 
in his day (^Dial. p. 272); but Origen shortly after 
speaks of the name as being merged in the conmion 
appellation of ArabSj under which the Idumaeans 
and the Moabites were comprehended together with 
the Ishmaelites and Joctanites. (Orig. in Johum^ 
lib. i.) [G. W.] 

AMMO'NIUM. [Oasis.] 

A'MNIAS ("A/u^KU, "Afivciof ), a river in Pontus. 
In the broad plain on the banks of this stream the 
generals of Mithridates defeated Nicomedes, king of 
Bithynia, and the ally of the Romans, b. c. 88. 
(Appian. JfithridaL cl8; Strab. p. 562.) The 
phun through which the river flowed is called by 
Strabo Domanitis. Hamilton {Besearches, &c. vol. 
i. p. 362) identifies the Amnias with an aJOHuent of 
the Halys, now called Costambol Ckai, and some- 
times Giaour Irmak, It appears that the river is 
also called Kara StL [G. L.] 

AMNI'SUS {'AfxyurSs), a town in the N. of 
Crete, and the harbour oi Cnossus in the time of 
Minos, was situated at the mouth of a river of the 
same name (the modem Aposelemt). It possessed 
a sanctuary of Eileithyia, and the nymphs of the 
river, called ^AfunauUits and 'A/ityio-fScs, were sacred 
to this goddess. (Horn. Od. xix. 188 ; Strab. p. 476 ; 
Apoll. Rhod. iiL 877; Callim. Hymn, in JHan. 15; 
Stoph. B. s. V.) 

AMORGOS CAfiopy6s: JSth. 'Afutpyivos, also 
*Ati6pyio5f*AfJu>pyiTris: Amorgo), an island of the 
Sporades in the Aegean sea, S£. of Naxos. It is 
rarely mentioned in history, and is chiefly celebrated 
as the birthplace of the iambic poet Simonides. 
(Strab. p. 487.) There was in Amorgos a manu- 
factory of a peculiar kind of linen garments, which 
bore the name of the island, and which were dyed 
red. (Steph. B. s. v.\ Eustath. ad Dionys. 526; 
Pollux, vii. 16.) In dyeing them use appears to 
have been made of a kind of lichen, which is still 
found in the island, and of which Toumefort has 
given an account. The soil of Amorgos is fertile. It 
produces at present com, oil, wine, ^, tobacco, and 
cotton, all of good quality. Hence it was considered 
under the Roman empire one of the most favourable 
places for banishment. (Tac. Arm. iv. 30.) We leam 
from Scylax (p. 22) that Amorgos contained three 
towns, the names of which, according to Stephanus 
(«. V. *Afiopy6s)j were Minoa (M^i^ami, Mi yvta, Ptol. 
V. 2. § 33), the birthplace of Simonides, Arcesino 
('Apiceo-fn?), and Aegiale (Ai7t(£Aij, BryiaAif , Ptol.). 
Remains of all these cities have been discovered, and 
a minute description of them is given by Ross, who 
spent several days upon the island. They are all 
situated on the western side of the island opposite 
Naxos, A^iale at the N., and Arcesine at the S., 
while ifinoa lies more in the centre, at the head of 
a large and convenient harbour, now called Ta 
Katapola^ beq^nse it is Koerh, r^v roKiy. It appears, 
from the inscriptions found in the island, that it 
possessed other domes besides the above-mentioned 
towns. It is probable that Melania (McAov/a), 
which Stephanus in another passage (s. v. *ApKfaiv7j') 
mentions as one of the three towns of Amorgos in 
place of Aegiale, may have been one of these domes. 

. AMPE. 

Wg leam from several inscriptions Uiat Milesians 
were settled in Minoa and A^^e, and that they 
formed in the latter town a separate conuniiiii^. 
(Bockh, Corp. Inter. voL iL No. 2264; Ross, Ituer. 
Gr. Ined. vol. ii No. 112, 120—122.) Theisland 
contams at present 3,500 inhabitants. (Toame- 
fort. Voyage^ &c vol. ii. p. 182, seq.; Fiedler, 
Retsej Sx. vol. ii. p. 325, seq. ; and more eepsai^j 
Ross, jReisen aufden Griech. Intdn, vol. L p. 173, 
seq., vol. ii. p. 39, seq.)-)*:^ 

AMORITES, one of tlie seven Canaanitish tribes 
((Ten. X. 16) who held possession of the Promised 
Land, during the times of the Patriarchs, until the 
coming in of the Children of Israel. It appears to 
have been one of the most powerful tribes, and the 
name is used as a general term for all the Cansao- 
ites. (^Gen. xv. 16.) Their original ^eat was at 
the south-west of the Dead Sea, between the Amale- 
KiTAE and the Yale of Siddim, and their prindpal 
city was Hazezon-Tamar, or Engedi QAwhJi^ 
(^Gen. xiv. 7, and 2 Chron. xx. 2.) At the time of 
the exodus, however, they had seized and occupied 
the country on the east side of the Dead Sea and of 
the Valley of the Jordan, where they had established 
two powerful kingdoms, the capitals of which were 
Heshbon and Basax. Heshbon, the southern part 
of this extensive country, had been taken firam the 
Moabites and Ammonites by Sihon, and extended 
from the Amon (Mcjdi) to the Jabbok (ZerJn) 
(^Numb. xxi. 26), and this was the {dea cm which 
the Ammonites grounded th^ claim to that ooontiy 
in the days of Jephthah. (Judges^ xi.) This dis- 
trict comprehended Mount Gilcnd, and was settled 
by the Tribes of Reuben and Gad. The northern 
division of Basan, of which Og was the king, ex- 
tended from the Jabbok to the northern extremity of 
the Promised Land, to Mount Hermon, which the 
Ammonites named Shenir. This country was given 
to the half tribe of Manasseh. (^Numb. xxi.; DeuL 
iL iii. ; 1 Chron. v. 23.) All this r^un was compre- 
hended in Peraea. The Amoritos are also found 
on the western coast of Palestine, in the vicinity of 
the Tribe of Dan (Judges^ i. 34), and in the borders 
of the Tribe of Ephraim (v. 35). Still the south- 
eastern extremity of Canaan is recognised as their 
proper seat (v. 36; comp. Numb, xxxiv. 4, and 
Joshua, XV. 3), and the ^actice of using this name 
as a general designation of all the Canaanitish 
tribes renders it ^icult to determine their exact 
limits. [G.W.] 

AMO'RIUM ('iWpioy: Eth. 'A^iopte^s), a city 
of Phrygia, according to Strabo (p. 576). Its pro- 
bable position can only be deduced from the Peu- 
tinger Table, which places it between Pessinns 
(^Bala nissar) and Laodicea. Hamilton {^Retearchis^ 
&c. vol. i. p. 451) identifies it with Hergan Kalek, 
where there are the ruins of a large city ; but the 
present remains appear to belong to the fourth or 
fifth centuries of our aera. This determination 
would place Amorium in GaJatia. [G. L.] 

AMPE ("Afwnj: Eth. 'Aftroibs), a place where 
Darius settled the Milesians who were made prison- 
ers at the capture of Miletus, b. c. 494. (Herod, vi. 
20.) Herodotus describes the place as on the Eiy- 
thraean sea (Persian Gulf); he adds that ^e Tigris 
flows past it. This description does not enable us 
to fix the place. It has been supposed to be the 
lamba of Ptolemy, and the Ampelone of Pliny (vi. 
28), who calls it " Colonia Miledonm."^ Tzetzos 
has the name Ampe. (Harduin's note on Plin. 
vi. 28.) , [G. L.] 

V. I V 

•• ' 



A / 


" ^SSi 


AlfPELOS (*Amv€Aos), a promontofy at the 
extreoiitj cf the peninsnla Sithania in Chalddice in 
Iboedoma, caUed b j Herodctos the Toronaean pro- 
UNOtofT. It appears to ctHrespond to the modem 
C. KmrtiH, and Denhis, whidi is nearer to the 
dtr of Torooe, to C Dhrrpano. (Herod, vii. 122 ; 
Steptu B. a. v.; PtoL iii. 13. § 12.) 

AMPELU'SIA, or COTES PROM, (ox* K«St€«, 
Sixib. pi 8S5 ; KAttis (iicpoy, PtoL iv. 1. § 2 : ap- 
pireoUT ako the Cotta . of Plin. xxxiL 2. s. 6 : 
C Spartelj or Espartdy a oormption of the Arabic 
AckkertiL, or ChbtrtU-, also Rou- or Tarf- esh- 
Sftoittar), the NW. headUnd of Alaaretama Tingi- 
tiaa and of the whole continent of Africa; about 
10 miks W. of Tmgia (^Tan^), Cotes ivas its 
utiTe name, of wfaidi the Greek Ampehiaia (mne- 
dad) was a tnnslatian (Strab. I c. ; Plin. t. 1 ; 
lida. L 5). It la a remarkable object ; a prectpitons 
vxk of grej fireestone (with basaltic colnpons, ac- 
cofding to Drammond Haj, bnt this is donbtfol), 
pereed with many caves, among which one in par- 
tifular was shown in andent times as sacred to 
Hocoles (Mela, L c) ; from thesis caves mill-stones 
woe and Bt31 are obtained. Its height is 1043 feet 
ahoie the sea. Sbabo describes it as an o&et 
(vpiwmfs) of M. Atlas ; and it is, in fiict, the western 
point, as Abtla is the eastern, of the end of that 
jneat KW. spur of the AtJas, which divides the 
Atlantic £ram the Meditemmean. The two hills 
fcnn tltt extremities of the S. shore of the Fretnm 
Ga£tamim (^Straits of Gibraltar), the length of the 
Sinit from the one to the other being 34 miles. 
The W. extremity of the Strait on the European 
shoe, opponte to Ampdnsia, at a distance of 22 miles, 
vas Jnnoins Pr. (C, Trafalgmr). Mela is veiy 
explicit in drawing the line of dinsion between the 
Atlantic and the Straits through these pomts (i. 5, 
i. 6, SL 10 ; his last words are, Ampelwia in 
amft ■■! Jam Jretam vergent, operie hujut atque 
Atlamtid Ktarit termmua ; so Plin. v. 1, Promofh- 
torium Oeeam exiimum Ampehuia). The erroneous 
acciao of the ancients respecting the shape of this 
part of Africa (see Libya) led them to make this 
pRXDantofTtheW. extremity of the continent (Strab. 
L €,) Scylax (p. 52, p. 123, Gnmov.) mentions a 
krpe bay called Cotes, between the Columns of 
Horoles and the prooHxitary of Hermaeum; bnt 
wfacibff his Hermaeum is our Ampelusia, or a point 
farther & on the W. coast, is donbtfuL Gosselin 
(i^. Bredow, ii. 47), and Kitter (^rdfetmde, vol. L 
p. 336), regard Ampelusia as identical with the 
SiiocB of Herodotus (iL 32) and Hanno {Peripl. 
h 2). [P. S.] 

AMPHAXITIS CA/i^o^Trtf ), the maritime part 
*4 Myplonia in Macedonia, on the left bank of the 
Axii». which, according to Strabo, separated Bot- 
tiMff% frtmk Amphaxitis. The name first occurs in 
P'jlyhias. No town of this name is mentioned by 
aw4eni writers, though the Ampfaaxii are found on 
t^im. (PoL r. 97; Strab. p. 330; Ptd. iii. 13. 
II 10, 14; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 449.) 

AMPHELA. CAA«^ia: Eth, 'Am^O> a town of 
Ifr'SBema, sitnated on the frontiers of Laconia, upon 
a hill wdl supplied with water. It was surprised 
lad taken by Uie Spartans at the b^^inning of the 
ll*wwn«» war, and was made their head-quarters 
ID condnctii^ their operations against the Messe- 
aiaM. Its cap(tnre was the first act of open hos- 
tilkiei between the two people. It is placed by 
I>ake at the Hellenic ruin, now called the Castle of 
and by Boblaye on the mountain called 



Kohdla, (Fans. iv. 5. § 9 ; Leake, MoreOy vol. i. 
p. 461 ; Boblaye, JRechercAes, p. 109.) 

AMPHI'ALE. [Aeoaleos.] 

Herod., Steph. B.; 'A/i^^/kAcio, Pans.: Eth. 'A^t- 
^ucoudsf ^AfupucXtuis), a town in the N. of Phocis, 
distant 60 stadia from Lilaea, and 15 stadia from 
Tithronium. It was destroyed by the army of 
Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. Although Herodo- 
tus calls it Amphicaea, following the most ancient 
traditions, the Amj^ctyons gave it the name of 
Amphicleia in thdr decree respecting rebuilding the 
town. It also bore for some time the name of Ophi- 
TEIA (*0^iTc(a), in consequence of a legend, which 
Pausanias rdat^. The place was celehrated in the 
time of Pausanias for the^ worship of Dionysus, to 
which an inscription refers, found at Dhadhi, the 
site of the ancient town. (Herod. viiL 33; Paus. 
z. 3. § 2, X. 33. § 9, seq. ; Leake, Northern Greece, 
vol. ii. pp. 75, 86.) 

AMPHI'DOLI ('A/u^£8oXoi), a town in Pisatis in 
Elis, which gave its name to the small district of 
Amphidohs or Amphidolia ('A/u^tSoAts , 'A/u4»t8oA{a). 
The town of Marganeae m Margalae was situated in 
this district. The site of Amphidoli is uncertain, 
bat its territory probably lay to the west of Acro- 
reia. [Acrokbia.] (Xen. HeU. iii 2. § 30; Strab. 
pp.341, 349; Leake, PelpoTmetiaca, p. 219.) 

AMPHIGENEIA (jAfi<l>iy4v€ia : Eth, 'Afuptyt^ 
yt^Ss), one of the towns belonging to Nestor (Horn. 
It ii. 593), was placed by some ancient critics in 
Messenia, and by others in Macistia, a district in 
TriphyUa. Strabo assigns it to Macistia near the river 
Hypsods, where in his time stood a temple of Leto. 
(Steph. B. «. «.; Strab. p. 349.) 

AMPHILO'CHIA ('AfupiXjoxta: Eth. *Aju4>(Ao- 
Xos), a small district at the eastern end of the Am- 
braciotgulf, bounded on the N. by Ambraciaand on 
the S. by the territory of the Agraei. It did not ex- 
tend fiir inland. It is a mountainous district, and 
the rocks along the coast rise iu some parts to 450 or 
500 feet high. The Amphilochi were a non-Hellenic 
tribe, although they were supposed to have derived 
their name from the Argive Amphilochus, the son of 
Amphiaraus. Strabo (p. 326) describes them as an 
Epirot people, but their country is more usually de- 
scribed as a part of Acamania. (Steph. B. s.v.; 
Scyl. p 12.) Their lineage, as Grote remarks, was 
probably something intermediate between the Acar- 
nanians and Epirots. At the time of the Pelopon- 
nesian war the AmphOochi were in cloee alliance 
with the Acanianians. After the death of Alexander 
the Great the Amphilochi were conquered by the 
Aetolians; and they were at a later time included in 
the Roman province of Epirus. The only town in 
their country was Argos, sumaraed Amphilochicnm, 
under which the history of the people is more fully 
given. There were also a few vilifies or fortresses, 
which owe their importance simply to their connection 
with the history of Argos, and which are therefore 
described in that article. [Abgos Amphilo- 


AMPHIMALLA ('AfuptfutXka, Strab. p. 475; 
Plin. iv. 20; ^AtupifuiXtoy, Steph. B. «. r.), a town 
in the N. of Crete, situated on the bay named after 
it ('A/w^i/uoA^y icoAiros, PtoL iii. 17. § 7), which 
corresponds, according to some, to the bay of ^r- 
intro, and, according to others, to the bay of Suda, 

AMPHI'POLIS ('AfjuplxoKis I Eth. 'Afjupiro^ 
Xirris, Amphipolites: Adj. Amphipolitanus, Just, 
xiv. sub fin.), a town in Macedonia, situated upon 


u nnunnce on the left or eutorn buk of the Sti?- 
□Hn, jnit below its ^iw fina the lake Cenanitis 
■t the diaUuioe of 35 etadia, or about three miUs 
iium the km. (Thnc ii. 102.) The Strymou 
flowed ihnoat roDod the town, whenca its imne 
Amphi-polis. lli ponCiaa U ooa of the DKBt im- 
portant in this part tt Qnece. It itaodi in a pus, 
which tjarcTses toe monntBiDi bardering the Stiy- 
mmic g6]£; and it oommaada the ml; eai^ com- 
municatian &<im the Coait of that gnlf into the gnat 
M-jjilnnim pUiu. In its Tidnit]' win the gold 
and eilTBr minei tf Uonnt Pingaena, end large 
foRsta of ship-liinber. It was ongioaQy called 
Ennea Hodm, at " NiDe-Waji " ("Ewia W), from 
the manj rrads which met at this place ; and it be- 
longed to the Edonians, 'a Th»d»n people. Aris- 
t4goras of Hiletnn first attempted to coEonize it, h ' 
wu cat off with hia fbllawerg bj the Edonians, b. 
497. (ThDCl.c: Hend-T. 136.) The next a 
tempt was made b; the Athenians, witli a bodj of 
10,000 colonists, amsiitmg of Athenian < ''' 
am«: but they met with the sane &I 
tagona, aod were all destrojed bj the Thndaos at 
Drabescns, B. o. 4G5. (Thuc. L 100, ir. 102; 
Herod, ii. TS.) Bo Taluabkt, however, was the site, 
that the Athenians seat out aoother colonj in B. c 
437 nnJer Agnon, the ton of Nidaa, who drove the 
Thtadans cat rf Nine-Wajs, snd fritiDded the dtj, 
e of Amphipolis. 

three aidee the city w 

tj the SLiymoc 

•a the other aide Agnon biult a wall 
ing from one part 0! the rirer to the other. South 
of the town wae a bnd|^ which fbraied the great 
means of cOTomiuucatioii between Macedonia and 
Thrace The fbllowmg plan will illustrate the 
-. (Thue.IT loa) 

I. Site of Amphipcdia. 
3. Site of Eion. 

3. lUdge comecting Amphipc^ with Ut 

4. Long Wall of Amphipolis; the three marks 
acroas indicate the gstes. 

5. Palisade (irTiui|Wfia) connectitig the Long Wall 
with the bridge over the StiTmon. 

6. Lake Cercinitis. 
T. Mt Cerdflium. 
8. HtPangaeus. 


Amphipolia aoon bKame an important d^, ni 
was nganled by the Atheoiana as the jewel <JAar 
em^n. In B. c, 494 it nuicndraed to the Leo. 
daononUQ gensnl Bnuidas, withmt lAiing aj 
iwistance. The hiiloriaa Thacjiidee, vbo ccn- 
manded the Atheniita 6eet off the coast, airiial in 
time friBn the island o! Thasoe to >ara Eicn, the pot 
of Am]^polls, at the nunth of the StiTinoa, bnt too 
late to prevent Amphipolis itself £uro fiil&ig into 
the hands of Bnsidas. .(Thoc, ir. lOS— 10;.) 
The ksB of Amphipolis eannd both jndigikitkn sod 
alarm at Athens, snd led tn the bani^hmmt r£ 
TLucjdidee. In B. a 423 the Atlnmitni Hit a 
Urge force, under the conmand of Cleon, to iBempI 
the recoTety of the dty. This eijiedildon cmipkld; 
biled; the Athenians were defb^ed with nxsde- 
ahle loss, bnt Bruidae as weU as Cleon Ml is Uw 
battle. The operations of the two coauDandsi in 
detailed at lei^ I7 Tbncydides, and bis iccogm 
is illtutratfld 1^ the masterly uaiiaUve of Gm^ 
(Thnc ».6— II; Orote, Bitt. of Greaos, ToL ri. 
p. 634, Mq.) 

from this time Amphipolia cattmued indepniriait 
of Athens. According to the trnly malt betwrm 
the Athenians and l^cedaenwnians in B. c. 421, it 
was to have been rartond to Athou; but its i> 
hsbitanta refused to surrender to their fbnncr mB- 

them to do so, evtsi if they had been so incliorf. 
Amphipolis afWwards became closely alliEd with 
Olynthos, and with the assistKioe ri the latter wis 
able to defeat the attempts of the Athenisns onder 
Timotbeus to reduce the place in b. c. 360. Philip, 
upon hia acceenon (359) dedared Amphipolia s£v 
city; bnt in the following year (358) he took lbs 
place by usaolt, and anneied It permanenlly to bis 
dominions. It continued to belong to the Hice- 
donians, tOl the conquest of their eountiy by the 
Bomans in a, c. 1 6S. The Bixnans made it s free 
city, and the captal of the first of the four distncte, 
mto which they dividfd Uacadonia. (Dem. ■• 
Ariilocr. p. 669; Diod. xvi 3. 8; Lir. ilr. 39) 
Plm. IT. la) 

The deity chiefly womhipped at Ampfaipolii >p- 
pears to bsTe been Artemis TaunpolDB or Breomia 
(Moi iriii. 4 I Liv, iHt. 44), whose head fre- 
' ly appeals on the ccans of the city, snd the 
of whose temple in the first century of th? 
Christian era are mentioned in an epgrsm cf As- 
rof Thessaloniia. (Anth. Pal. vol. L no. 705.) 
Tin moit celebTstcd of the natins of Amphipolis 
la the grammarian ZoilOA. 
Amphipolis was ntnated on the Via Egnatia. It 
bas been ustially stated, on the authcii^ of so 
mous Greek geograptKr, that It was oDid 
Chryjopolis under Uie ByiantuM empire ; bat Tsiel 
has cleariy shown, in the works dtod below, thst 
" ' 's a miatakfl, tad that ChrysopoUs and Am- 
phipolis were two difierent places. Tal^ has aim 
pointed out that in the middle ages AmphipUs was 
called Popolia, Its site is now occuined bj a villsge 
called NeolAirio, m TnrkiBh Jmi-Ktm, or " New- 
." There are still s f^w remuns of the sndol 
and both Leake and Cousinery found among 
a cnrioos Greek inscription, written in the 

agunst two t£ their citizens, Philo snd Stiatoclca. 
latter is the name of one of the two euyoya 
from Amphipolis to Athens to nquest the 
itance of the latter against Philip, and he is 

therefore probably the same petwn aa the Stntocks 



tm^tmd B tfa> imcriptim. (Tkfcl, 
p. tM, K^ A Via Egmatia, Pui OiHul. p. 9 ; 
1/ak*, ti'arlitnt Gnect, InL iii. p. 181, leq.; 
Cin^r, r«fastilmuliMaoiiioimB,tiii.L p.ias.) 

pttttt, AmfAunoius: Adj, Amphiaiiu: Salanay, 
tti dutf town of the Lccri Oidae, silaaUd in & 
)■■ U tbs bnd of the Ciiowui pliin, «nd lur- 

B nd ti> 1at« dcriTtd ita nunc. (Steph. B. 1. >.} 
Pi I —mi In (i. 38. § 4) flimi it mt tin distanee of 
ISO aalix from Did|Jii, did Aochina (in Cltiipk. 
^ 71) (t 60 lUdik: Uw latter itatemoit is the cor- 
mt 4Ba, soee we kun frnm modeni tnTellen that 
Ifac tva] dutancfl betvTsi the two towna is 7 mileH. 
itarHag to tnditioa, Ampbuu ms callol after a 

fiaoddaiightel of Aeehu, who vai beloTed bj ApoUo. 
(pBSL f. <l) On thr iBTaiion cf Gm« bj Xenea, 
Booy cf Eb* Locriana ranored to AmjJiisB. (Herod. 
•£L Sa.) At a later period the ^phictyons de- 
dand >ar af^aimit the town, beouw its inhabitimts 
had dand ta c:Dhiii>>! the Ciusaun plain, «1ii<:h 
<na lacnd to the goi, and had mo!«led the jilgnnu 
vte bad HOW to ODDSDlt the oracle at Delphi The 
derm bj which war waa declazed igvnst the Am- 
f^bsiaae vae mored b^ Aeschinee, tlie Athenian 
pTlagoae, at the Am)Juct7onic CoondL The Am- 
|Jiir^aB odnuUd the coldDCt of the war to T' '" 
it MtaiiB, who took Amphitaa, and raied 
tfae jminl, b. c 336. (Aeaoh. m Claipi. ) 
»q.; Sliah. p. *19.) The dty, howerer, waa i 
vanls rebuilt, and waa enffidentlj populooa in 
ST9 Id npl^ 400 hofJites in the war agunit '. 
mu. (Pana. x. 23. g 1.) It wm beelrKed bj the 
Sanaa in h. c. 190, whoi the inhabitanti took n 
hfi in the dtadel, which iraa deemad inipnKimbli 
(Lit. aia r iL S. G.) Wlun AnRnaliu ibnnded Ni 
■ofoGa after the battle t£ Actium, a greal: manj 
Aetoiiane, to »»pe being Tenured to the new dtj, 
loA op their abode in Ainj^iAaa, which waa thna 
rrckoBcd an AMolian dtj in the dme of Panianias 
(l 38. S 4). This writer deacHbes it aa a flonriita- 
inf fjaee, aud well adwTled with pablio boildinga. 
b Dcnpied the aile of the modem S^ona, wbeie 
tkf nOi of the ancieat acropolis an abnott the 
air nouum ri the andent dtj. (Leake, KortAera 
Onra, Td. fi. p. 588, «q.) 
AHPHBV'SIJS Ca^-W"")- 1- a toi 

1. A bibII liver in TbeaBlj, rising in ML Othi;!, 
nd biwing near Aim into the Paguean gulf. It 
ii eeUnled in inrthologj aa the rirer on the buike 
(f which ApoOo fbd the flocka of king Admetoi. 
(iibah. pp. 433, 435; ApoU. Rhnl. i. 54; Virg. 
Ceory. iiL S; Ov. Met. L 580, rii. 229; LaJce, 
Xarttent Gnect, voL ir. p, 337.) Itoee the ad- 
JFTtite Ampirjiiiii ia Oj<d in rrferenoe to Apollo. 
Thaa Yapl (^ea. n. 398) calla the Sbjl Am- 

pliryia vatet. Statioa (5tl>. i. 4. 105) osea the 
adjectivB Amphrjsiaciia in the suna eenae. 

AUPSAGA ('Afi^dr', Ptol.: Wad el Sebir, or 
ijjmar, and highei up Wadi Aonnul), au oilha 
chief rirera of N. Africa, not large, but important ai 
having been (in iti lower eonme) the boiutdary be- 
tween Manretsnia and Nimiidis, iccarding to the 
laCcf (Stent of them regicoa (aee the articles and 
Ajtbica). It is compcaed of nvnsl stmuna, rising 
' different pcinte in the Leaeer Atlas, aud forming 
ro chief branchea, vhich nnit« in 36'^ 35' N. lat., 
■d abont 6° 10' E. long., and then Sow N. into the 
editemDean, W. of the jromcntn? Tretnm (Am 
ia Am, L e. Smtn Capa). The upper conrsa of 
e Ampaaga la the eutern of these two riven 
(IF. AhpuQ, which flowa past ContlantimA, lh» 
t Cirta; whose the Ampaaga was called 
IS C^rtenais (VicL Vit. lis Pen. KiMdS); the 
Araba itill call it the Jitoer ^ Cofutan/MeA, as wcQl 
Wadi RomntL This bnnch ia formed b; aeveral 
ouns, which converge to a pdnl a llttie above 
Qmttaatineh. Flinj (▼, 3. a. 1 ) places the month 
of the Ampaaga 232 Roman mUes £. of Caeaarea. 
(This ia the true rfftding, not, as in the commcat 
It, cccuii., see Sillig.) Ptolem; (iv. 3. § 20) plac« 
moch too &r E. A town, Tncca, M its mouth, 
mentioned by Plinj aaij; ita mon^ still fbrma a 
small pat, jVoTM ZeitoML (Shaw, pp. 92, 93, 
foUo ed. Oif. 1738, Eipbration SdaOifiqM dt 
tAlgirie, yoL viL p, 357.) [P. S.] 

lebnted valle; and imall anlphareoDS lake in t& 
hart of the Apenoineg, in the countrj cf the Bir- 
pini, ahont 10 miles SE, of Aecolanum. The fine 
description of it given bj Vhgil (Je»,vii. 5G3 — 
572) is familiar to all echolan, and ita pestilential 
vapoors are also noticed bj Claitdian l^Dt Bapl. 
Pra, ii. 349). It haa been strangelj coDfannded 
lie geogiapheia with the lake of Cntiliae naur 

, in hia ni 

tinctlj tells us that it was among the HiTyani, and 
thia stAtement is conSnned both bj Cicero nod Phn;. 
(Cic de Din. i. 35; Plin. a. 93.) The spot is now 
called Le Mefete, a name eiidenll; derived from 
MefJiilia, to whom, aa we kam &om Plinj, a temple 
WHS conaecniled on the site : it has been Tinted b^ 
seven] recent travellers, whose descriptions agree 
perfectly with that of Virgil; but the dark woods 
with which it fras prwionslj snrroanded have laCelj 
been cnt down. So atrong are the solphoreoos 
vapours that it givea forth, that not only men and 
ammsla who have inesntioiislj approached, bnt even 
birds have been soflbcated bj Ihem, when crossing 
the valkj in their flight It is abont 4 miles dis- 
tant from the modem town of Frigento. (Boma- 
nelli, vol ii. p. 351 ; Swinhncno's TVooeJi, roL i. p. 
128; Craven's A imaa", voL JL p. 218; Daabeny, 
on Vofaonou, p. 191.) [E.H.B.] 

Am'CLAE ('A/tit>iA(u: £Ui. 'AfiwAoTot, 'A«i>- 
KAajiiJt, Amjdaeus), an andont town of Laoonja, 
aitnated on the right or eastern bank of the Eoiotaa, 
SO atadia S. of Sparta, in a district remarkable fbr 
the abundance of its trea and its fertihtj. (PoL v. 
IS ; Liv. TigT. 28.) AmjclM waa one of the meat 
celebrated citiea of Felapixiaesiis b the heroic age. 
It ia said to have been tonnded b; the Lacedae. 
moman king AmTclas, the father of Ujacinthos, and 
to have been the abode of Tyndsrus, and of Castor 
and PoUnx, who ate hence called Amsdaei Fratra. 
(Pans. iii. I, 6 3; SUt. T/ttb. vU. 413.) Amjclas 
is mentiooed by Uomer {II. u. flS4X "li it con- 



/r< < i 

tinoed to Tnainfaun its independence as an Achaean 
town long after the conquest of Peloponnesus hj the 
Dorians. According to the common tradition, which 
represented the conquest of Peloponnesus as effected 
in one generation by the descendants of Hercules, 
Amjclae was given by the Dorians to Philonomus, 
as a reward for his having betrayed to them his 
native dty Sparta. Philonomna is farther said to 
have peopled the town with colonists from Imbfxn 
and Lemnos; but there can be no doubt that the 
ancient Achaean population maintained themselves 
in the place independent of Sparta for many genera- 
tions. It was only shortly bdbre the first Messenian 
war that the town was conquered by the Spartan 
kiug Teledns. (Strab. p. 364; Conon, 36; Pans, 
iii. 2. § 6.)'^ The tale ran, that the inhabitants of 
Amyclae hiad been so often alarmed by false reports 
of the approach of the enemy, that they passed a 
law that no one should mention the subject; and 
accordingly, when the Spartans at last came, and no 
. one dared to announce their approach, *' Amyclae 
' perished through silence:" hence arose the proverb 
Amyclis iptii taciturmor. (Serv. ad Virg. Aen. 
> X. 564.) After its capture by the Lacedaemonians 
Amyclae became a village, and was only memorable 
by the festival of the Hyadnthia celebrated at the 
place annually, and by the temple and colossal statue 
of Apollo, who was hence called Amyclaem, The 
throne on which this statue was placed was a cele- 
brated work of art, and was constructed by Bathycles 
of Magnesia. It was crowned by a great number of 
bas-reliefs, of which an account is given by Pau- 
sanias (iii. 18. § 9, seq.; Diet, of Biogr, art. Bor- 

The site of Amyclae is usually placed at SkUi- 
vohhoriy where the name of Amyclae has been found 
on inscriptions in the walls. But this place is situ- 
ated nearly 6 miles firom Sparta, or more than double 
the distance mentioned by Polybius. Moreover, 
there is every probability that Skiavohkori is a 
Sclavouisn town not more ancient than the 14th 
century ; and becoming a place of importance, some 
of its buildings were erected with the ruins of Amy- 
clae. Accordingly Leake supposes Amyclae to have 
been situated between Sklavokhdri and Sparta, on 
the lull of Aghia Kyriakiy half a mile firom the 
£urotas. At this place Leake discovered, on an im- 
perfect inscription, the letters AMT following a 
proper name, and leaving little doubt that the in- 
complete word was AMTKAAIOT. (Leake, Jforea, 
vol. i. p. 135, seq., Pdoponnenaca^ p. 162.) 
a y t. • AMYCLAE, a city on the coast "f C%n\P*"^ ^^^ 
tween Tarracina and Caieta, which liad ceased to 
exist in the time of Pliny, but had left the name of 
Sinus Amydanus to the part of the coast on which 
it was situated. (Plin. H, N. xiv. 8 ; Tac. Ann. iv. 
59.) Its foundation was ascribed to a band of La- 
conians who had emigrated from the city of the same 
name near Sparta; and a strange story is told by 
Pliny and Servius of the inhabitants having been 
compelled to abandon it by the swarms of serpents 
with which they were infested. (Plin. H. N. iiL 5. 
8. 9, viii. 29. s. 43 ; Serv. ad Aen. x. 564.) Other 
writers refer to this dty the legend commonly related 
of the destruction of the Laconian Amydae, in conse- 
quence of the silence of its inhabitants; and the ep- 
thct applied to it by Virgil of tacUao Amydae ap- 
pears to favour this view. (Virg. Aen. x. 564; Sil. 
Itnl. viii. 530.) The exact site is unknown, but it 
must have beeil close to the marshes below Fundi; 
whence Martial terms it " Amyclae Fundaoae" (xiii 


115). In the immediate neighbourhood, bat on a 
rocky promontofy projecting into the sea, was a irilk 
of Tiberius, called Speluhcab, from the natonl 
eavems in the rock, in one of which the empenr 
nearly lost his life by the falling in of the roof, while 
he was supping there with a party of fineods. (Tac 
^fm.iv. 59; Suet Tib. 39; Plin. iiL 5. s. 9.) The 
andent name of the locality is retained, with litUe 
variation, by the modem village of SperUmga^ about 
8 miles W. of Gaeto, where the grottoes in the rock 
are still visible, with some remains of thdr aodcDt 
architectural decorations. (Craven's Abmed^ tqL i. 
p. 73.) ;|t [E ttB.] 

A'MYDON f AmuMi'), a town in Macedonia on 
the Axius, from which Pyraechmes led the Paeonuun 
to the assistance of Troy. The place is called Aby- 
don by Suidas and Stejiianua B. (Horn. /^ iL 849; 
comp. Strab. p. 330; Jut. iii 69.) 

AMYMCNE. [Lerna.] 

A'MTRUS ("A/ttipos: eA. 'Aftvpc^), a town in 
Thessaly, situated on a river of the same name 
fiilling into the lake Boebsis. It is mentioned b; 
Hesiol as the '* vine-bearing Amyrus." The sor- 
rounding country is called the Amyric phun (t^ 
^Aftvpuciif TtZiw) by Polybius. Leake supposes the 
ruins at Kattii to represent Amyms. (Hes. ap 
Strab. p. 442, and Steph. B. a. v.; SchoL ad ApoH 
Rhod. i. 596; VaL Fkcc. iL 11 ; PoL v. 99; Leake, 
Northern Greece^ vol. iv. p. 447.) 

AMYSTIS CAfiv<rTis)y an Indian river, a tribn- 
tary of the Ganges, flowing past a city caDed Gata- 
dupoe (Arrian. IwL 4), wUch Mscnnert sappoees, 
from its name, to have stood at the fells of the 
Upper Ganges, on the site of the modem JTimftrar, 
which would make the Amystis the Potterea (Man- 
nert, vol. v. pt 1. p. 70), [P. S.] 

AMY'ZON (;AfivC<6p), m inconsiderable town of 
Caria. (Strab. p. 658.) The ruins of the citadel 
and walls exist on the east side of Mount Latmns, 
on the road from Bafi to Tchisme. The place is 
identified by an inscription. (LeaKe, Ada Minora 
p. 238.) [G. L] 

ANABURA, a dty of Phiygia (Liv. xxxviii 15) 
which lay on the route of the oansul Cn. Manlins 
from Synnada to the sources of the Alander [Alas- 
deb] ; probably Kirk Sinn (Hamilton). [G. L] 

ANACAEA. [Attica.] 
. ANACT0'RIUM('Avojct3p«m' : EtK. •Awurr^ioj), 
a town in Acamania, situated on the Ambradot golf, 
and on the promontory, which now bears the name 
of C. Madonna, On.entering the Ambradot golf 
frxnn the Ionian sea it was the first town in Acar- 
nania after Actium, from which it was. distant 
40 stadia, and which was in the territory of Anac- 
torium. This town was for some time one of the 
most important places in this part of Greece. It was 
colonized jointly by the Corinthians and C(n«yraeans; 
but in the war between these peoples, in b. c. 432, 
the Corinthians obtained sole possession of the place 
by fraud. It remained in the hands of the Corin- 
thians till B. c. 425, when it was taken by the 
Acamanians with the assistance of the Athenians, 
and the Corinthian settlers were expeUed. Augustus 
removed its inhabitants to the town of Nioopolis, 
which he founded on the opposite coast of Epims, 
and Strabo describes it as an emporium of the latter 
city. The site of Amctorium has been disputed, 
and depends upon the position assigned to Actiam. 
It has however been ^own that Actium must be 
placed at the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf on Xa 
/'onto, and Anactorium on C, Madonna. [Acnuii.] 


At the Kcrtcn extremitj of the latter promantoiy 
are the nnns of a Greek town, about two miles in 
drcumfcnnoe, which Leake supposes to hare been 
Asactdrimn. They are situated near a small church 
id SL FMcr, which is the name now given to the 
phee. Other writen place Anactorinm at Vbntteo, 
oa tbe E. extreniitj of the promciitary, but with less 
pobaUhj. (Thnc i. 55, iii. 114, iv. 49, vii. 31; 
:^trah. x. pp. 450—452 ; Dionjs. L 51 ; Pans. v. 23. 
§ 3; Plin. iv. 1 ; Leake, Northern Greece^ vol. iii. 




AKAEA. [Ansaea.] 

ANA'GNLA (JAiwryia: ^(ft. Anagmnns), an an- 

otT of Latium in the more extended sense of 

&it term, bat which ki earlier times was the capital or 

chief city of the Henucans. It is still called ^no^m, 

■id a atuatcd en a hill to the left of the Via Latina, 

41 nifes from Bome, and 9 from Ferentinum. Vii^gil 

cifls it *' the wealthy Anagnia" (Am. viL 684), and 

it appears to have in early ages enjoyed tho same 

kind ef pre-eniinenoe over the other cities of the 

Heraicans, which Alba did over those of the Latins. 

Eeoee aa early as the reign of Tullus Hostilius, we 

fiad Laevus Cispius of Anagnia leading a force of 

Hcxaicsii auxiliaries to the assistance of the Boroan 

ki^fr. (Vano ap. ¥esL s. v. SepHmoiUio, p. 351 ; 

Ni^uhr, voL u. y. 86.) At a later period we find 

C. MsrciQs Tremulus recorded as triumphing " de 

^"'g'Tiip*' Hermdsqae.** (Fast Capit) No separate 

aencian of Anagnia occurs on occasion of the league 

ef the Hemicans with Bome in b. c. 486; but it is 

certain that it was included in that treaty, and when 

after nesriy two centuzies of firieodship the Hemicans 

at length becaooe disafiected towards their Boman 

aSies, it was the Anagnians who summoned a general 

eooril of the nation to meet in the circus beneath 

tfaor city. At this ongress war was declared against 

Bane: bat they had miscalculated their strength, 

and wen easily subdued by the arms of the consul 

C MaioQs Tremulus b. c. 306. For the prominent 

part they had taken on this occasion they were 

pcsiibni 1^ receiving the Boman civit€U without the 

ngkt of suAage, and were reduced to the condition 

of a Ptacfectura. (Liv. ix. 42, 43; Died. xx. 80; 

Pvtas. a. cHumidpiumj'^ 127, anda.v.jPraefectur<i, 

p. 233.) Tbe period at which the city obtamed the 

fall mnnicipal privileges, which it certainly appears 

to have enjoyed in the time of Cicero, is uncertain ; 

hit from the repeated allnsions of the great orator 

(arfao had himself a villa in the neighbourhood) it is 

clear that it still continued to be a populous and 

flooriihing town. Strabo also calls it ** a considerable 

aty." (Cic. pro Dom. 30, PhUipp, il 41, oc^ 

.411 so. 1; Strab. v. p. 238.) Its position on the 

Via Latina however exposed it to hostile attacks, 

aad its territory was traversed and ravaged both by 

Pvrrhus (who according to one account even made 

kmaeif master of the dty) and by Hannibal, during 

his ffoddeo advance from Capua upon Rome in b. c. 

211. (Appian. Samn. 10. 3; Liv. xxvi. 9.) Under 

tbe Bomaa empire it continaed to be a municipal 

town of some consideration ; but though we are told 
that it received a Roman colony by the command of 
Drusus Caesar its colonial rank is not recognised 
either by Pliny or by extant inscriptions. (Lib. 
Colon, p. 230; Zumpt de Colon, p. 361; Plin. iii. 
5. s. 9 ; Orell. Iwcr. 120; Gruter. p. 464. 2, 3.) Its 
territory was remarkably fertile (Sil. Ital. viii. 393), 
and the dty itself abounded in andent temples and 
sanctuaries, which, as well as the sacred rites con- 
nected with them, were preserved unaltered in the 
time of M. Anrelius, and are described by that em- 
peror in a letter to Fronto. (Front £pp, iv. 4.) 
It was the birthplace of Valens, tbe general of 
VitdUus. (Tac. SisL Ui. 62.) 

Anagrd continued throughout the middle ages to 
be a dty of importance, and is still an episcopal see, 
with a population of above 6000 inhabitants. 

It is remarkable that notwithstanding the pro- 
minent positioa held by Anagnia in early times it 
presents no trace of those massive ancient walls, for 
which all the other important dties of the Hemicans 
are so conapicuous : the only remains extant there 
are of Roman date, and of but little interest. (Dionigi, 
Viaggio nelLaziOj pp. 22,23; Hoare's Classical 
TouTf vol. i. p. 320, &c.) It is clear from tbe 
statements boUi of Cicero and M. Anrelius that the 
andent dty occupied the same site as the modem 
one, about a mile from the Via Latina on a hill of 
considerable devation: the station on that road called 
the CoMpiTUM Anagnimum, which is placed by the 
Itineraries at 8 miles firom Ferentinum, must have 
been near the site of the modem Osteria, where the 
road still turns off to Anagni, We learn from Livy 
that there was a grove of Diana there. No traces 
remain of the circus beneath the city, mentioned by 
the same author, which was known by the suigular 
epithet of " Maritimus." (Liv. ix. 42, xxvii. 4; Itin. 
Ant pp. 302, 305, 306; Tab. Pent) [E. H. B.] 
ANAGYRU'S (^hvarYvpovs.-ovvroii Elh, 'Avo- 
TvyKicnof), a demns of Attica, belonging to the tribe 
Erechtheis, situated S. of Aliiaa near the promon- 
tory Zoster. Pausanios mentions at this place a 
temple of the mother of the gods. The ruins of 
Anagyrus have been found near Vari. (Strab. 
p. 398; ]g^nB f .^1 J 1; Harpocrat. Suid., fiteph. 
B.; Leake, Demi ofAt^a^ p. 56.) • T?a* t ^ / ^ v - 
ANAPTIC A or A N (Vmff.rtp mmiu jf^*- ^ S . : 
ANAMARI. [AuAUES.] '■' ' *^> ^ J?,- v »V 

ANAMIS (^Ayo/«j), a river of Carmania, which )" ,' 
is called Andanis by Pliny (vi. 25). It was one wv*»', 
of the rivers at the mouth of which the fleet of //•//' V 
Nearchns anchored on the voyage from the Indus to 
the head of the Persian Gulf. The place where the 
fleet stopped at the mouth of the river was called 
Harmozeia. (Arrian,./mfic. c. 33.) The outlet of 
the Anamis was on the east side of the Persian Gulf, 
near 27° N. lat., and near the small island after- 
wards called Ormuz or Hormuz. The Anamis is 
the Ibrahim JRud or River. [G. L.] 

ANANES ("Arovcs), a tribe of Cisalpine Gauls, 
who, — according to Polybius (ii. 17), the only author 
who mentions them, — dwelt between the Padus and 
the Apennines, to the west of the Boians, and must 
consequently have been the westernmost of the Cis- 
padane GatUs, immediately adjoining the Ligurians. 
It has been conjectured, with much plausibility, tbat 
the Anamari of the same author (ii. 32), a name 
equally unknown, but whom he places opposite to 
the Insubres, must have been the same people. 
(Schweigh. ad I. c. ; Cluver./to/. p. 265.) If so, they 
occupied the territory on which the colony of Plu- 




centia was shortly after founded; and probably ex- 
tended from the Trebia to the Tarus. [E.H.B.] 

ANAO POBTUS. [Nicaea.] 

A'NAPHE ('Avdi^ir: i:t!k*Aycupeuos: Anaphe, 
Namfi or Namfio)^ one of the Sporades, a small 
island in the south of the Grecian Arclupelago, £. 
of Thera. It is said to have been originally called 
Membliams from the son of Cadmus of this name, 
who came to the island in search of Enropa. It was 
celebrated for the temple of Apollo A^letes, the 
foundation of which was ascribed to the Argonauts, 
because Apollo had showed them the island as a 
place of refuge when they were overtak^i by a 
storm. (Orphens, Argon. 1363, seq.; Apollod. i. 9. 
§ 26 ; ApoU. Rhod. iy. 1 706, seq. ; Conon, 49 ; Strab. 
p. 484; Steph. B. 8. r.; Plin. iL 87, ir. 12; Or, Met, 
Til 461.) There are still considerable remains of 
this temple on the eastern side of the island, and also 
of the ancient city, which was situated nearly in the 
centre of Anaphe on the summit of a hill. Several 
important inscriptions have been discovered in this 
place, of which an account is given by Ross, in the 
work cited below. The island is mountainous, of 
little fertility, and still worse cultivated. It contains 
a vast number of partridges, with which it abounded 
in antiquity also. Athenaeus relates (p. 400) that 
a native of Ast3rpa]aea let loose a brace of these birds 
np(»i Anaphe, where they multiplied so rapidly that 
the inhabitants were almost obliged to abandon the 
island in conseqnence. (Toumefort, Voyctge^ &c., 
voL i. p. 212f seq.; Ross, Ueber Anaphe und Anor- 
ph&isc^ Inschriftenf in the Transactions of the 
Munich Academy for 1838, p. 401, seq. ; Ro68,i2ewen 
auf den Griechiscfien Inseln, vol. i. p. 401, seq.; 
Bockh, Corp. Inscr. No. 2477, seq.) 

ANAPHLYSTUS (^Avd^Xwros-. Eth. 'Kva- 
^\0(moi'. Andvyso'), a demus of Attica, belonging 
to the tribe Antiochis, on the W. coast of Attica, 
opposite the island of Eleussa, and a little N. of the 
promontory of Sunium. It was a place of some im- 
portance. Xenophon recommended the erection of a 
fortress here for the protection of the mines of 
Sunium. (Herod, iv. 99; Scylax, p. 21; Xen. de 
Vectig. 4. § 43 ; Strab. p. 398 ; Leake, Demi, p. 59.) 

ANA'PUS ("Avairos). 1, {Anapo), one of the 
most celebrated and considerable rivers of Sicily, 
whicli risesabout a mile from the modem town oiJBus- 
cemif not far from the site of Acrae; and flows into 
the great harbour of Syracuse. About three quarters 
of a mile from its mouth, and just at the foot of the 
hill on which stood the Olympieium, it receives the 
waters of the Cyane. Its banks for a considerable 
distance from its mouth are bordered by marshes, 
which rendered them at all times unhealthy; and 
the fevers and pestilence thus generated were among 
the chief causes of disaster to the Athenians, and 
still more to the Gartliaginians, during the several 
sieges of Syracuse. But above these marshes the 
valley through which it flows is one of great beauty, 
and the waters of the Anapus itself are extremely 
limpid and clear, and of great depth. Like many 
rivers in a limestone country it rises all at once with 
a considerable volume of water, which is, however, 
nearly doubled by the accession of the Cyane. The 
tutelary divinity of the stream was worsliipped by 
the Syracusans under the form of a young man 
(Ael. F. ^. ii. 33), who was regarded as the hus- 
band of the nymph Cyane. (Ovid. Met. v. 416.) 
The river is now commonly known as the AlJcOy 
evidently from a misconception of the story of Al- 
pheus and Arethusa; but is also called and marked 


on all maps as the Anapo. (Thnc. vL 96, vil 7g; 
Theocr. i. 68; Plut Dion. 27, Tmol. 21; lir. 
xxiv. 36; Ovid. Ex Pont ii. 26; Vib. Seq.p.4; 
Oberlin, ad he.; FazelL iv. 1, p. 196.) 

It is probable that the Paujs Ltsdieleu (i^ 
Xifjufi ^ Av(rifi«A€ia KctXovfuvri) roentinied by Tha- 
cydides (vii. 53), was a part of the marsha formed 
by the Anapus near its mouth. A marshy or stag- 
nant pool oif some extent still exists between the 
site of the Neapolis of Syracuse and the month of 
the river, to which the name may with some pro- 
bability be assigned. 

2. A river falling into the Acheloos, 80 stadia S. 
of Stratus. [Achelous.] [E.H.B.] 

ANA'REI MONTES (rd 'Ayopca fyn), a range 
of mountains in " Scjthia intra Imaum," is one of 
the western branches of tjie Altai, not far fnmi the 
sources of the Ob or Irtish, Ptolemy places in 
their neighbourhood a people called Anuei. (Ptd 
vi. 14. §§ 8, 12, 13.) 

ANARFACAE {"Avapidtcai, Strab.; Anariad, 
Plin. ; in Ptol. vL 2. § 5, erraneonsly *A/ta^ai), 
a people on the southern side of the Ca^ian Sea, 
neighbours of the Mardi or Amardi. Their dtj 
was called Anariaca (*Ai«api<iini), and possessed an 
oracle, which communicated the divme will to per- 
sons who slept in the temple. (Strab. xi. pp. 508, 
514 ; Plin. vi. 16. s. 18 ; Solin. 51 ; Staph. B.«.v.) 

ANARTES (Caes. B. G. vi. 25), ANAKTI 
(^Apofnot, Ptol. iii. 8. § 5), a people of Dacia, on 
the N. side of the Tibiscus {Theiet). Caesar de- 
fines the extent of the Hercynia Silva to the E. as 
ad files Dacorwn et AnarHunu [P. S.] 

ANAS (6 'Amis: Gwidiaina, i. e. WaShAna, 
river Anas, Arab.), an important river of Hispania, 
described by Strabo (iii. pp. 139, foil.) as rising in 
tlie eastern part of die peninsula, like the Tsgns 
and the Baetis {GitadaJqttivir), between i»hich it 
flows, all three having the same general direction, 
from £. to W., inclining to the S.; the Anas is the 
smallest of the three (comp. p. 162). It divided 
the country inhabited by the Celts and Lnatanians, 
who had been removed by the Ronuuis to the S. 
side of the Tagus, and higher up by tlie Carpetani, 
Oretani, and Vettones, from the rich lands of 
Baetica or Turdetania. It fell into the AtUntie 
by two mouths, both navigable, between Gades 
{Cadiz), and the S«a«d Promontory (C. St. FiV 
cent). It was only navigable a short way up, and 
that for small vessels (p. 142). Strabo fiirther 
quotes Polybins as placing the sources of the Anas 
and the Baetis in Celtiberia (p. 148). Pliny (iii. I. 
s. 2) gives a more exact description of the ori^n 
and peculiar character of the Anas. It ri^ in the 
territory of Laminium ; and, at one time diffused 
into marshes, at another retbring into a narrow 
channel, or entirely hid in a subterraneous course, 
and exulting in being bom again and again, it fails 
into Ihe Atlantic Ocean, after formii^, in its lower 
course, the boundary between Lusitania and Baetica. 
(Comp. iv. 21. S.35; Mela, ii. 1. § 3, iii. 1. § 3). 
The Antonine Itinerary (p. 446) places the source 
of the Anas (caput fiuminis Anae) 7 Bf. P. from 
Laminium, on the road to Caesaraugusta. The 
source is close to the village of Osa la Montid, in 
La Manchc^ at the foot of one of the northern spurs 
of the Sierra Morena, in about 39° N. lat, and 
29 45' W. long. The river originat€s in a marsh, 
from a series ^ small lakes called Lagunas de Bwf' 
dera. After a course of about 7 miles, it disap- 
pears and runs underground for 12 miles, burstii^ 


faith aisum, mn Da^aMy in the small lakes called 
Lm 0^ ^ Gmtditma {jUte €ffe$ of the ChuuUama). 
After reooTiBg the oonaidenble river Gigwda firom 
the 3L, k twos irestwaid through La Mancha aad 
Ettremadmra, as frr as Badt^oe, where it turns to 
the Sl, anl &II9 at kst into the Atlantic bj ^^o- 
Moali^ the echflr month mentioned by Strabo, and 
appear? to ha?e been at Lepe, being long 
irksed. The valley of the Ouadicma forms 
the S. part of the great centnl table-land of 
^ain, and is bounded on the N. by the ifoH»- 
Inw of ToiedOy aad the rest of that chain, 
aad on tiie & by the Sierra Morma. Its whole 
eowse B above 450 miles, of which not mnch above 
SO are navigable^ aad that only by small fiat- 
hmtiwwi barges. Its scarcity of water is easily ac- 
eoBoted for hj tiie little rain that fidls on the table» 
had. Its nnmerous tributaries (flowing chiefly 
fpma the Sitrra Mor eno ) are inconsiderable streams; 
the only one of them mentioDed by ancient anthors 
B the Adrns {Albara<fe$M)f which fiJls into it 
iadajdz. Some derive the name Anas 
the Semitio verb (HanoA, Panic; HamuOj 
Ank) sigsifyi]^ to appear and dimppear, refer- 
ral^ ts its snbternuieoas coarse; wluch may or 
may not be right. (Ford, Sattdbook of Spamy 
jl83.) [f-S.] 

ANATHOCAmiA^: ^noA), as the name appears 
IB iBdoros of Charax. It is Anathan in Anunianos 
Mneei&ras (xxiv. 1), and Bethanna (BcAivva, per- 
haps Beth Ann) in Ptolemy (v. 18. §6). I^Anville 
(L'Hap&rofe, p. 62) observes that the place which 
(ui. 14) calls Phathnsae, in his account of 
ts Persian campaign (a.d. 363), and fixes 
the positioB of Anah^ is nowhere else men- 
It seems, however, to be the same place as 
r near it. 
Amok is on the Euphrates, north of Hit, in a part 
there are eight snoceasive iilands (about 
54|° NX.). Anah itself occupies a " firiqge of soil on 
the r^t bank of the river, between a low ridge of 
rork nd the swift^flowing waters.'* (^London Gtog. 
«/Mnk vol. viL pi 427.) This place was an important 
poKtioB for conmMroe in ancient times, and probabfy 
on the fine of a caravan route. MHien Julian was 
enesmped bcfece Anatho, one of the hurricanes that 
■"■»«*'«prt occur in these parts threw down his tents. 
The gntwm took and bornt Anatha 

Ta««imer {Traoeh m Turkey and PertiOy m. 6) 

^ ■iJ h ^ the country around Anah as well culti- 

laaed; and the place as being on both sides of the 

riv«r, which has an island m the middle. It is a 

and fertile spot, in the midst of a desert 

, whose travels were published in 1582, 

1583, speaks of the olive, dtron, orange, and other 

firviia growing there. The isLind of ^miA is covered 

with rains, which also extend for two miles further 

along the kft bank of the river. The place is about 

319 ndks bdotw Bir, and 440 above Hillah, tbie site 

of Babykn, feUowing the coarse of the river. {London 

Gm^ Jbora. voL iii. pi 232.) Taremier makes it 

ft«r days* joomey from Bagdad to Anak. [Q. L.J 


A3^UA CAmbmi), a salt hdbe m the southern 
part of Pbiygia, which Xerxes passed on his march 
kenae to Coloesaei (Herod, vii. 30.) There 
a town also called Annua on or near the lake. 
the take of Ckardak, atlTaafji Tow Ghkieul, 
8i it is sometimes called. This lake is neariy dry 
ia saomer, at which season there is an incrustation 
tf aak on the mod. The salt is collected now, as it 



was in fbnner days, and supplies the neigbbonrfaood 
and remoter parts. 

Arrian {Anab, L 29) describes, under the name of 
Ascania, a salt lake which Alexander passed on his 
march fhnn Pisidia to Celaenae; and the description 
corresponds to that of Lake Chardak so far as its 
saline properties. Leake {Aeia Minora p. 146) 
takes the Ascania of Arrian to be the lake Burdur 
or BukbiTy which is some distance S£. of Chardak, 
There is nothing in Arrian to determine this ques- 
tion. Leake (p. 150) finds a discrepancy between 
Arrian and Stnbo as to the distance between Saga- 
lassus and Celaenae (Apameia). Strabo (p. 569) 
makes it one day's journey, " whereas Arrian relates 
that Alexander was five days in marching fifxnn Sa- 
gakssus to Celaenae, passing by the lake Ascama.** 
But this is a mistake, Arnan does not say that 
be was five days in marching firam Sagalassus 
to CebMnae. However, he does make Alexander 
pass by a hike from which the inhabitants collect 
salt, and Btddur has been supposed to be the lake, 
because it lies on the direct road from Sagalassus 
to Cehienae. But this difficulty is removed by ob- 
serring that Arrian does not say that Alexander 
marched from Sagalassus to Celaenae, but from 
the country of the Piddians; and so he may have 
passed by Anaua. Hamiltonobflerves {Researches, &c 
voL L p. 496), that Buidur is only sUghtly brackish, 
whereas Chardak exactly correspiHids to Arrian's 
description (p. 504). P. Lucas ( Voyage, &c. i. book 
iv. 2) describes Lake Bondur, as he calls it, as 
having water too bitter for fu^ to live in, and as 
abounding ia wild-fbwL 

In justification of the opinions here expressed, it 
may be remarked, that the " five days" of Alex- 
ander fipom Sagfdassus to Celaenae hare been repeated 
and adopted by several writers, and thus the ques- 
tion has not been truly stated. [G. L.3 

ANAURUS {*Kvaupos\ a small river in Magne- 
sia, in Thesssly, flowing past loloos into the Paga- 
saean gulf, in which Jason is said to have lost one 
of his sandals. (ApolL Rhod. i. 8 ; Simonid. ap, 
Athen. iv. p. 172, e ; Apollod. i. 9. § 16 ; Strab. ix. 
p. 436 ; Lucan, vi. 370 ; Leake, Northern Greece, 
vol. iv. p. 381.) 

ANAZARBUS or -A (;Ayd(ap€o$, 'Atf^Coftfa : 
Eth. *Aya(apS*(fSy Anazarbemu)^ a dty of Cilicia, 
so called, according to Stephanus, either from an 
adjacent mountain of the same name, or from the 
founder, Anazarbus. It was situated on the Py- 
ramus, and 1 1 miles from Mopsnestia, according to 
the Peutinger Table. Suidas ($. v. KvivJia) says 3iat 
the original name of the place was Cyinda or Quinda ; 
that it was next called Diocaesarea; and (s.v. ^Aud- 
(ap€os) that having been destroyed by an earth- 
quake, the emperor Nerva sent thither one Ai azarbns, 
a man of soiatorial rank, who rebuilt the city, and 
gave to it his own name. All this cannot be true, 
as Yalesins (Amm. Marc. xiv. 8) remarks, for it 
was called Anazarbus in Pliny's time (v. 27). Dios- 
corides is called a native of Anazarbus ; but the 
period of Dioecorides is not certain. 

Its later name was Caesarea ad Anazarbum, and 
there are many medals of the place in which it is 
both named Anazarbus and Caesarea at or under 
Anazarbus. On the division of Cilida it became 
the chief place of Cilicia Secunda, with the title of 
Metropolis. It suflered dreadfully from an earth- 
quake both in the tune of Justinian, and, still more, 
in the reign of his successor Justin. 

The site of Anazarbus, which is said to be named 

K 2 



Anawaty or Anuuutf, is described (^London G^. 
Joum. voL vii. p. 42 1 ), bat without anj exact descrip- 
tion of its position, as contoimng ruins " backed by an 
isolated mountain, bearing a castle of various archi- 
tecture." It seems not unlikely that this mountain 
may be Cyinda, which, in the time of Alexander and 
his successors, was a deposit for treasure. (Strab. 
p. 672 ; Diod. xviii. 62, xix. 56 ; Plut. Eumen, c. 13.) 
Strabo, indeed, places Cyinda above Anchiale; but 
as he does not mention Anazarbus, this ia no great 
difficulty; and besides this, his geography of Gilida 
is not very exact. If Pococke's account of the Py- 
ramus at Anauxuy being celled Qninda is true, this 
is some confirmation of the hill oif Anazarbus being 
Quinda. It seems probable enough that Quinda is 

J j^ an old name, which might be applied to the hill fort, 
even after Aiiazarbus became a dty of some import- 

/3L // ance. An old t raveller (WiUebrand y. Oldenburg), 
quoted by i? orBiger, found, at a place called Naversa 
(manifestly a corruption of Anazaibus) or Anawcutfj 
considerable remains of an old town, at the distance 
of 8 German miles from Sis. [G. L.] 

ANCALITES, a people in Britain, inhabiting 
the hundred of JTen/y, a locality which, probably, 
preserves their name. Caesar alone mentions them. 
Gale and Horsely reasonably suppose that they were 
a section of the Attrebates of Ptolemy. They were 
the most western Britons with which Caesar came 
in contact. (Caes. B. G, v. 21.) [R. G. L.] 

ANCHI'ALE CAyxid\7i, •A7x«^«*o, *Ayxid^.os : 
Eth, *Ayxuii\t{fs)f a town of Cilicia, which Ste- 
I^anns («. v. *AyxtdKri) places on the coast, and 
on a river Anchialeus. One story which he repents, 
makes its origin purely mythical. The other story 
that he records, assigns its origin to Sardanapalus, 
who is said to have built Anchiale and Tarsus in 
one day. Strabo also places Anchiale near the 
coast. [Anazarbus.] Aristobulus, qnoted by 
Strabo (p. 672), says that the tomb of Sardanapalus 
was at Anchiale, and on it a relief in stone (rvvoy 
\idiyoy) in the attitude of a man snapping the 
fingers of his right hand. He adds, " some say that 
there is an inscription in Assyrian characters, which 
recorxled that Sardanapalus built AnchiiUe and 
Tarsus in one day, and exhorted the reader to eat, 
drink, and so forth, as everything else is not worth 
That — , the meaning of which the attitude of the 
figure showed." In the text of Strabo, there follow 
six hexameter Greek verses, which are evidentiy an 
interpolation in the text. After these six veraes, 
the text of Strabo proceeds : ^ Choerilus, also, men- 
tions these matters; and the following verses also 
are generally circulated." The two hexameters 
which then follow, are a paraphrase of the exhorta- 
tion, of wliich Strabo has already given the sub- 
stance in prose. Athenaeus (xii. p. 529) quotes 
Aristobulus as authority for the monument at An- 
chiale; and Amyntas as authority for the eiust- 
ence of a mound at Kinus (^Nineveh)y which was 
the tomb of Sardanapalus, and contained, on a stone 
slab, in Chaldaic characters, an inscription to the 
same efiect as that which Strabo mentions; and 
Athenaeus says that Choerilus paraphrased it in 
verse. In uiother passage, Athenaeus (p. 336) 
quotes the six hexameters, which are interpolated 
in Strabo's text, but he adds a seventh. He there 
cites Chrysippus as authority for the insoription 
being on the tomb of Sardanapalus; but he does 
not, in that passage, say who is the Greek para- 
phrast, or where the inscription was. Athenaeus, 
however (p. 529), just like a mere collector who 


uses no judgment, gives a third story about « 
monument of Sardanapalus, without saying where 
it was; the inscription recorded that he bnilt Tir- 
sus and Anchiale in one day, ** but now is dead;" 
which suggests very difierent reflections from the 
other version. Arrian (Anab. ii. 5), probably fol- 
lowing Ptolemy, says, that Alexander marched in 
one day from Anchiale to Tarsus. lie describes 
the figure on the monument as baring the hands 
jcuned, as clapping the hands; he adds, that the 
former magnitude of the dty was shown by the 
circuit and the foundations of the walk. This 
description does not apply to the time of Arrian, 
but to the age of Alexander, for Arrian is merely 
copying the historians of Alexander. It senns 
luudly doubtful that the Assyrians once extended 
their power as far, at least, as Anchiale, and that 
there was a monument with Assyrian characters 
there in the time of Alexander; and there mi|;ht 
be one also to the same effect at Nineveh. (See 
Cic TuscDup. V. 35; Pdyb. viii. 12; and as to 
the passage of Strabo, Groskurd's Translation and 
Notes, vol. ill. p. 8I0a Leake (^Atia Jlfmor,p. 214) /y; 
observes, that a little west of Tarsus, and between 
the villages Kazalu and Karoduoar^ is a river thai 
answers to the Anchialeus; and he obsenres that 
'*a large mound, not far from the Anchialeus, inth 
some other similar tumuli near the shore to the 
westward, are the remains, perhape, of the Assyrian 
founders of Anchiale, whidi probably derived its 
temporary importance from being the chief ma- 
ritime station of the Assyrian monardis in these 
seas." [G. L] 

ANCHFALE (^Ayx^ni Ahiali), a small town 
on the western coast of tiie Euxine, to the north of 
Apollonia, to which its inhabitants were subject. 
(Strab. vii. p. 319.) The Latin writers, who men- 
tion the place, call it Anchialus or Anchialmn. 
(Ov. Tritt. L 9. 36; Pomp. MeL ii. 2; Plin.^.^. 
iv. 18; comp. Ptol. iiL 11. § 4.) [L. S.] 

ANCHIASMUS. [OwcmaMus.] 

ANCHI'SIA^ [Mastineia.] 

A'NCHOE ('A7x<^), a place on the borders of 
Boeotia and of Locris, near Upper Larymna, at 
which the waters of the Cephissus broke forth from 
their subterraneous channel. There was also a lake 
of the same name at this place. (Strab. ix. pp. 406, 
407 ; Plin. iv. 7. a. 12 ; Leake, Northern Greece^ 
vol. ii. p. 289.) [Lastmn A.] 

ANCON ('A7irc&f'), a headland and bay, as tba 
name implies, on the coast of Pontus, east of Amisns. 
It is mentioned by Valerius Flaccus (iv. 600) in 
his ArgonauUca, after the Iris, as if it were east 
of the mouth of that river. Apollonius Bhodins 
simply speaks of it as a headland (ii. 369). The 
ancient authorities do not agree in the (tistances 
along this coast (Steph. $. v. XaJSurla; HainiltoD, 
Researches, vol. i. p. 288). The conclusion of 
Hamilton seems to be the. most probable, that Der- 
bend BoumoUy east of Amisus, represents Ancon, 
as it is the first headland east of Amisus, " and the 
only place before reaching the mouth of the Iny 
where a harbour can exist." He adds, that " at tha 
extremity of Derbend BoumoUf a small stream falls 
into the sea between two precipitous headlands, 
probably the Chadisius of the ancients." [G. L.] 

ANCO'NA, or ANCON ('AyieiAi' : Eth, 'AyKiiras, 
and *AyKonfiTriSf Steph. B., Anconitanus: the fom 
Ancon in Latin is diiefly poetical; but, accordiqg 
to Orelli, Cicero uses Anconem for the ace. case)t 
an important city of Picenum on the Adriatic sea, 

y, . . « ' ► 

r ' 

tliU oIM Jaeoma. It Haa utDKlcd OD s promon- 

B- elbow, 
ti port, fnni whidi 
1 dcrirad ils Greek niune qf "ATmir, 
ttteOm (StnbLT. p.241; UeU, ii. 4; Procbp. 
£ C. iL 13. p. 197.) Plinj, indted, »ppe»rs to re- 
f^nl it lA **»"mm1 from itft positum At the angte or 
efiov fjnzied bj the coast line At thiA point (in ijvo 
fiKlmtit M crae cabila, iii. IS. b. IS), but Uiis ia 
inlabiy QroDeoiu. The prcCDHitoij on which the 
diT hielf b ntoated, ia ctmiMCted with > nure lDft7 
Dnntun mus inmiiig n bold hodlud, theCcHB- 
ira gf Plinj, still kucwa d M(mU Comero. An> 
om wu thE (nly Gnek cukuij on this part of the 
cut of Italj, luTiDg Ikcd founded aboot 330 B. c. 
Vj Sjnciuan eiila, who fled tillher lo aToid the 
^^BnoftheeldefDimTdna. (Stnib. It) Hence 
it it oDed Dorica Anam b; Javenal (ir. 40), and 
i b7 Scflu (§ IT, p. 6), who nolico 
dties. Wa hxn no accotmt of its ex- 
D earUer paiod, for though FJiny refera 
an to the Sicnli (_Lc.; see also Solin. 2. 
I 10). thk is probablr a men miicancepiian of the 
Bet that it was a cniony frim Sidl;. We lesm 
■Dthing ot ita earlj hiaterj : bnt it appears to bare 
i^idlj nam into a plan of inportana, owing to 
tlic ^[crikncs of ita port (the onlj natural harbonr 
alag ling liu of ooaat) and the great fertilitj of the 
ad^uing coontiy. (Stnb. L c; Phn. lir. 6.) It 
was noted abo for ila purple dje, which, according 
ta SfGoa Italicna (liii. 43S), waa not inferior to 
thnte irf Phoenida or Afriok The period at which 
ii Ircaae ssbject to the Ronuna ia tmoertuii, bat it 
{nljahlT IbUowed the fate of the reet of Ficenum; 
ia a. c- 1 78 we find them making nse of it aa a 
aaral atatkm against the llljriana and Istrions. 
(Ut. iH. 1.) On the outbreak of the Civil War it 
waa Dfni|Hd bj Caesar as a place of important^, 
■BmediBfalj after he had passed the Rubicon; and 
we find it in later timca serving as the principal 

Saknalia. (Caea. B. C. I II; Cic. ad Alt. vii. 
II. ^/'■at.ivL Ii; Tac .Jna. iii. 9.) Aa earlj 
as the tinw of C. Gncchaa a part of its tarritorj 
sff^tfi to have been assigned to Boman colonists; 
mi snbseqnentlr Antony established then two 
lipo^ of nlerans which badserredoDder J.Caeeai. 
h pnbablf fint acquired at this time the rank of a 
Boinan taloBj, wbicb we f nd it enji^ing in the time 
J PfiHT, and wluch is commemorated in sereral oi- 
tsat ioKTiptuos. (App. B. C. t. 23; Lib. Colon. 
ff. tas, 237, 353: Grater, pp. 451. 3, 465. 6; 
iCompI, de Cotom. p. 333.) It tecdred great bene- 
ita frvn Trajan, who improred its port by tbo con- 
citDetJiB of a new mole, wbidi still remaina in good 
fccKT^iticn. On it waa erected, in hoooar of the 
mpem'. a triomphal arch, bnilt entirely of white 
Burble, which, bi*h inxa its perfect jreservation and 
the Hg>itTfc^« and el^ance of ita architecture, is ge- 
laaDy r^arded aa one of the must beautitnl monu- 
aata ctf ita dasa remaining in Itdy. Some remains 

■ alteat the flonrishing craidition 
the Boman Empire. The temple 
tf Voma, nlebiated both by Jarenal and CaluUua 
(Jar. iT.40; Calall.iiirL 13), has altogether dis- 
sffEaml ; bat it in all pobabilitj occu^ed the same 
siti ■■ the nudera cathedral, on the smnmit of the 
kfty hiil that ccnnoands the whole dty and consti- 
talet the rsnaikaUe htudland from which it deriTa 

ANCyRA. 133 

We find Ancona ikying an important port dnring 
the conteibi of Belisaiins and Karsee with the Gotba 
in Italj. (Procop. B. G. ii. 11, 13, iii. 30, ir. 23.) 
It alWwirds beouna one of the chief citiea of the 
Exarchate of RaTenna, and continued throi^ghoat 
the Middle Agee, as it does at the present day, to bo 
one of the nkoet floonshing and commerdal cities of 
central Italy. 

The annexed coin of Ancena belongs to the periid 
of the Greek colony: it bears^on 3m obverse the 
bead of Venus, ibe tatelarj deify of the dty, on the 

Caesarea, belonging to the Lesser Atlas chain, and 
fbnning the S. limit of the valley of the Chi- 
nalaph (.Shellif). It was celebrated for the tico 
called dina (a spedes of cedar or juniper), tbo 
wood of which waa highly esteemed by the Romans 
for fumitnre. Pliny mentiona aeveral instances of 
the extravagant prices given fer it (Plin. H. A'. 
xiii. 16. e.29;Amm. Marc-Dv, 5.) [P. S.] 

ANCY'KA C'A7K«pa: Elk. •Aynuparis, Ancy- 
rnnus.) 1. A town of Phrygia Kjacletus. Strabo 
(p. 567) calls it a " smsU dtj, or hill-fort, near 
Blandoe, towards Lydia." In another passage (p. 
576) he says that the Rhyndacns, which flows into 
the Proponlia, receives the Macestns from Ancjra 
Abasitis. Cramer {Alia MmoT, vol. ii. p. 12) 
comets Abasitis into Abbaitis, on the authority •£ 

As the Hacestua ia the Sutuyherli Su, or the Simani 
5u, as it is called in its upper coarse, Ancyra mnst 
be at or near the sonrce of this river. The lake of 
Simaal is the source of the Macesloe, and close to 
the lake is " a remarkable looking bill, the Acropolis 
of an indent city." This pUce appeals to be An- 
cyTa. The river flows from tbe lake in a deep and 

Z'd stream; and no large stream runs into the 
t SimatJ seems to bo a corruption of Synnaus, 
or Synans, and to be on or near the site of Svnnau.«. 
Ancyra was on tbe lake, 7 or B miles WN'W. of 
Simanl. (Hamilton, Rtiearcia, (fc. voL ii. p. 124, 

3. iAoffora or Engarch), a town of Galatia, near 
a small sliesni, which seems to enter the Ssngirius. 
Ancyra origmally belonged to Phrygia. The my- 
thicatfounderwBsldidas, the aonof Gordins. (Paus. 
]. 4.) Midas found an anchor on the spot, and ac- 
cordingly gave the name to the town ; a story which 
would Imply that the name for anchor (AyKvpa) was 
tbs same ia the Grtdi and in the Phrygian Ian. 
gnages. Pauaanuis confinne the story by saying 
that the anchor remained to his time in the temple 
of Zeus. Stephanos (i, v. 'Ayrvfia) gives another 
stoiy about the name, which is chronologically false, 
if Ancyra was ao called in tbe time of Alenandcr. 
(Aman. Aftab. ii. 4.) The town became tlie chief 
place of the Tectosagea (Strnb. p. 567), a Gallio 
tribe from tbe ndghbourhood ot I'onlonse, which 



settled in these parts aboat b. c. 277. [Gaultia.] 
The Galatae were sabjected hj the Rcmums Tinder 
Cn. ManliuB, b. c. 189, who advanced as finr as An> 
cyra, and fonght a battle with the Tectoeages near 
the town. (LIt. zzzriil. 34.) When Galatia was for- 
mally made a Boman pnmnce, b. g. 25, Ancyra was 
dignified with the name Sebaste, which is equivalent 
to Angosta, with the addition of Tectosagnm, to 
distingoish it firom Pesainns and Taviom, which 
were hoDoored with the same title of Sebaste. An- 
cyra had also the title cf Metropolis, as the coins 
from Nero's time show. Most of the odns of An- 
cyra have a figure of an anchor on them. 

The position of Ancyra made it a place of great 
trade, for it lay on the road fmn Byzantium to Ta- 
vium and Armenia, and also on the road from By- 
umtinm to Syria. It is probable, also, that the 
silky hair of the Angora goat may, in ancient as in 
modem times, have formed one of the staples of the 
place. The bills about Angora are favourable to 
the feeding of the goat The chief monument of 
antiquity at Ancyra is the marble temple of Au- 
gustus, which was built in the lifetime of the em- 
peror. The walls appear to be entire, with the 
exception of a small portion of one side of the cella. 
On tiie inside of the antae ai the temple is the Latin 
inscription commonly called the Monumentum or 
Marmor Ancyranum. Augustus (Suet. jIu^. 101) 
left behind him a record of his actions, which, it was 
his will, should be cut on bronze tablets, which were 
to be placed in front of his Mausoleum. A copy of 
this monorable record was cut on the walls of this 
temple at Ancyra, both in Greek and Latin. We 
must suppose that the AncTrani obtained pennissi(m 
from the Roman soiate or Tiberius to have a tran- 
script of thia rec<»xi to place in the temple of Au- 
gustus, to whom they had given divine honoure in 
his lifetime, as the passage from Josephus (Antiq. 
JwL xvi. 10), when properly corrected, shows. (See 
Is. Casaub. in Ancyran, Marmor. Anitnadv,) The 
Latin inscription appears to have been first copied by 
Busbequius about tiie middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and it has been copied by several others since. 
The latest copy has been made by Mr. Hamilton, 
and his copy contains some correotions on fonn«r 
transcripts. A Greek inscription on the outer wall 
of the cella had been noticed by Pooocke and Texier, 
but, with the exception of a small part, it was con- 
cealed by houses built against the temple. By r»* 
moving the mud wall which was built against the 
temple, Hamilton was enabled to copy part of the 
Greek inscription. So much of it as is still legible 
is contained in the Appendix to his second volume 
of Jie$earchee in Ana iftnor, &c. This transcript 
of the Greek version is valuable, because it supplies 
some defects in our copies of the Latin original. A 
Greek inscription in fkxkt of one of the antae of the 
temple seems to show that it was dedicated to the 
god Augustus and the goddess Bome. Hamilt(m 
copied numerous Greek inscriptions frxnn various 
parts of tiie town. (Appendix, voL U.) One of the 



walls of the citadel contiuns an innneose mmber o( 
" portions of has-reliefe, inscriptioDS, fimereal dppi 
with garlands, and the caput bovis, carja^es, co- 
lumns and fragments of architnives, with {nrtB of 
dedicatory inscriptions, resembling indeed very modi 
the walls of a rich museum." (Hamilton.) 'f 

Angoravi stiU a considerable town, vith a large 
population. [G. L] 

ANCYRCN POLIS Qhytcvpw wAuj, PtoLir. 
5. § 57; Stei^. B. #. v.: Eik, 'Kyimpnoi^i), 
was a town of Middle Egypt, 10 miles soathwaid of 
the Heptanomite Aphroditopolis. It derived its ap- 
pellation from the mannfecture of stcoe anchors 
cut frt>m the neighbouring quarries. [W. B. D.^ 

ANDAiaA (ArSoi'fa: Etk. 'AySoric^, 'KM- 
vcos), an ancient town of Messenia, and the capital 
of the kings of the race of the Leleges. Itwaa 
celebrated as the birthplace of ArisUmeDea, hut 
towards the end of the second Meesenian war it was 
deserted by its inhabitants, who took refuge in tho 
strong fortress of Ira. From this time it was on! j 
a village. Livy (xxxvi. SI) describes it as a/wrran 
qppultfm, and Pausanias (iv. 33. § 6) saw ody its 
ruins. It was situated on the road leading from 
Messene to Megalopolis. Its ruins, according toLeake, 
are now called J?tfsntikdik(Mtra, and are situated upai 
a height near the village of Fyla or FHia. Thi 
Homeric Oechalia is identified by Strabo with An 
dania, but by Pausanias with Camasum, which wa 
only 8 stadia from Andania. (Pans. iv. 1. § % n 
3. §7, iv. 14. § 7, 26. §6, 33. § 6; Strab.pp.33< 
350; Steph. B. 8, v.; Leake, Morea, vd. i. p. 388. 

ANDECAVI, a Gallic tribe, who were stined i 
to a rising by Julius Sacrovir in the time of T 
berius, A. D. 2 1 . (Tac. Ann. iii. 40.) As Taciti 
in this passage couples them with the TuKnm 
Turonea, we may conclude that they are the tri 
which Caesar calls Andes (£. G. ii. 35), and whi 
occupied a part of the lower valley of the Lot 
(Ligeris), on the north bank, west of the Turon 
Their pofidti<m is still more accurately defined 
that of their chief town Juliomagus, or Civitaa i 
decavomm, the modem Angers, in the departm 
of Mctine et Xos're, on the Mayamej an afflneni 
the Loire. [^G. L.' 

ANDEIBA CArSci^: ftiL 'Ai^ctpevi^), as 
written in Phny (v. 32), a town of the Troad, 
nte of which is uncertain. There was a tem^ 
the Mather of the Gods here, whence she had 
name Andeirene. (Ste]dt. B. ». «• "AfSci^nx.) 
to the stone found here (Strab. p. 610), which, v 
" burnt, becomes iron," and as to the rest of 
passage, the reader may consult the note in ( 
kurd's translation of Strabo (voL ii. p. 590). {Q 

AND£MATUNNUM,tiie chief town of the 
gones, is not mentioned by Caesar. The nam 
curs in the Antonine Itinerary, and in the Peat 
Table; and in Ptolemaeus (ii. 9. § 19) nndci 
form 'Ay8o/iarovyoy. Acocording to tiie Ant 
Itin. a road led from this place to Tnllnin (Jl 
In the passage of Eutropius (ix. 23) *'*' circa 
gonas " means a city, which was also named ** < 
Lingonum;" and if this is AndematimnTiTn, tl 
is that of the modem town of Langrea, on a 
the department of HawU Mame, and nesr the 
of the Mame (Matrena). Limgreg caatah 
remains of two triumphal arebes, one «rec 
honour of the emperor Probus, and t2ie ot 
honour of Constantius Chlorus. Tlte inac 
said to be found at Langres, which would akic 
have been a Roman colony, }s declared by \ 

.# r 

I • m. 


'^* • 



to be qoiiaos. In old Fzcndi Langre$ was called 
hrngfrn or Langomne, [G. L.] 

AKD£RETI03iBA ; another reading of AN- 

DERESIO, a town of Britain, mentiooed hj the 

pi^afbtr of BaTcnna only ; in whose list itc«nes 

next to CaUeTa Atrebatom, cr SUchester, Miba, 

a ame «qaall]r unknown, fellows; and then comes 

JloouotoiBS, a military station in the soath of 

SosMS. As fiu- as the cnrder in which the geogra- 

|iUcil names of so worthlees a writer is of any 

weight at all, the lelatioa d Anderesio, or Ande* 

ntkniba, conbined with the fiut of the word being 

endenllj oompoond, snggests the likelihood of the 

&Et finable being that of the present town of And' 

onr, [B. G. L.] 

ANDERIDA, is mentumed in the NotUia Imperii 
as the station of a detachment of Abolci (nnmems 
Abekonnn); and as part of the Littos Sazoni- 
caai. In the Angk>-Sazon period it has far 
/;nater praminenoe. The ^strict Anderida coin- 
cided whh a well-mu-ked natoral divisitn of the 
idiai, the Wealds of Sussex and Kent The gaolt 
and gRCB-tand ^tricta belonged to it also, so that 
it ifidied from Alton to Hjthe, and from East- 
hnme to the north of liudsUne — Bomney Marsh 
kk^ e^edally exdnded from it. Thirty miles 
fi«D N. to &, ud 120 from £. to W. are the dimen- 
■DBS given in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (ad Ann. 
SMX sad this is not £u- from the actual distance. 
The Dane is British ; anired meaning tminhabitedf 
nd the form in fbU being Coed Andred, the un^ 
nkaUted wood. Uninhabited it was not; in the 
ential zidge, mining indnstiy was applied to the 
ha ore of Tilgate Forest at a rery early period. 
The stiff day district (the oak-tree clay of the 
(Seafagiits) annmd xt, however, may have been the 
icnrt of outhiwa only. Beonred, when expelled 
frni Uercta, took refuge in the Andredenoaldy 
from the north-western frontier; and the Britons 
whoi, acoovding to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 
A.n. 477, fled fron Aella a»l his son, did the same 
fna the sooth. Of Anderida, as a district, An- 
dndealtt^ (Andredafaa), and AndredestMO^i (the 
ITflaliof Anidxed), an the later names. 

Of the particuliur station so called in the Notitia, 

die determinatian is difficult Patenteg has the 

Jk heit chim; ftr reroains of Roman walls are still 

sdHSng. The neighbourhood of Eastbourne, where 

dee are Boman remains also, though less oonsider- 

sUe, has the next best Camden &Toured Newen- 

dfli; other writers having preferred CMehester. 

fr It is ssSt to aay that Anderida never was a Saxon 

$ tovaatalL In a.d. 491, AeHaandhis son Cissa 

\** dew all that dwelt therein, so that not a single 
^. firitoa was left." (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ad 
\ ML) [B. G. L.] 

*« A2n)EBI'TUM, a town which Ptolemaens calls 
^ 'Aft^^Sor, and the capital of the Gabali, whom 
i Caesar mwitkms (J9. G. vii. 75) as subjects of the 
AnvrnL In the Not. Prov. Gall, it is called Civitas 
x^ ^^■*^%n, having taken the name of the people, as 
«^ Vis the case with most of the capitals of Uie Gallic 
tDNcas under the Lower Empire. D'Anville infers, 
froD an ioacriptioa feond in the neighbourhood of 
JsooU or Jaioonx, which terminates thus, m. p. 
f ^ CAJULL. v., that the position ciJavols may repre- 
It this place. VfslckNaua{Geog.^.des GauUi) 
^ llweB Anderitom at Anterrieuz, Others suppose 
4 : the Hie to be at ifai^ Both Javols and If ends 
l'^ fteiatheOe0Bifdcm,apartofthemonntam r^onof 
f^ AsCfMMec [G.L.] 



a ' 

ANDES. [Andecavi.] 

ANDES, a village in the neighbourhood of Man- 
tua, known only frmi the circumstance of its having 
been the actual birthplace of Virgil (Donat VU, 
Virgil. 1 ; Hieron. Chron. p. 396), who is, however, 
commonly called a native of Mantua, because Andes 
belonged to the territory of that city. It is commonly 
supposed to be represented by the modem village of . 
Pi^ktj on the banks of the Mincius, about 2 miles 
below Mantua, but apparently with no other authority ^j^ 
than local tradition, which is in general entitled to 
but little weight (See Millin, Voyage dams le Afi- 
hnaU, vol. ii p. 301.) [E.H.B.J 

ANDETBIUM QKv^itrpuiV, Strab. p. 315; 'Ak- 
ZtKpiov, Ptol. ii. 17. § 11; ^Ap^piov, Dion Cass. 
Ivi. 12), a fortified town in Dalmatia near Salonae, 
which offered a brave resistance to Tiberius. 

ANDIZE'TH CAp^iCfrrtoi), one of the chief 
tribes in Pannonia, occupying the country about the 
southern part of the Dtave. (Strab. vil. p. 314; 
Plin. iii. 28, who calls them Andizetes.) [L. S.] 

ANDOSINI, a people in Spain between the Ibems 
and the Pyrenees, mentioned only in a passage of 
PolyMus (iii. 35), where some editors* proposed to 
read Ausetani. 

ANDBAPA CAySpova), also called Neoclandio- 
polls, a town of Paphlagoaia, near the river Halys, 
in the later province of Helenopontus, and the seat 
of a bishopric. There are coins of this town, bearing 
the dates and effigies of M. Aurelios, Septiroius 
Severus, and Caracalla. (Ptol. v.^4. § 6 j HierocL, v J t^ 
p. 701 ; Justin. Notell 23.)J», ^^^nJuJ^y^^. f/^^^^' 

ANDBIACA('Ay«p*<^5 ^n*d;b*),^he port of/!2 ^W. J<?>. , 
the town of Myra in Lycia. Appian (^B. C. iv. 82) "VT^Stf 
says that Lentulos broke through the chain which 
crossed the entrance of the port, and went up the 
river to Myia. Beaufort {Kcavmaniaj p. 26) gives 
the name Andr&H to the river of Myra. On the 
north side of the entrance are the remains of large 
Boman hopiea, with a perfect inscription, whidi 
states that the horrea were Hadrian's: the date is 
Hadrian's third consulate, which is a.d. 119. 

Andriaca is mentioned by Ptolemy; and Pliny 
has " Andriaca civitas, Myra" (v. 27). Andriaca, 
then, is clearly the place at the mouth of the small 
river on which Myra stood, 20 stadia higher up. 
(Strab. p. 666.) It must have been at Ajidriaca, 
as Cramer observes, that St. Paul and his com- 
panions were put on board the ship of Alexandria. 
(^ActSf xxvii. 5, 6.) [G. L.] 

A'NDBIUS. [Troas.] 

ANDEOTOLIS (;Av9pAv x6\is,Vtol iv. 5. § 46 ; 
Hierod. p. 724 : Eth. 'AySpoiroXirY^s), the modem 
Chdbttr, was the chief town of the Andropolite nome 
in the Delta. It was seated on the left bank of the 
Nile, was the head-quarters of a legion (Not. Imp.), 
and a bishop's see. (Athanas. Ep. ad Antioch. 
p. 776.) From its name, which is involved in some 
obscurity, it would seem that the peculiar worship 
of the dty and nome of Andropolis was that of the 
Manes or Shades of the Dead. (Manetho, ap. 
Eiiseb. Chronioon.') Geographers have attempted, 
not very successfrilly, to identify Andropolis with 
the Ardiandiopolis of Herodotus (ii. 98), which, the 
historian adds, is not an Egyptian name, and with 
the Gynaecopolis of Strabo (p. 803). D'Anville 
supposes it to have been the same as the city An- 
thylla (^AwdvWa, Herod, ii. 97), the revenues of 
which were assigned to the Egyptian queens as 
sandal-money, or, as we term it, pin-money, lliis 
I custom, chancing to coincide with a Persian usage 

v«' y 

^ .dm '• • -^Ov^ 

K 4 

ak < -. 

T*jri- tim*\ 






(NepoB, Themitt. 10), was continaed by Cambjses 
and his snocessora. [W. B. D.] 

ANDROS CAyJpos: Eth/Apnptos.Andnns: An- 
dro), the most northerly and one of the largest islands 
of the Cyclades, S£. of Euboea, 21 miles long and 8 
broad. According to tradition it derived its name 
either from Andreas, a general of Rhadamanthus or 
from the seer Andnis. (Diod. t. 79; Pans. x. 13. 
§ 4; Conon, 44; Steph. B. », v.) It was colonized 
by lonians, and early attained so much importance 
as to send colonies to Acanthus and Stageira in 
Chalcidioe abont b. c. 654. (Thuc. iv. 84, 88.) The 
Andiians were compelled to join the fleet of Xeixes 
in his invasion of Greece, b. c. 480; in consequence 
of which Themistocles attempted to levy a large 
sum of money from the people, and upon their re* 
fusing to pay it, laid siege to their city, but was 
unable to take the place. (HenxL viii. Ill, 121.) 
The island however afterwards became subject to the 
Athenians, and at a later time to the Ifacedonians. 
It was taken by the Romans in their war Tvith Philip, 
B. c. 200, and given to their ally Attains. (Liv. 
xxxi. 45.) 

The chief city also called Andros, was situated 
nearly in the middle of the western coast of the 
island, at the foot of a lofty mountam. Its citadel 
strongly fortified by nature is mentioned by Livy 
{L c). It had no harbour of its own, but it used 
one in tlie neighbourhood, called Gaurion (Vaopiop) 
by Xenophon (^IleU. i. 4. § 22), and Gaureleon by 
Livy (/. c), and which still bears the ancient name 
of Gavrion. The ruins of the ancient city are de- 
scribed at length by Ross, who discovered here, 
among other inscriptions, an interesting hymn to 
Isis in hexameter verse, of which the reader will find 
a copy in the CUuncal Museum (vol. i. p. 34, seq.). 
The present population of Andios is 15,000 souls. 
Its sml is fertile, and its chief productions are silk 
and wine. It was also celebrated for its wine in 
antiquity, and the whole island was awarded as 
sacred to Dionysus. There was a tradition that, 
during the festival of this god, a fountain flowed 
with wine. (Plin. ii. 103, xxxi. 13; Fans. vi. 26, 
§ 2.) (Thevenot, Travels^ Part i. p. 15, seq.; 
Toumefort, Voyage^ vol. i. p. 265, seq.; Fiedler, 
iZeue, voL ii. p. 221, seq.; and especially Ross, 
i20uen au/d, Griech. Itueln^ vol. ii. p. 12, seq.) 


ANDROS. [Edros.] 

ANDU'SIA, a town known only from an inscrip- 
tion found at Nimes, or at Anduse (Walckenaer, 
Geog. ^.). The name still exists in the small 
town of Anduse on the Gordon, called the Gordon 
d" Anduse, which flows into the Rhone on the right 
bank, between Avignon and Aries. (D'Anville, 
Notice, &c.) [G. L.] 

('Avc/ic^pcM, *AytfJL^\fM: JEth. 'Avc/to»pevs), a town 
of Phocis mentioned by Homer, was situated on a 
height on the borders of Phocis and Delphi, and is 
said to have derived its name from the gusts of wind 
which blew on tiie place from the tops of Mt. Par- 


nassus. (Horn. IL ii. 521; Strab. p. 423; Steph. 
B. s. V.) 

ANEMO'SA CAvffi&ffa), a village of Arcadia in 
the district l^Iaenalia on the Helisson near ZibmtL 
(Paus. viii. 35. § 9; Leake, Pehponnesiaca, 
p. 238.) 

ANEMUmUM (;Aytfw6piov: Cape Anamur), 
the most southern point of Asia AGnor, which '* to-- 
minates in a high bluff knob." Strabo (p. 669) 
places Anemurium at the nearest point of Gilicia to 
Cyprus. He adds that " the distance along the coast 
to Anemurium from the borders of Pamphylia (that 
is, from Goracesium) is 820 stadia, and the nsraain- 
der of the coast distance to Soli is about 500 stadia." 
Beaufort (^Karamania, p. 201) suspects that the 
numbera in Strabo have been aocid0itally misplaced 
in the MSS., " for fix>m Anemurium to Soli is nearlj 
double the distance of the former place from Cora- 
cesium." But the matter would not be set qoite 
right merely by making the numbers change places, 
as the true distances will show. 

Strabo does not mention a city Anemurinm, but it 
is mentioned by Pliny (v. 27), by Ptolemy, and 
Scylax. Beaufort found thero the indications of a 
considerable ancient town. The modem castle, which 
is on one side of the high bluff knob, is supplied 
with water by two aqueducts, which are channels 
cut in the rocks of the hills, but where they croai 
ravines they are supported by arches. Within the 
space enclosed by the fortified walls of the castle 
there are the remains of two theatines. All the co- 
lumns and the seats of the theatre have been carried 
away, probably to Cyprus. There is also a lai;ge 
necropolis full of tombs, the walls of which are still 
sound, though the tombs have been ransacked. It 
does not appear to what period these remains bekm^, 
but the theatres and aqueduct are probaUy of the 
Roman period. There are many medals of Ane- 
murium of the time of the Roman emperors. [GX.] 

ANGE'A, a place in Thessaly in the district 
Thessaliotis, of uncertain site. (Liv. xxzii. 13.) 

A'NGELE. [ArncA.] 

ANGITES CAyyirris: A'nghistd), a river of 
Macedonia, flowing into the lake Cercinitis, about 6 
or 8 miles to the N of Amphipolis. (Herod. viL 
113; Leake, Northern Greece, voL iii. p. 183.) 

ANGI'TIAE LUCUS. [Fdcinus.] 

ANGLII or ANGLI C'ATyetAoi, ''A'>7iXot), were 
according to Tacitus (^Germ. 40), and Ptolemy (ii. 
1 1 ), a tribe of the Gennan inoe of the SuevL Tacitos 
does not mention the country they oocufaed: but, ac- 
cording to Ptolemy, they were the greatest tribe in 
the interior of Germany, extending fdrther east than 
the Langobardi, and to the north as far as the river 
Albis. Subsequently, in connection with other tribes, 
they immigrated under the name of Anglo-Saxons 
into England. A district in Schleswig still bears the 
name of Angeln, but it is doubtful whether that 
name has any connection with the ancient Anglii. 
(Ledebur, in the AUgem. Archiv. Jur die GescL 
des PreusB. Stoats, xiii. p. 75, foil.) [L. S.] 

ANGRIVA'RII (; Ayy ptovdptoi), a German tribe 
dwelling on both sides of the river Visui^ ( Weser), 
but mainly in the territory between that river and 
the Albis {Elbe); they were separated in the south 
from the Cherusci by a mound of earth. (Tacit. Ann. 
ii. 19 ; Ptol. il 1 1. § 16.) Their name is commonly 
connected with the word Anger, that is, a meadow. 
The Angrivarii were at first on good terms ^ith tiie 
Romans, but this relation was interrupted, though 
only for a short time, by an insurrection in a. d. 16, 


iriicn UMf joined the leagoe of the Cbemad. The 
Gennui were defeated on that occasion in two great 
battks, at btiTisiis, and at a point a little more to 
the south. (Tacit, ^im. iL 8, 22, 41.) Aboat a. d. 
100, Ilka the Cheniscan league was broken ap, the 
Aagdfwmy in coQJniictKm with the Chamavi, at- 
tacked the Deighbooring Bmcteri, and made them- 
mhn mesters of their coontiy, so that the country 
besiDg in the middle ages Uie name of Angaria 
(f^era), became pwrt of thear territoiy. (Tacit. 
Germ. 34; camp. Wilhelm, (remMBMcn^p 162, loll.; 
Lr4ebar, Lamdu. VoUcderBructertr, pp 121,240, 
fcIL) [L. S.] 

AXGULUS QKyymt\6t : Bth, Angnlanus), a city 
tf the Veitim, menti(ned both by Pliny and Ptolemy, 
It well as in the Itin. Ant. (p 313), where the 
■me is written Aftgehm, a corniption which appears 
to h&ve esriy oome into general use, and has given 
riee to a coriooa metamorphosis, the modem town 
Rtmag its ancient name as that of its patron saint: 
it is BOW called Cicita Sant Angela. It is situated 
flB a faiD, about 4 miles firom the Adriatic, and S. of 
thi lifcr Matrinos (la Piombd) whidi separated the 
Vediot from the territoiy of Adria and Picenum. 
Tbe binenuy erroneoosl j. places it S. of the Atenins, 
in which case it wonld have belonged to the Fren- 
tni (Plin.iii 12. s. 17 ; PtoL iii l.§ 59; CluTer. 
IkL p 751 ; RomaneUi, voL iii p. 254.) [E.H.B.] 

AMGRAEA. [Ajusob.] 

AKI'GBUS CAyiYfyos : Mavro-potamS, i. e. Black 
Rher), a small rirer in the Triphylian Elis, called 
MiBTeias (ILrv^ot) bj Homer \lL zi. 721), rises 
is lit. Lapithas, and before readung the Ionian sea 
1ms itsdf near Sanncom in pestilential marshes. 
Its waters had an ofeiaiTe smell, and its fish were 
aot eatible. This was ascribed to the Centaurs 
hario^ washed in the water after they had been 
WBonded by the poisoned arrows of Heracles. Near 
Ssnacom were caTems saoed to the nymphs Ani- 
ynirn (^AwefpiB^s or Aptypi/iSts)^ where persons 
*itk cataneous *^iTi^«»« were cured by the waters <^ 
theirrer. General Gordon, who visited these caverns 
B 1835, fbond in one of them water distillrng from 
the nek, snd bringing with it a pore yellow sulphur. 
The Acidas, which some persons regarded as the 
Isriaans of Homer, flowed into the Amgrus. (Strab. 
Rk 344— 347; Pans. v. 5. §§ 3, 7, seq. v. 6. § 3; 
Or. Met XV. 281 ; Leake, Morta, vol. L pp. 54, 66, 
n^ /VtopoiMicsinen, pp^ 108. 110; Boss^iZew^ m 
Fdoptmma^ vol. L p. 105.)-%*^,5?y:^^'''g? 

ANIXETUM (^AAnrrop), a town m Lydia cJ 
noertun site, the seat of a bishopric, of whidi ccnns 
■e extant, bearing the epigraph 'Aruo^W. (Hie- 
led. p 659, with Wesselmg's note ; Sestini, p 105.) 

AOilO or A'N1£X (the Utter form is the more 

sMkat, whence in the oblique cases Anienis, 

AxnsB, &c. are need by aH the best writers: but 

the ttaninative Aimir is found only in Cato, op. 

iVurtoA. vL 3. pb 229, and some of the later poets. 

StaL SiIp.L 3. 20, 5. 25. Of the Greeks Strabohas 

'AHmw, Dioaysins uses *Ariiy5,-i7rtfs). A celebrated 

river cf T.ft^«T« and one of the most considerable of 

the tributaries of the Tiber, now called the Tevemme. 

k riaes in the Apennines aboat 3 miles above the 

town of Treba (Trert) and just bebw the modem 

rilhge of FftfettMO. (Plin. ilL 12.s.l7;Fn>ntin. 

A J^madbef. § 93; Strabo erroneously connects its 

aoones with the Lake Fuctnus, v. p. 235.) From 

thence it descends ra]»d]y to Subiaco (Sublaqueum), 

mmefiately above which it formed in ancient times 

a maQ kke or rather a series of lakes, which were 



probably of artificial construction, as all tnu» of 
them has now disappeared. [Sublaqueum.] It 
flows from thence for about 10 miles in a NW. 
direction, through a deep and narrow valley between 
lofty mountains, until just below the Tillage of 
BovianOf where it turns abruptly to the SW. and 
pursues its course in that direction until it emei^es 
from the mountains at Tibnr (TVroft'), dose to which 
town it forms a celebrated cascade, falling at once 
through a height of above 80 feet. The present 
cascade is artificial, the waters of the river having 
been carried through a tunnel constructed for tbe 
purpose in 1634, and that which previously existed 
was in part also due to the labours of Pope Sixtus V . ; 
but the Anio always formed a striking water-fidl at 
this point, which we find repeatedly mentioned by 
andent writers. (Strab. v. p. 238; Dionys. v. 37; 
Hot. Carm. I 7. 13; Stat. Stiv. i. 3. 73, 5. 25; 
Propert. iii 16. 4.) After issuing from the deep 
glen beneath the town of TivoUf the Anio loses 
much of the rapidity and violence which had marked 
the upper part of its current, and pursues a winding 
course through the plain of the Campagna till it 
joins the Tiber about 3 miles above "Rome, close to 
the site of the ancient Antonnae. During this latter 
part of its course it was commonly regarded as 
forming the boundaxy between Latium and the Sabine 
territory (Dionys. /. c), but on this subject there 
ia great discrepancy among ancient authors. From 
bdow Tibur to its confluence the Anio was readily 
navigable, and was much used by the Romans fen* 
bringing down timber and othei* building materials 
from the mountains, as well as for tiansporting to 
the dty the building stone from the various quarries 
on its banks, especially from those near Tibur, which 
produced the celebrated lapis Tibwtinw, the Tra- 
vertino of modem Italians. (Strab. v. p. 238 ; Plin . 
iiL 5. s. 9.) 

The Anio receives scarcely any tributaries of im- 
portance: the most considerable is the Digektia of 
Horace {Ep. i. 18. 104) now called the Licenza 
which jdns it near Bardella (Mandela) about 9 miles 
above Tivoli. Six miles bdow that town it receives 
the sulphureous waters of the Albula. Several 
other small streams fall into it during its course 
through the Campagna, but of none of these have 
the andent names been preserved. The waters of the 
Anio in the upper part of its course are very limpid 
and pure, for which reason a part of them was in 
andent times diverted by aqueducts for the supply 
of the dty of Some. The first of these, called for 
distinction sake Anio Vetus, was constructed in 
B.a 271 by M*. Curius Dentatus and Fulvius 
Flaccus: it branched off about a mile above Tibur, 
and 20 miles from Borne, but on account of its ne^ 
cessary windings was 43 miles in length. The 
second, constracted by the emperor Claudius, and 
known as the Anio Novus, took up the stream at 
the distance of 42 miles from Borne, and 6 frt)m 
Sublaqueum: its course was not less than 58, or 
according to another statement 62 miles in length, 
and it preserved the highest levd of all the numerous 
aqueducts which supplied the dty. (Frontin. d« 
AquaeducL §§ 6, 13, 15; Nibby, IHntorm, vol. i. 
pp 156—160,) [E. H. B.] 

ANITOBGIS, or ANISTOEGIS, a town in Spain 
of uncertain site, mentioned only by Livy (xxv. 32), 
supposed by some modem writers, but without sufli- 
dent reason, to be the same as Conistorsis. [Coni- 


ANNAEA or ANAEA C^vvataj 'Avafa: Eth. 



*AycubSj 'Ara/r7}s), is placed bj Stepbamis («. v. 
*Avaia) in Caria, and opposite to Samos. Ephonis 
sajs that it was so called from an Amazon Anaea, 
who was boned there. If Anaea was opposite Samos, 
it mnst have been in Lydia, which did not extend 
south of the Maeandor. From the expressions of 
Thncydides (iii. 19, 32, iv. 75, viii. 19), it may 
have been on or near the coast, and in or near the 
▼alley of the Maeander. Some Samian exiles posted 
themselves here in the Peloponnesian war. The 
passage of Thncydides (iv. 75) seems to make it a 
naval station, and one near enough to annoy Samos. 
The conclusion, then, is, that it was a short distance 
north of the Maeander, and on the coast; or if not 
on the coast, that it was near enough to have a sta- 
tion for vessels at its command. [G. L.] 

A'NNIBI MONTES (tA "Am^a «pu, PtoL vi. 
16), ANNIVA (Ammian. xxiii. 6), one of the 
principal mounUun chains of Asia, in the extreme 
KE. of Scythia, and running into Serica: cor- 
responding, apparently, to the Little Altai or the N£. 
part of the Altai chain. [P. S.] 

ANOPAEA. [Thersioftiab.] 

ANSIBA'RII or AMPSIVAIUI, that is, <' sailors 
on the Ems " {Emtfahrer)^ a German tribe dwelling 
about the lower part of the river Amisia (Emt). 
During the war of the Romans against the Cherusci, 
the Ansibarii^ like many of the tribes on the coast 
of the German ocean, supported the Romans, but 
afterwards joined the general insurrection called 
forth by Axminius, and were severely chastised for 
it by Gennanicus. In a. d. 59, the Ansibarii, ac- 
cording to Tadtus {Awn, xiii. 55, 56), were ex- 
pelled irom their seats by the Chaud, and being now 
homeless they asked the Romans to allow them to 
settle in the country betwerai the Rhine and Yssd, 
which was used by the Romans only as a pastnre land 
for their horses. But the request was haughtily re- 
jected by the Roman commander Avitus, and the 
Ansibarii now applied for aid to the Bructeri and 
Tenchteri; but t«ing abandoned by the latter, they 
applied to the Usipii and Tubantes. Being rejected 
by these also, they at last appealed to the Chatti and 
Cherusci, and after long wanderings, and enduring 
all manner of hardships, their young men were cut 
to pieces, and those unable to bear arms were dis- 
tributed as booty. It has been supposed that a rem- 
nant of the Ansibarii mnst have maintained them- 
selves s(nnewhere and propagated their race, as Am- 
mianus Marcellinus (xx. 10) mentions them in the 
reign of Julian as forming a tribe of the Franks ; but 
the reading in Amm. Marcellinus is very uncertain, 
the MSS. varying between Attuarii, Ampsimiru, and 
Afuuarii, It is equally uncertain as to whether 
the tribe mentioned by Strabo (p. 291, 292) as 
'A/i^^oMi and Kofi^iayol are the same as the 'Ansi- 
barii or not. (Gomp. Ledebur, Land u. Volk der 
Brueterer^ p. 90, foil.) [L. S.] 

ANSOBA. [AusoBA.] 

ANTAEO'POLIS ('AKrafou irrfXij, PtoL iv. 5. 
§ 71; Steph. B. «.v.; Plin. v. 9.§§ 9, 38: Pint da 
Solert. Anitn. 23; It. Anton, p. 731 : £th. 'Amuo- 
woAfnjt), was the ca]ntal of the Antaeopolite nome 
in Upper Egypt. It stood upon the eastern bank <^ 
the Nile, in lat. 27° 1 1' N. The plain below Antaeo- 
polis was the traditional scene of the combat be- 
tween Isis and Typhon, in which the former avenged 
herself for the mtii^er of her brother-husband Osiris. 
(Diod. i. 21.) Under the Christian emperors of 
Rome, Antaeopolis was the centre of an episcopal 
800. Medals struck at this dty in the age of Trajan 


and Hadrian are still extant. The site of AsUe^- 
poHs is now occupied by a straggling village 6o»> 
el-Kebeer, A few blocks near the river's edge an 
all that remains of the temj^ of Antaeus. Ooe d 
them is inscribed with the names of Ptatenuffos 
Philopator and his queen Arsinoe. Its last Tcrticil 
column was carried away by an inundation in 1821. 
But the ruins had been previously employed as ms> 
terials for building a palace for Ibrahim Pa^ The 
worship of Antaeus was of Libyan origin. (Dio. 
tionanf of Biograpluf, *. v.) [W. B. D.] 

ANTANDRUS CAFroySpov: EOl 'Ayn^H•r: 
Antandro), a dty on the coast of Troas, near the 
head of the gulf of Adramytttnm, on the N. side, 
and W. of Adramytdnm. According to Aristotle 
(Steph. B. s. V. "AvroySpot), its original name wis 
Edonis, and it was inhabited by a Thradan tribe d 
Edoni, and he adds '* at Cimmeris, from the (Sua- 
merii inhahiting it 100 years." Phny (v. 30) iq>- 
pears to have copied Aristotle also. It seems, tha, 
that there was a tradition about the Cimmerii bating 
seized the place in their incunion into Ana, of whi^ 
tradition Herodotus speaks (i. 6). Herodotus (ril 
42) gives to it the name Pelasgis. Again, Akaois 
(Strab. p. 606) calls it a dty of the Lekges. Fnm 
these vague statements we may oondnde that it wu 
a very old town; and its advantageous position at 
the foot of Aspaneus, a mountain belonging to Ids, 
where timber was cut, made it a desirable possession. 
Virgil mi^es Aeneas build his fleet here (iea. iil 
5). The traditaon as to its bdng settled from An- 
dros (Mela, i. 18) seems merely founded on a ridicu- 
lous attempt to explain the name. It was finaUj an 
Aeolian settlement (Thnc viii. 108), a &ct which 
is historicaL 

Antandros was taken by the Persians (Hered. v. 
26) shortly after the Scythian expedition of Darios. 
In the dghth year of the Pdoponnesian war it was 
betrayed by some Mytilenaeans and others, exiles 
from Lesbos, being at that time under the BDpre> 
macy of Athens; but the Athenians soon ncovered 
it. (Thuc. iv. 52, 75.) The Persians got it again 
during the Peloponnesian war; but the townspei^Ie, 
fearing the treachery of Arsaces, who oomzoanded 
the garrison there fcnr Tissaphemes, drove the Per- 
sians out of the acropolis, b.g. 411. (Thuc viiL 
1 08.) The Persians, however, did not lose the {Jaoe. 
(Xen. HelL i. 1 . § 25.) [G. L] 

ANTA'RADUS ('ArnfpoJos, Ptol. v. 15. § 16; 
Hierocles, p. 7 1 6 : Tartut)^ a town of Phoenicia, sita- 
ated at its northern extremity, and on the mainland 
over atrainst the island of Axadus, whence its name. 
According to the Antonine Itineraiy and Peutinger 
Table, it was 24 M. P. from Bahmea, and 50 M. P. 
from Tripdis. The writer in Ersch and Giubei's 
Encydopadie («. v.) places Antaradns on the coast 
about 2 miles to the N. of Aradus^ and identifies it 
with Came (Steph. B. ». v.) or Camos, the port of 
ArBdus,accoi^ing to Strabo (xvi. p. 753 ; compi Plin. 
V. 18). It was rebuilt by the emperor Constantioa, 
A. D. 346, who gave it the name of Constantia. 
(Cedren. HitL Comp. p. 246.) It retained, how- 
ever, its former name, as we find its bishops undei 
botli titles in some councils after the reign of Ccn- 
stantins. In the crusades it was a populous and 
well fortified town (GuiL Tyr. vii. 15), and was 
known under the name of Tortosa (Tasso, GtrtuO' 
lem. LtberatOy i. 6; Wilken, Die Kretizz^ vol i 
p. 255, ii. p. 200, vii. p. 340, 713). By Maundrel 
and others the modem Tartit has been confbunde( 
with Arethusa, but incorrectly. It is now a meai 


tihf^<r Ml itxaUe Moslaiiit and 44 Greeks, ac- 
eoidii^ to the Amefkan iniaioiuuies. {BibUotheoa 
Saer^^r, p. 247.) The walls, boilt of heavy 
InefW itBBBiy are i^ nmainiqg — the most im- 
poswiaedflMB of Phoenkaan fartificatkm in Syria. 
{Jfitk^ tm kt Pkmieims par 1' AbM AGgnot» 
jlcadL dbf iMb» lettTM, Tol. xsdT. p. 239 ; Edriid, 
par Jt^eri, ^ 129, 130.) [E. B. L] 

ANTEMKAE (*Atn4,ams £tk. Antemaas, fitu), 

a TOT aDdcnt dty of LaUam situated oulj three 

Bski fitoiKane, jvst below the confluence of the Anio 

vitlitheTiber. If dented its name from this positioQ, 

mUmmem, (Yair. <2e Z.wl«. t.§ 28; Feat.p.17; 

Serf. 9i Am, m 631.) All authors agree in repre- 

iodBgiiasavayandentcitj. Viigil mentioos the 

• ** tover-bearing AntcDmae" among the five great 

cities which were the first to take up arms against 

tbe Tnyaos {Am. vii. 631), and Silios Italicos tells 

M that it was efen more ancient than Cmstomiom 

(friam Crastanno prior, viiL 367). DioDjaus calls 

itaeitjofthe Aborigines, and in one passage says 

exjacadj that it was founded by th«n: while in 

asotfaer be repreaents them as wresting it from the 

fimii (L 16, il 35). From its proumitj to Borne 

it wBi Batnndly one of the first places that came 

ma collision with the rising ci^; end took np anns 

tofeedtfr with Caenina and Cmstmnerinm to avenge 

tk rape of the women. They were however nnsnc> 

caafiil, the city was taken by Bomnlus, and part of 

tk «fc«fc«*M»*ii removed to Borne, while a Boman 

ooloBf WIS sent to supply their place. (Liv. L 10, 

11; biooja. u. 32—35; Plat MohmL 17.) Pln- 

tarrii errooeoasly supposes Antemnae to have been 

a Mm dty, and this view has been adopted by 

Baar modem wiiten; bat both Livy and Dionysias 

deariv Rgard it as of Latin origin, and after the 

apikian of the kinga it was one of the first Latin 

aaai tbat took up anns against Borne in iavour of 

tfaa exikd Taiquin (Dionys. v. 21). But from 

tUi one its name dasappean from history as an 

jahpa rimt dty: it is not'found in the list <tf the 

90 dat» of the Latin league, and most have been 

carif de atny e d or reduced to a state of complete 

Ayi i dw ii e upon Borne. Yano (iLc) speaks of it 

u a decayed place; and though IMonysias tells us it 

was atiQ ««l*«V"***< in his time (i. 16) we learn from 

Sbik) (v. p. 230) that it was a mere village, the 

fnfertj of a private individuaL Pliny also enumft- 

iHs it among the cities of Latium which were 

•aerfy estinct (iiL 5. s. 9). The name is how- 

ever iMntianed on occasion of the great battle at 

tk CoOiBe Gate, b. a 82, when the left wing of 

Ibe . S a mi i 'ttta was pursued by Crassus as fitf as 

Aitwiia», where the next morning they surren- 

ini to SoUa. (Plut SulL Sa) At a much later 

period we find Ahurio encamping on the site when 

be adranoed upoa Borne in A. D. 409. This is the 

hflt notaee of the name, and the site has probably 

' taiMiiiBtil ever since in its present state of desolation. 

Koc avestige of the city now remains, but its site is 

K| It efesrly marked by nature as to leave no doubt of 

theeometaeBS of its identificatian. It occupied the 

bvd amaiit of a hiU of moderate extent, suRonnded 

«■ all aides by steep declivities, which rises on the 

kft of the ^a Sahiria, immediately above the flat 

mdcws which extend on each side of the Anio and 

tbe Tiber at their confluence. (Geirs Topoffr. of 

iKosK, p. 65 ; Nibby, Dmtorm <f»i2oma, vol i. p. 1 63 ; 

Denaia'B Einria, roL i. pi 64.) [E. H. B.] 

AXTHE'DON CAv^iiMy : £*J^ 'Ai^^tos, An- 

i), a feoaro of Boeotia, and one of the cities 

^kjv^MjUu kc^ M^Ac 


of {ha League, was situated on the Euripos or Uie 
Eubooan sea at the foot of Mt Messa^Hos, and was 
distant, according to Dicaearchus, 70 stadia from 
Chalds and 160 from Thebes. Anthedon is men- 
tioned by Honaer (JL ii. 508) as the furthermost 
town of Boeotia. The inhabitants derived their 
origin from the sea-god Glaucns, who is said to have 
beoi originally a native of the place. They appear 
to have been a difierent race from the other people 
of Boeotia, and are described by one writer (Lyoophr. 
754) as Thracians. Dicaearchus informs us tbat 
they were chiefly mariners, shipwrights and fisher- 
men, who derived their subsistence from trading in 
fish, purple, and sponges. He adds that the agora 
was surrounded wUh a double stoa, and planted with 
trees. We learn frtxn Pansanias that there was a 
sacred grove of the Cabeiri in the middle of the town, 
surrounding a temple of those deities, and near it a 
temple of Demeter. Outside the walls was a temple 
of IManysns, and a spot called ^* the leap of Glaucus." 
The wine of Anthedon was celebrated in antiquity. 
The ruins of the town are situated 1^ mile from 
Lukiti, (Dicaearch. Bios 'EAAdSor, p. 145, ed. 
Fuhr; Strab. pp. 400, 404, 445; Paus. ix. 22. § 5, 
ix. 26. § 2; Athen. pp. 31, 296, 316, 679; Stepb. 
B. 9. V, ; Ov. Met. vii. 232, xiiL 905 ; Leake, Nortftem 
Greece, vol. ii. p. 272.>i<'- ii -■ /„•'/;• ' t - L'S^ 

ANTHE'DON QAv^nUvi £th.*Ay0ri^oviT^5\L'i/> 
a dty on the coast of Palestine, 20 stadia dis-*' 
taut firom Gaza (Sozomen. HieL Eccles. v. 9), to 
the south-west. Taken and destroyed by Alex- 
ander Jannaeus. (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 13. § 3; 
oomp. 15. § 4.) Bestored by Gabinius (xiv. 5. § 3). 
Added to the dominions of Herod the Great by 
Augustas (xv. 7. § 3). Its name was changed to 
Agrippias by Herod. (Joseph. Ant. xiil 13. § 3.) 
In the time of Julian it was much addicted to Gen- 
tile superstition and idolatry (Sozomen. I. c), par- 
ticularly to the worship of Astart«$ or Venus, as 
appears frx»n a coin of Antonmns and Caracalla, given 
by Vaillant {Ntmism. Colon, p. 115). [G.W.l 

ANTHELA CkvB^ia : Eth. 'Av0t6s). 1. A 
town in Messenia, mentioned by Homer (//. ix. 151), 
who gives it the epithet 0a0v\tlfMyj supposed by 
later writers to be the same as Thoria, though some 
identified it with Asine. (Strab. viii. p. 360 ; Pans, 
iv. 31. § 1 ; Leake, J/orea, vol. i. p. 453.) 

2. A town in Troezene, founded by Anthes. 
(Pans. ii. 30. § 8 ; Steph. B. & v.) 

3. [Patrae.] 

4. A town on the Hellespont, founded by the 
Milftwians and Phocaeans. (Steph. B. s. v. ; Eustath. 
ad Horn. p. 743, 22.) 

ANTHEXA. [Thkrmoptiak.] 

A'NTHEMUS {^AyStfiovs, -owros: Eih,'h»e^ 
ftovffios}, a town of Macedonia of some importance, 
belonging to the earfy Macedonian monarchy. It 
appears to have stood SE. of Thessalonica and N. of 
Chalddice, aance we learn from Thucydides that its 
territory bordered upon Bisaltia, Crestonia and Myg- 
donia. It was given by Philip to the Olynthians. 
Like some of the sther chief dties in Macedonia, it 
gave its name to « town in Asia. (Steph. B. s. v.) 
It continued to be mentioned by writers under the 
Boman empire. (Herod, v. 94; Thuc. ii. 99, 100; 
DeoL PhiL iL pi 70, ed. Beisk.; Died. xv. 8; Plin. 
iv. 10. 8. 17. § 36; Liban. i>edam. xiii.; Ari8tid.iL 
224; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ill. p. 450.) 

ANTHEMU'SLA. [Mygdonia.] 

ANTHEMU'SLA. (^hvB^iuwrU, 'Ayd«/ioSr: Eth. 
^Ap0eiw6ctos)j a town of Mesopotamia. Strabo (p. 

;' * 


C&L^t € 

^ -r' *i,; 





347) speaks of the Aboms {Khdbur) flofwing aronnd 
or about Anthemosia, and it seems that he mxist 
mean the region An^emusia. Tadtos (^Ann. vi. 
41) gives the town what is probably its genuine 
Greek name, Anthemuaas, for it was one of the 
Macedonian foundations in this country. Accord- 
ing to ludore of Ghaiax, it lies between Edessa 
COrJa) and the Euphrates, 4 schocni from Edessa. 
There is another passage in Strabo in which be 
speaks of Anthemusia as a place (rdiros) in Meso- 
potamia, and he seems to place it near the Eu- 
phrates, lu the notes to Harduin's Pliny (▼. 24), a 
Boman brass coin of Anthemusia or Anthemus, as it 
was also called, is mentioned, of the time of Cara- 
calla, with the epigraph AyBtfxovaiuv. [G. L.] 

ANTHE'NE ('Ai^^^nj, Thnc; 'AvBdya, Steph. B. 
*. r.; 'A^nj, Pans.: Eth. ^AyBav^s^ Steph. B.), a 
town m Cynuria, originally inhabited by the Aegi- 
netans, and mentioned by Thucydides along with 
Thyrea, as the two chief places in Gynuria. Modern 
travellers are not agreed respecting its site. (Thuc. 
T. 41; Paus. iii. 38. § 6; Harpocr. s.v.; Leake, 
Morea, vol. ii. p. 494; Boblaye, p. 69; Boss, Pela- 
poftneSy p. 163.) 

ANTHYLLA C^vBvXKa, Herod, ii. 97 ; 'Ar- 
rvAA.a, Athen. i. p. 33 ; Steph. B. $. v. : Eth. ^Kv- 
BvWcuos), was a considerable town upon the Ganobic 
branch of the Nile, a few miles SE. of Alexandreia. 
Its revenues were assigned by ttie Persian kings of 
Egypt to their queens, to provide them, Herodotus 
says, with sandals; Athenaeus says, with gmiles. 
From this usage, Anthylla is believed by some geo- 
graphers to be the same city as Gynaecopolis, which, 
however, was further to the south than Anthylla. 
(Mannert. Gtogr. der Gr. und Rom, vol. z. p. 596.) 
[Andropolis]. Athenaeus commends the wine of 
Anthylla as the best produced by Egyptian vine- 
yards. [W. B. D.] 

ANTICINOXIS. [GiNoufl, or Gimolis.] 


ANTI'GRAGUS. [Graous.] 

ANTI'GYRA CAyrUi^ Dicaearch., Strab., 
perhaps the most ancient form; next 'AyrUv^Pa, 
Eustath. adIL ii. 520; Ptol. iii. 15. § 4; and histly 
'AKT^ffvpa, which the Latin writers use: Eth. 'Arri- 
KvptvSy ^KmiKvprnos). 

1. {Aspra Spitia)j a town in Phods, situated on 
a peninsula (whidi Pliny and A. Gellius erroneously 
call an island), on a bay (Sinus Anticyranus) of the 
Gorinthian gulf. It owed its importance to the ex- 
cellence of its harbour on this sheltered gulf, and to 
its convenient situation for communications with the 
i ^'V , interior. (Dicaearch. 77; Strab. p. 418; Plin. xxv. 
•'^ 5. s. 21 ; Cell. xvii. Ip; Liv. xxxii. 18; Paus. x. 36. 
§ 5, seq.) It is saia to have been originally called 
Gyparissus, a name which Homer mentions (//. ii. 
519 ; Paus. /. c.) Like the other towns of Phocis it 
was destroyed by Philip of Macedon at the close of 
the Sacred War (Paus. x. 3. § 1, x. 36. § 6); but 
it soon recovered from its ruins. It was taken by 
the consul T. Fhunininus in the war with Philip 
B. c. 198, on accoimt of its convenient situation for 
military purposes (Liv. /. c.) It continued to be a 
place of importance in the time both of Strabo and 
of Pausanias, the latter of whom has described some 
of its public buildings. Anticyra was chiefly cele- 
brated for the production and preparation of the best 
hellebore in Greece, the chief remedy in antiquity for 
madness. Many persons came to reside at Anticyra 
for the sake of a more perfect cure. (Strab. /. c.) 
Hence the proverb ^Ayraci^as <r€ 8c7, and Naviget 


Aniieyram^ when a person acted foolishly. (Hot. SA 
ii. 3. 83, 166; comp. Ov. e Pont. iv. 3. 53; Pen. it. 
1 6 ; Juv. xiii. 97.) The hellebore grew in great qun- 
tities around the town : PausaniasmentioDS two kinds, 
of which the root of the black was used as a cathartic;, 
and that of the white as an emetic. (Strab. l e.; 
Paus. X. 36. § 7.) There are very few andent re- 
mains at Aipra Spiiiay but Leake discovered here 
an inscription oontainiog the name of Aiticyra. 
(Leake, Northern Greece^ vol. ii. p. 541, seq.) 

2. A town in Thessaly in the district llalis at the 
mouth of the Spercheus. (Herod, vii. 198; Strab. ;; 
pp. 418, 434.) AcccMrding to Stephanas (<. v. 'Ar- ~ ' 
riKvpak) ISielbest hellebore wa^ grown at Uus place, 
and one of its dtizens exhibited the medidne to 
Heracles, when labouring under madness m thii 

3. A town in Locris, which most modem oam- 
mentators identify with the Phodan Anticjfn. 
[No. 1.] Livy, however, expressly says (xxri. 26) 
that the Locrian Anticyra was situated on the left 
hand in entering the Gorinthian gulf^ and at a short 
distance both by sea and land from Naapactos; 
whereas the Phocian Anticyra was nearer the ex- 
tremity than tlie entrance of the Gorinthian golf, 
and was 60 miles distant from Nanpactos. More- 
over Strabo speaks of three Anticyrae, one inPhocis, 
a second on the Maliac gulf (p. 418), and a third 
in the country of the western Locri, or Locri OzoJae 
(p. 434). Horace, likewise, in a well-known passage 
(i4r« Poet. 300) speaks of three Anticyrae, and 
represents them all as produdng hellebore. (Leake, 
Ibid. p. 543.) 

ANTIGONELA. (^AvTiy6ptM, 'Aio-fyoiia, AnH- 
gonoa, Liv. : Eth. ^AvrtyoytuSy Antigonensis). 1. 
A town of Epirus in the district Ghaonia, on the 
Aous and near a narrow pass leading from myiia 
into Ghaonia. (Th wop* 'Ayrry^vcioy ortyh^ Pol. ii. 
5, 6 ; ad Antigoneam fauces, Liv. xxxii. 5.) The 
town was in the hands of the Bovnans in thdr war 
with Perseus. (Liv. xliii. 23.) It is meutioned both 
by Plmy (iv. 1) and Ptolemy (iii. 14. § 7> 

2. A town of Macedonia in the district Gmas in 
Ghalddice, placed by Livy between Aeneia and 
Pallene. (Liv. xliv. 10.) It b called by Ptolemy 
(iii. 13. § 38) Psaphara (Yo^opct) probably in order 
to distinguish it from Antigoneiain Paeonia. (Leake, 
Northern Greecej vol. iii. p. 460.) 

3. A town of Macedonia in Paeonia, placed in the 
Tabular Itinerary between Stena and Stobi. (Scym- 
nus, 631 ; Plin. iv. 10 s. 17 ; Ptolem. iiL 13. § 36.) 

4. The later name of Mantineia. [Mantiksia.] 

5. A city in Syria on the Orontes, founded 
by Antigonus in b. c. 307, and intended to be the 
capital of his empire. After the battle of Ipsus, 
B.C. 301, in which Antigonus perished, the in^ 
habitants of Antigoneia were renwved by his sac- 
oessfiil rival Seleucus to the dty of Antioch, which 
the latter founded a little lower down the river. 
(Strab. xvi. p. 750; Diod. xx. 47; Liban. Antioch. 
p. 349; Malala, p. 256.) Diodorus erroneoosly 
says that the inhabitants were removed to Seleuoeia. 
Antigonda continued, however, to exist, and is men- 
tioned in the war with the Partisans after the defeat 
of Grassus. (Dion Gass. xl. 29.) 

6 . An earlier name of Alexandreia Troas. [ Alex- 
ANDKEiA Troas, p. 102, b.] 

7. An earlier name of Nicaea in Bithynia. [Ni- 


ANTILI'BANUS ('AKTiX/f avof : Jebd edb- 
Shiirkt)j the eastern of the two great paralld ridges 

.-^ : 

. I 



rf iwin Ui iM winch cnckee the TaUey of Gode-STria 
Proper. (Sbab. xvi. p, 754; PtoL t. 15. § 8; 
Plio. r. SO.) The Hebrevr name of Lebanon (A(. 
faraffLXX.), which has been adopted in Europe, and 
^puSm ''white,* from the white-grey coloura of 
the fimestaDe, oompvehenda the two nmges of Li- 
bams and AatilibaDus. The general directian of 
.AntiGlianQs is finan N£. bj SW. Neaxiy opposite 
to IKunascas it bifuTcmtea into diTeiging ridges; the 
eertemmost of the two, the Hennen of the Old Tes- 
tiamt (JeM e$k-Sheitky^ continaes its SW. conxse, 
ad is the proper prolongation of Antalibanns, and 
ittaiDs, in ita highest ek^iition, to the point of about 
lOjOOO feet firom the aea. The other ridge takes a 
man we s Unly coarse, b long and low, and at length 
osctes with the other blufis and spun of Libanos. 
The E. branch was called by the Sidonians Sirion, 
and bj the Amorites Sbenir (^DeuL iii. 9), both 
Barnes aigmfying a coat of nniL (RosenmUIler, 
AUtrUL ToL iL pw 235.) In DetU. (ir. 9) it is called 
1ft Sen,** an tUvaiicnJ* In the htter books (1 Chron. 
7. 23; Sol. Song^ iv. 8) Shenir is distinguished 
from HennoD, properly so caDed. The latter name 
ia the Arainc form, 5fififr, was aj^lied in the middle 
•sa to Antifibanns, north of Hermon. (Abnlf. Tab. 
SfT, pu 164.) The geology of the district has not 
ben thcrooghly investigated ; tite formations seem to 
bekctg to the npper Jura formation, oolite, and Jura 
dakndte; the poplar is characteristic of its vegetation. 
The out^ing promontories, in oomnum with those 
of libanos, supplied the Phoenicians with abundance 
of timbeikfior ahip-building. (Grote, Hist. ofGreece, 
mL iiL p. 358; Ritter, Erdkunde, vol. ii. p. 434; 
lUooKr, PaiartmiL, pp. 29 — 35; Burkhardt, Tror- 
wda im Sfria ; Bobinson's Reaearehiet, vol. iii. pp. 
344,345.) [E. B.J.] 

XtT, PtoL IT. 5. § 61; Pans. viiL 9; Dion Cass. 
liix. 11; Amm. Marc zix. 12, zzii. 16; Aur. Vict. 
Ohssot, 14; Spartian. Hadrian. 14; Chron. Pasch. 
p. 254, Paris edit; It Anton, p. 167; Hierocl. 
p. 730; *Arrtytfcia, Steph. B. s. v. 'AipiayovvoXis: 
Etk. 'Asrriroefo), was buOt by the emperor Hadrian 
m A. D. 122, in meuioiy of his &vourite Antinous. 
( bktiamary of Bioffrapkjf, s. v.) It stood upon the 
cwtem bank of the Nile, lat 26^ N., nearly oppo- 
nte Hermopolis. It occupied the site of the village 
«f Best (Bqava), named after the goddess and oracle 
«f Besa, which was consulted oocasionally even as 
hte am the age of Constantino. Antinoopolis was a 
little to the south of Besa, and at the foot of the hill 
iqan which that village was seated. A grotto, once 
iahabited by Christian anchorites, probably marks 
the seat of the shrine and oracle, and Grecian tombs 
with inscriptions point to the necropolis <^ Anti- 
•wipolis. The new dty at first belonged to the 
H'*pCaiMnjs, but*was afterwards annexed to the 
Thebaid. The district around became the Anti- 
arete nome. The dty itself was governed by its own 
Kuie and Piytaneus or President. The senate 
was dkosen from the members of the wards (^vAo/), 
ti which we learn the name of one — *A0rireds — 
frao iMcriptioQS (Orelli, Na 4705); and its decrees, 
M weD as those of the Prytaneus, were not, as usual, 
rabjrct to the revision of tho nomarch, but to that 
of the prefiBct {iwiffrpdryfyos} of the Thebaid. Di- 
nce hoooors were paid in the Antlnoeion to Antinous 
as a local deity, and games and chariot-races were 
fiosoally exhibited in oommemoration of his death 
aid of Hadrian's sorrow. {Dictionary of An- 
CagMfwy, «. p. *Amr6u(L} The dty of Antinoopolis 



exhibited the Graeoo-Boman architecture of Trajan's 
age in immediate contrast with the Egyptian style. 
Its ruins, which the Copts call EntSnehf at the vil- 
lage of Shelk-Abadeh, attest, by the area which 
they fill, the andent grandeur of the dty. The di- 
rection of the prindpal streets may still be traced. 
One at least of them, which ran from north to south, 
had on either side of it a corridor supported by 
columns for the convenience of foot-passengers. The 
walls of the theatre near the southern gate, and 
those of the hippodrome without the walls to the 
east, are still extant At the north-western ex- 
tremity of the dty was a portico, of which four 
columns remain, inscribed to " Good Fortune," and 
bearing the date of the 14th and last year of the 
rdgn of Alexander Sevems, A. d. 235. As far as 
can be ascertained fnMn the space covered with 
mounds of masonry, Antinoopolis was about a mile 
and a half in length, and nearly half a mile broad. 
Near the Hippodrome are a well and tanks apper- 
taining to an andent road, which leads from the 
eastern gate to a valley bdiind the town, ascends 
the mountains, and, passing through the desert by 
the Wddee Tarfa, jdns the roads to the quarries of 
the Mans Porphyrites. (Wilkinson, Topography of 
Thebes, p. 382.) 

The Antinoite nome was frequently exposed to the 
ravage of invading armies; but they have inflicted 
less havoc upon its capital and the ndgbouring Her- 
mopolis than the Turkish and Egyptian governments, 
which have converted the materials <^ these dties 
into a lime-quarry. A little to the south of Anti- 
noopolis is a grotto, the tomb of Thoth-otp, of the 
age of Sesortasen, containing a representation of a 
colossus fastened on a sledge, which a number of 
men drag by ropes, according to ihe usual mode 
adopted by tibe Egyptian masons. This tomb was 
discovered by Irby and Mangles. There are only 
three sOver coins of Antinous extant (Akerman, 
Roman ConUy i. p. 253); but the number of temples, 
busts, statues, &c. dedicated to his memory by 
Hadrian form an epoch in the declining art of an- 
tiquity. (Origen, in CeUwn, iii.; Euseb. Hitt 
Ecelee. iv. 8.) \yf. B. D.] 

AKTrNUM, a dty of the Marsians, still called 
Civiia dAnHnOy situated on a lofty hill in the npper 
valley of the Liris (now called the Voile di Roveto\ 
about 15 miles from Sora and 6 from the Lake 
Fudnus, from which it is, however, separated by an 
intervening mountain ridge. It is mentioned only 
by Pliny (iii. 12. § 17), who enumerates the An- 
iTATES among the dties of the Marsians; but the 
true form of the name is preserved to us by numerous 
inscriptions that have been discovered in the modem 
village, and from which we learn that it must have 
been a mnnidpal town of considerable importance. 
Besides these, there remain several portions of tho 
andent walls, of polygonal construction, with a gate- 
way of the same style, which still serves for au en- 
trance to the modem village, and is called Porta 
Campanile. The Roman inscriptions confirm the 
I testimony of Pliny as to the city being a Marsic ono 
(one of them has " populi Antinatium Marsorum "); 
but an Oscan inscription which has been found there 
is in the Yolscian dialect, and renders it probable 
that the dty was at an earlier period occupied by 
that people. (Mommsen, Unter-ItaUschen Dialekte, 
p. 321.) It has been supposed by some writers to 
be the " castellnm ad lacum Fncinum " mentioned 
by Livy (iv. 57) as conquered from that people in 
B. c. 408; but this is very doubtfiiL (Bomandli, 



vol. iiL pp. 222—232; OreUi, /mot. 146, 3940; 
Craven's AbrtOBsif vol. i pp. 117 — 122; Hoare's 
Cltuncal ToWf voL i. p. 339, &c.; Kramer, Der 
Fucmer See^ p. 54, note.) [E.H.B.] 

ANTIOCHEIA or -EACArruJxfw: Eth.'AyTto- 
X^^Sj ^Ayridx^toSj Antiodiensis: Ac^. *Ayrioxuc6sj 
Antiochenus), the capital of the Gredc Idngs of 
Syria, situated in the angle where the soatbem coast 
of Asia SiGnor, nuining eastwards, and the coast of 
Phoenicia, numing northwards, are hnmght to an 
abmpt meeting, and in the opening formed bj the 
river Orontes between the ranges of Monnt Tanroa 
and Mount Lebanon. Its position is nearlj where 
the 36th paraUel of latitude intersects the 36th me- 
ridian of longitude, and it is aboat 20 miles distant 
from the sea, abont 40 W. of Aleppo, and about 
20 S. of Scanderoon. [See Map, p. 115.] It is 
now a subordinate town in the pachalik of Alq^po^ 
juid its modem name is still Antaideh. It was an^ 
dentlj distinguished as Antioch bj the Orontes 
('A. M *0p6vrp)f because it was situated on the 
left bank of that river, where its course turns ab- 
ruptly to the west, after running northwards between 
the ranges of Lebanon and Antilebanon [Obontes] ; 
and also Antioch by Daphne ('A. M Ad^yp, Strab. 
zvi.pp.749 — 751 ; Plut. LucuU.21 ; iiwpbs Ad^y^y, 
Hierocl. p. 711 ; A. Epidaphnes, Plin. v. 18. s. 21), 
because of the celebrated grove of Daphne whidi 
was consecrated to Apollo in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood. [Daphne.] 

The physicid characteristics of this situation may 
be briefly described. To the souths and rather to 
the west, the cone of Mount Casius (Jebd-elrAhrah ; 
see Col. Chesney, in tiie Jovmal oftiie Roy. Geog, 
Sac. voL viii. p. 228) rises symmetrically from the 
sea to the elevation of more than 5000 feet [Ca- 
sius.] To the north, the heights of Mount Ama- 
Nus are connected with the range of Taunts; and 
the Beilan pass [Amanides Ptlab] opens a com- 
munication with Cilicia and the rest of Asia Minor. 
In the interval is the valley (avAtiry, Malala, p. 136), 
or rather the 4>lain oi Antioch (rh rSbv ^Ayrtoxwv 
ir^Sioc, Strab. L c), which is a level space about 
5 miles in breaddi between the mountuns, and 
about 10 miles in length. Through this plain the 
river Orontes sweeps from a northerly to a westerly 
course, receiving, at the bend, a tributary from a 
lake which was about a mile distant from the an- 
cient city (6u1. Tyr. iv. 10), and emptying itself 
into the bay of Antioch near the base <^ Mount Ca- 
sius. " The windings (from the city to the mouth) 
give a distance of about 41 miles, whilst the journey 
by land is only 16^ miles." (Chesney, /. e. p. 230.) 
Where the river passes by the city, its breadth is 
said l^ the traveller Niefouhr to be 125 feet; but 
great changes have taken place in its bed. An 
important part of ancient Antiocli stood upon an 
island; but whether the channel which insulated 
that section of the city was artificial, or changes 
have been produced by earthquakes or more gradual 
causes, there is now no island of appreciable magni- 
tude, nor does there appear to have been any in the 
time of the Crusades. The distance between the 
bend of the river and the mountain on the south is 
from one to two miles; and the dty stood partly on 
the level, and partly where the ground rises in ab- 
rupt and precipitous forms, towards Mount Casius. 
The heights with which we are concerned are the 
two summits of Mount Silpus (Mai. passim; and 
Suid. s. V. ^Ii6.), the easternmost of which fell in a 
more gradual slope to the plain, so as to admit of the i 


cnltivatioQ of viaeyardB, whOe the other was Ugker 
and more abrupt (See the Plan.) Between them 
was a deep ravine, down which a nuschievous tcneat 
ran in winter (Phyrminus or Pannenioa, rov ^itstot 
rov Avyo^rov ^vpfdvoVf MaL p. 346; Ilapficvlov 
X^ifJui^Vf pp. 233, 339; cf. Procop ds AtHf. 
ii. 10). Along the crags on these heights broktii 
masses of ancient walla are still conspicuoas, while 
the modem habitarions are on the levd near the 
river. The appeanmce of the ground has donbUeas 
been much altexed by earthquakes, which have been 
in all ages the scourge of Antioch. Tel avery good 
notion may be obtained, from the desc^^)ii(liIs of 
modem travellera, of the aspect of the ancient dty. 
The advantages of its position are very evident By 
its harbour dT Sblbugeia, it was in communicatioQ 
with all the trade of the Mediterranean ; and, throogfa 
the open coontiy behind Lebanon, it was couve- 
niently approached by the caravans from Mesopo- 
tamia and Arabia. To these advuitages of mere 
position must be added the fitdlities afforded by its 
river, which brought down timber and vegetable 
produce and fish fi^m the lake (Liban. AwtiMk y^ 
360, 361), and was navigable below the city to 
the mouth, and is believed to be capable of being 
made navigable again. (-Aoy. Gtog. Soc, vol viii. 
p. 230; cf. Strab. I c; Pans. viii. 29. § 3.) Tbe 
fertility of the neighbourhood is evident now in its 
unassisted vegetation. The Orontes has been com- 
pared to the Wye. It does not, like many Eastern 
rivers, vaij between a winter-torrent and a dry 
watercourse; and its deep and rapid waters are de- 
scribed as winding round the bases of high and 
preciptous cMs, or by richly cultivated banks, 
where the vine and the fig-tree, the myrtle, the bay, 
the ilex, and the arbutus are mingled with dwvf 
oak and sycamore. For descriptions of the sceneir, 
with views, the reader may consult Camels Syria 
(i. 5, 19, 77, ii. 28.). We can well understand the 
charming residence whidi the Seleudd princes and 
the wealthy Romans found in " beautiful Antioch " 
('A. ii KoKiif Athen. i. p. 20; Orientis apex pulcher, 
Amm. Marc. xxiL 9), with its climate tempered with 
the west wind (Liban. p. 346 ; cf. Herodian. vi. 6), 
and where the salubrious waters were so abundant, 
that not only the public baths, but, as in modofu 
Damascus, almost every house, had its fountain. 

Antioch, however, with all these advantages of 
situation, is not, like Damascus, one of the oldest 
cities of the world. It is a mere imagination to 
identify it (as is done by Jerome and some Jewish 
commentators) with the Riblah of the Old Testa- 
ment Antiodi, like Alexandreia, is a monument of 
the Macedonian age, and was the most famous of 
sixteen Asiatic cities built by Seleucus Kicator, and 
called after the name of his father or (as some say) 
o[ his son Antiochus. The situation was evidently 
well choeen, for communicating both with lus posses- 
sions on the Mediterranean and those in Mesopotamia, 
with which Antioch was connected by a road leading 
to Zeugma (m tiie Euphrates. This was not the first 
city founded by a Macedonian prince near this place. 
Antigonus, in b. c. 307, founded Antigonia, a short 
distance fhrther up the river, for the purpose of 
commanding both Egypt and Babylonia. (Diod. 
zx. p. 758.) But after the battle of Ipsus, b. c. 301 , 
the dty of Antigonus was left unfinished, and An- 
tioch was founded by his successful rivaL The 
sanction of auguries was sought for the establish- 
ment of the new metropolis. Like Romulus on the 
Palatine, Seleucus is said to have watched the flight 


of Inrds frvn Uw smniiiit of Motmt Caaos. An 
CBgie cvxied a fngment of the flesh of the sacrifice 
to a poiflt oo the sea-shore, a little to the north of 
the moQtfa of the Qrontes; and there Sdeaceia was 
hoilL Soon after, an eagle decided in the same 
maoner that the metropolis of Seleacns was not to 
be Antipooia, bf carrjing the flesh to the hill Sil- 
pas. Between this hill and the river the cit j of 
Antioch w«s fbonded in the spring of the year 300 
B. c., the 12th of the era of the sislencidAe. This 
kigcnd is often repneoited on ooms of Antioch by an 
e^gie, which aometimea carries the thigh of a victim. 
On ByuDj ooins (as that engraved below) we see a 
ma, wUdi is often oombined with a star, thus indi- 
cating the vernal sign of the xodiac, nnder which 
the dtj was foonded, and reminding \ts at the same 
time of the asstiulopoAl propoisities of the people of 
Antioch. (See Eckhel, J)eacr^tio Numamm AnHO' 
cUm Syriae, Vienna, 1786 ; Vaiiknt, Sdeuci- 
JenpR Inqterium, tivt Eistoria Reffum Syriae, ad 
Jdem mmmMmatun tuoommodaia. Paris, 1681.) 

The cxij of Selencns was built in the plain (^i^ 
rp «f<«(8x ToS ovAtfrof , Mai. ip. 200) between ue 
river and tbe hill, and at some distance from the 
litter, to aToid the danger to be apprehended from 
tbe tonents. Xenaens was the architect who raised 
the Wills, which skirted the- river (m the north, and 
dU not reach so &r as the base of the hill on the 
south. This was only the eariiest part of the city^. 
Thiee ether parts were subsequently added, each 
■nroQZided bj its own wall: so that Antioch be- 
cme, as Strabo says (L c), a TeCnqM/w. The 
£nt inhabitants (as indeed a great part of the 
ciateriak) were hrooght from Antigonia. Besides 
these, the natives of the surrounding district were 
ncerred in the new city; and Seleucus raiBed the 
JfVi to the same political privileges with the Greeks. 
(Jflaeph. Antiq. xiL 31, c Ap. iL 4.) Thus a second 
city was ibnnedcontignoas to the first It is probable 
tbait tbe Jews had a separate quarter, as at Alex- 
aodreia. The citizens were divided mto 18 tribes, 
d^txibaled locallj. There was an assembly of the 
peofile (9fif»os, Liban. p. 32 1 ), which used to meet in 
the theatre, even In the time oif Vespasian and Titus. 

frac BuL iL 80; Joseph. B. J, vii. 5. § 2, 3. 
SJ) At a later period we read of a senate of two 
handred. (JnL MUopog. p. 367.) The character 
of the ttih»Ki»mn»ji (jf Ajitioch maj be easily de- 
The climate made them effeminate and 
A high Gre^ civilisation was mixed 
aith varioos Oxkntal dements, and especially with 
the sQperttitkna of Chaldaean astrology, to which 
Chrywrtom oomplsins that even the Christians of 
his dav ware addicted. The lore of firivolons amuse- 
became a passion in the contests of the Hippo- 
Oa these occasions, and on many others, 
the violoit feelings of the people broke out into open 
fmf'ttmm. and caomi even bloodshed. Another fault 
iboaU be mentinnwl as a marked characterisric of 
Antioch. Her citizens were singulariy addicted to 
ridkole and seorrilons wit, and the invmtion of 
"L'^m n mit Jalian, who was himself a sufierer from 
this caose, aaid that Antioch contained more bnf- 
ins thaa eidaens. ApoUonins of Tyana was treated 
in the same way; anl the Antlochians provoked 
their own destmction by ridiculing the Persians in 
the inrasion of Chosroes. (Procop. B. P. ii. 8.) 
To the same cause nrast be referred the origin of 
the name ** Christian,*' which first came into exist- 
CBoe in this city. {Acts, zi 26; X«/e, ^. of St. 
Potl, v«L L p. 13a See page 146.) 



There is no doubt that the city built bj Seleucus 
was on a regular and magnificent plan; but we 
possess no details. Some temples and other build- 
ings were due to his son Antiocbus Soter. Seleucus 
Callinicus built the New CUy (t^v k^, Liban. pp. 
309, 356; t^v Kolyny, Evag. Eitt. EccL ii. 12) 
on the island, according to Strabo (Z. c), though 
Libanius assigns it to Antiocbus the Great, who 
brought settlers from Greece during his war with 
the Romans (about 190 b. c). To this writer, and 
to Evagrius, who describes what it suffered in the 
earthquake under Leo the Great, we owe a particular 
account of this part of the city. It was on an 
isUnd (see below) which was joined to the old city 
by five bridges. Hence Polybius (v. 69) and Pliny 
(v. 21. 8. 18) rightly speak of the Orontes as flow- 
ing through Antioch. The arrangement of the 
streets was simple and symmetrical. At their in- 
tersection was a fourfold arch (TWropyZton). The 
magnificent Palace was on the north side, close 
upon the river, and commanded a prospect of the 
suburbs and the open country. Passing by Seleucus 
Philopator, of whose public works nothing is known, 
we come to the eighth of the Seleucidae, Antiocbus 
Epiphanes. He was notoriously fond of building; 
and, by adding a fourth city to Antioch, he com- 
pleted the Tetrapolis. (Strab. /. c.) The city of 
Epiphanes was between the old wall and Mount 
Silpius; and the new wall enclosed the citadel with 
many of the clifft. (Procop. de Aed\f, L c.) This 
monarch erected a senate-house (jSovXcirr^ptoy), 
and a temple for the worship of Jupiter Capitolinus, 
which is described by Livy as magnificent with gold 
(Liv. xli. 20) ; but bis great work was a vast street 
with double colonnades, which ran from east to west 
for four miles through the whole length of the dty, 
and was perfectly level, though the ground originally 
was rugged and uneven. Other streets crossed it 
at right angles, to the river on one side, and the 
groves and gardens of the hill on the other. At the 
intersection of the principal street was the Omphalus, 
with a statue of Apollo; and where this street 
touched the river was the Nymphaeum (Nvn^xuoy, 
Kvag. iTu^ JEcc/. Z. c; Tpiwyupov, Mai. p. 244). 
The position of the Omphalus is shown to have been 
opposite the ravine Paimenius, by some allttsions in 
the reign of Tiberius. No great change appears to 
have been made in the city during the interval be- 
tween Epiphanes and Tigranes. When Tigranes 
was compelled to evacuate Syria, Antioch was re- 
stored by Lucullus to Antiocbus Philopator (Asiati- 
cus), who was a mere puppet of the Romans. He 
built, near Mount Silpius, a Museum^ like that m 
Alexandreia; and to this period belongs the literary 
eminence of Antioch, which is alluded to by Cicero 
in his speech for Archias. (Cic pro Arch. 3, 4.) 

At the beginning of the Roman period, it is pro- 
bable that Antioch covered the full extent of ground 
which it occupied till the time of Justinian. In 
magnitude it was not much mferior to Paris (C. 0. 
MfiUer, Antiq. Antioch.; see below), and the num- 
ber and splendour of the public buildings were very 
great; for the Seleudd kings and queens (Mai. p. 
312) had vied with each other in embellishing their 
metropolis. But it received still further embellish- 
ment from a kmg series of Roman emperorB. In 
B. c. 64, when Syria was reduced to a province, 
Pompey gave to Antioch the privilege of autonomy. 
The same privilege was renewed by Julius Caesar 
in a public edict (b. c. 47), and it was retained till 
Antoninus Pius made it a cohma. The era of 



AA. Clt7 of SOmeas Niotor. 

ff. Wall of ITieodoaiM. 

BB. New Citj of Selcociu Cam. 


ii. Godhtfi Camp. 

DD. Mount Silpns. 

1. Altnr of Juidlcr. 

EE. Modem Town. 

(!». Riret OronlM. 

3. Theatre. 

bb. Ro»d to Selennii. 

4. CiUdoI. 

cc. Road to Daphne. 

6. CastlB of the Cnuoders. 

et Wall rf Eppianas and Ti- 

7. Omphalns. 

8. Forum. 

Pbaiulia was introduced at Antioch in honour of 
Caesai, who erected manj pnblic worku there : 
among others, a Ihealrt under the rocks of Silpiui 
(t1> Inri T# fipei SiarjHw). and an amphWl 
besides au aqoeduct and baths, anl a InsiJica 
Ciuiariam. Auguatns ahowed the same favour to 
the people of Atltioch, and was similarlj flattered 
by them, and the era of Actium Kas intnidnced into 
their ajsleni of chronolc^. In this reign Agiippa 
bnilt a anborb, and Hard the Great contribotwl a 
road and a colonnade. (Joseph. AnI. Kvi. 5. § 3, 
B. J. i. 21. § 11.) The most memotsble event of 
llio reign of Tiberius, connected with Antioch, was 
tile death of Germaniciia. Along catalogue of works 
erected ly successive emperors might be given; but 
it is enough to refer to the Chnmograpkia of M«- 
iala, which ewma to be based do official documents*, 
and Khifh tony be easily consulted by means of the 
Index in the Bonn edition. We need only instance 
the baths of Cahgiihi, Trajan, and Hadrian, the 
paving of the great street with Egyptian granite by 
Antonioiu Pius, the .^jritus or pnblic walk built 
bj Commodus, and the palace built by Diocletian, 

• Gibbon asye : "We may distinguish bie an- 
thentic information of domestic facts from his pmss 
ignonuice of general history." Cb. Ii. vol. ii. p. 414, 
ed- Uilniaa. 

9. Senate Honac. 

10. Huaeum. 

11. Tancred'i Castle. 

I. Tnyan's Aqueduct. 

1. Badrian'a Aqueduct. 
14. Caligula's Aquojuct. 
16. Caesar's Aqtieduct 

16. Xystus. 

17. Herod's Colonnade. 
i. Nyniphaemn, 

19. P^ace. 

20, Circus. 

who also eatabliibtd there pul^ stems and manifie- 
tnrea of arms. At Antioch two of tlie mat stiikinf; 
calamltiea of the period wers the carthquike d 
Trajan's reign, daring winch the empervr, whe wit 
then at Antioch, took refuge in the Circiu: and the 
capture uf the eitj by tlw Persians under Sapcr ia 
260 A. D. On tUa occasion the cilitens wen in- 
tently occofded iu the theatre, wben the enemy sar- 
prined them &om the rocks abore. (Anun. Utic 
siiii. 5.) 

The interval between Constantino and Jnstimu 
may be regarded as the Byzantine period of Ihe his- 
tory of Antioch. After the fonnding of Conetanti- 
ncple it ceased to be the principal city of tb " " 

.1 began 


Christian city, ranking as a Patrianhal see with Con- 
stantinople and Aleiandim. WiththeformerofCheH 
cities it was connectedby the great road tfaroogh Asia 
Minor, and with the hitter, by the coast road Uirouj;h 
Cu«area. (See WeaseUng, Ant. Itin. p. 147; Itin. 
Hieros. p. 5B1.} Ten councils nerelield at^itiodB 
between Ibe years 23! and 3B0; audit b«anie dis- 
linguialieil by a new style rf building, in mnordicB 
with Christian worship. One chunA especially, 
begun by Constantino, and flnL.hed itj his SCO), de- 
duukIs oor notice. It was the same chureta which 
Julian closed and Jovian restored to Christian use, 
and the same in which Cbrysostom preached. He 


dw a ib o It as richly oraamented iritli Mosaic and 
FtatooL The roof was domical (0*001^01 iScs), and 
of great bei^t; and in its octagonal plan it was 
fkbniiar to the church of St. Yitalls at Bayenna. 
(2^ep Eoaeb. ViL CmuL iii. 50.) From the preva- 
knre of esrij cbtorches of this form in the East, we 
mart snpfKue cither that this edifice set the example, 
or that t^ mode of church-bnilding was already in 
iB«. Among other buildings, Antioch owed to 
Ctostantiiw a heutUcOy a praeioriwn for the resi- 
dence of the Goont of the East, built of the ma- 
toials of the ancient Mnsenm, and a xenon or 
bospiee near the great church for the reception of 
tnreUers. Constantius spent much time at An- 
tioch, 90 that the place recdved the temporaiy name 
of Cimtlantia. His great works were at the har- 
bmrof Sckuceia, and the traces of them still remain. 
JoEaa took much pains to ingratiate himself with 
the peopio of Antioch. His disappointment is ez- 
|EUiad in the Misopogon. Valens undertook great 
ga |awHu epta at the time of his peace with the Per- 
atss, and opposite the ravine Parmenius he bnilt a 
msptaoos /brwH, which was paved with marble, 
■si decanted with Illyrian columns. Theodosius 
WM compeOed to adopt stringent measures against 
the citixeos, in consequence of the sedition and the 
licakii^ of the statues (a.d. 387, 388), and An- 
taod) was deprived of the rank of a metropolis. We 
aie DOW hniaght to the time of libanins, from whom 
we have ao often quoted, and of Chrysostom, whose 
aoaMOs ^f**'" so many incidental notices of his 
Esdve dty. ChijBOstom gives the population at 
200,000, of which 100,000 were Christians. In 
these nmnben it is doubtful whether we are to in- 
clude the children and the slaves. (See Gibbon, ch.rv. 
and ]filman*8 note, vol. u. p. 363.) For the detailed 
d e s uipti fln of the public and private buildings of 
tbe dty, vre nraat refer the reader to Libanius. The 
iacnaae of the sobuib towards Daphne at this period 
ndaced Tbeododns to build a new wall on this nde. 
(See the Plan.) Passmg over the reigns of Theo- 
dosios the Yonnger, who added new decorati(H)s to 
the city, and of Leo the Great, in whose time it was 
(inwhird by an earthquake, we come to a period 
which was made disastrous by quarrels in the Hippo- 
dPGBM^ maasacies of the Jews, internal factions and 
wv from without, Afler an earthquake in the 
m^ of Justin, A. D. 526, the city was restored by 
Ejjgem, who was Count of the East, and aiter- 
vaids Patriarch. The reign of Justinian is one of 
the meet important eras in the history of Antioch. 
It was ri»ing under him into fresh splendour, when 
h was again injured by an earthquake, and soon 
afterwnda (a. d. 538) utterly desolated by the in- 
TMian q€ the Persians under Chosroes. The ruin of 
the dty was oumptete. The citizens could scarcely 
&id the sites of thdr own houses. Thus an entirely 
■nr dty (which received the new name of Theu- 
foUt) rose under Justinian. In dimensions it was 
cooBi^rBbly less than the former, the wall retiring 
fnxn the river on the east, and touching it only at 
eoe pointy and also including a smaller portion of 
the cfiffii of Mount Silplus. This wall evidently 
oarrB^poDds with the notices of the fortifications in 
tbe times of the crusaders, if we make allo^'ance for 
the inflated language of Prooopius, who is our au- 
thority far the pabHc works of Justinian. 

The faistocy of Antioch during the medieval period 
wna one cf varied fortunes, but, on the whole, of 
gradual decay. It was first lost to the Roman em- 
fife in the time of Heradius (a. d. 635), and taken. 



with the whole of Syria, by the Saracens in the first 
burst of their military enthusiasm. It was recovered 
in tbe 10th century under Nicephorus Phocas, by a 
surprise similar to that by which the Persians bo- 
came masters of it; and its strength, population, 
and magiuficence are celebrated by a writer of the 
period (Leo Diac. p. 73), though its appearance had 
doubtless undergone considerable changes during 
four centuries of Mahomedan occupation. It re- 
mained subject to the emperor of Constantinople till 
the time of the first Comneni, when it was ti^en by 
the Seljnks (a. d. 1084). Fourteen years later 
(a. d. 1098) it was besi^ed by the Latins in the 
first Crusade. Godfiey pitched his camp by tbe 
ditch which had been dug under Justinian, and 
Tancred erected a fort near the western wall. (See 
the Plan.) The dty was taken on the 3d of June, 
1098. Boemond L, the son of Robert Guiscard, 
became prince of Antioch; and its history was again 
Christian for nearly two centuries, till the time of 
Boemond VI., when it fell under the power of the 
Sultan of Egypt and his Mamelukes (a. d. 1268). 
From this time its dedension seems to have been 
rapid and ccmtinuous: whereas, under the Franks, 
it appears to have been still a strong and splendid 
dty. So it is described by Phocas (Acta Sand. 
Mai. vol. V. p. 299), and by William of Tyro, who is 
the great Latin authority for its history during this 
period. (See espedaOy iv. 9—14, v. 23, vi. 1, 15; 
and compare xvi. 26, 27.) It is unnecessary for 
our purpose to describe the various fortunes of the 
fiunilies through which the Prankish prindpality of 
Antioch was transmitted from the first to the seventh 
Boemond. A full account of tliem, and of the coins 
by which they are iUnstrated, will be found in De 
Saulcy, Numismatique des CroisadeSy pp. 1 — 27. 

We may connder the modem history of Antioch 
as coincident with that of European travdlers in the 
Levant. Beginning with Dc la Brocqui^, in the 
15th century, we find the city already sunk into a 
state of insignificance. He says that it contained 
only 300 houses, inhabited by a few Turks and 
Arabs. The modem ArUakieh is a poor town, 
situated in the north-western quarter of the andent 
city, by the river, which is crossed by a substantial 
bridge. No accurate statement can be given of its 
poptidatiorL On^traveller states it at 4000, another 
at 10,000. In the census taken by Ibrahim Pasha 
in 1835, when he thought of making it again the 
capital of Syria, it was said to l^ 5600. The 
Christians have no church. The town occupies only 
a small portion (some say ^, some |, some ^) of the 
ancient enclosure; and a wide space of unoccupied 
ground intervenes between it and the eastern or 
Aleppo gate (called, after St. Paul, Bab-Boulotui), 
near which